University of Cambridge – Wikipedia

Collegiate university in Cambridge, England
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate inquiry university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 [ 9 ] and granted a royal lease by Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the english-speaking world and the world ‘s fourth-oldest surviving university. [ 10 ] The university grew out of an affiliation of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a challenge with the town. [ 11 ] The two english ancient universities share many common features and are much jointly referred to as Oxbridge. Cambridge is ranked among the most esteemed universities in the global. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 semi-autonomous component colleges and over 150 academic departments, faculties and other institutions organised into six schools. All the colleges are autonomous institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. All students are members of a college. The university does not have a main campus, and its colleges and central facilities are scattered throughout the city. Undergraduate teaching at Cambridge centres on weekly small-group supervisions in the colleges in groups of typically 1–4 students. This intensive method acting of education is wide considered the ‘jewel in the crown ‘ of an Oxbridge undergraduate education. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] In addition, lectures, seminars, lab function and occasionally further supervisions are provided by the cardinal university faculties and departments. Postgraduate education is provided predominantly centrally.

Cambridge University Press & Assessment combines the oldest university bid in the worldly concern with one of the populace ‘s leading examining bodies, which provides appraisal to over eight million learners globally every year. The university besides operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, arsenic well as a botanic garden. Cambridge ‘s libraries, of which there are over 100, hold a full of around 16 million books, around nine million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. The university is base to, but autonomous of, the Cambridge Union – the global ‘s oldest argue society. The university is closely linked to the development of the high-tech business bunch known as ‘ Silicon Fen ‘, the largest technology bunch in Europe. [ 17 ] It is the cardinal extremity of Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science concentrate based around the Cambridge Biomedical Campus. By endowment size, Cambridge is the wealthiest university in Europe. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] In the fiscal class ending 31 July 2019, the cardinal university, excluding colleges, had a total income of £2.192 billion, of which £592.4 million was from research grants and contracts. [ 4 ] At the end of the same fiscal class, the cardinal university and colleges together possessed a unite endowment of over £7.1 billion and overall amalgamate net income assets ( excluding ‘immaterial ‘ historic assets ) of over £12.5 billion. [ 20 ] A member of numerous associations and part of the ‘ golden triangle ‘ of English universities, Cambridge has educated many noteworthy alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers and actors. As of October 2020, 121 Nobel laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners, 47 heads of department of state, and 14 british premier ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, alumni, staff or research staff. [ 21 ] As of 2016, University alumni had won 194 Olympic medals. [ 22 ]

history [edit ]

By the late twelfth hundred, the Cambridge area already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical repute, due to monks from the nearby diocese church of Ely. however, it was an incident at Oxford which is most probably to have led to the establishment of the university : three Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would normally take precession ( and pardon the scholars ) in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John. Fearing more violence from the town, scholars from the University of Oxford started to move away to cities such as Paris, Reading, and Cambridge. Subsequently, enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of a fresh university when it had become safe adequate for academia to resume at Oxford. [ 9 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] In order to claim precession, it is common for Cambridge to trace its initiation to the 1231 rent from Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members ( ius non-trahi extra ) and an exemption from some taxes ; Oxford was not granted exchangeable rights until 1248. [ 25 ] A bullshit in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the justly to teach “ everywhere in Christendom “. [ 26 ] After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, [ 27 ] and confirmed as such in a taurus by Pope John XXII in 1318, [ 28 ] it became common for researchers from other european medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give call on the carpet courses. [ 27 ]

foundation of the colleges [edit ]

The colleges at the University of Cambridge were primitively an incidental sport of the system. No college is a old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were besides institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. [ 29 ] Peterhouse, Cambridge’s first college, was founded in 1284 Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge ‘s first college, in 1284. many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the establish of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. however, Homerton College lone achieved entire university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college ( it was previously an “ approve club ” affiliated with the university ). In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the person of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. The colleges ‘ concenter changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law [ 30 ] and to stop teaching “ scholastic philosophy “. In response, colleges changed their course of study away from canyon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. about a hundred belated, the university was at the center of a protestant schism. many nobles, intellectuals and even commoners saw the ways of the Church of England as besides like to the Catholic Church, and felt that it was used by the Crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the center of what became the Puritan movement. In Cambridge, the movement was peculiarly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine ‘s Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ ‘s College. [ 31 ] They produced many “ non-conformist ” graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or preach, some 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and specially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth ( 1649–1660 ), attended Sidney Sussex .

Mathematics and mathematical physics [edit ]

interrogation in mathematics was once compulsory for all undergraduates studying for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the independent beginning degree at Cambridge in both arts and sciences. From the time of Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained an specially impregnable emphasis on apply mathematics, peculiarly mathematical physics. The examination is known as a Tripos. [ 32 ] Students awarded excellent honours after completing the mathematics Tripos are term wranglers, and the top scholar among them is the Senior Wrangler. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos is competitive and has helped produce some of the most celebrated names in british skill, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh. [ 33 ] however, some celebrated students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were excessively concern in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subjugate itself. arrant mathematics at Cambridge in the nineteenth hundred achieved capital things, but besides missed out on hearty developments in French and german mathematics. Pure numerical research at Cambridge last reached the highest international standard in the early twentieth hundred, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy, his collaborator J. E. Littlewood and Srinivasa Ramanujan. In geometry, W. V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge onto the external mainstream in the 1930s. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its persuasiveness in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals. [ 34 ]

modern period [edit ]

After the Cambridge University Act 1856 formalised the organizational structure of the university, the study of many newfangled subjects was introduced, such as theology, history and modern languages. [ 35 ] Resources necessity for newly courses in the arts, architecture and archeology were donated by Viscount Fitzwilliam, of Trinity College, who besides founded the Fitzwilliam Museum. [ 36 ] In 1847, Prince Albert was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge after a close contest with the Earl of Powis. Albert used his status as Chancellor to campaign successfully for reformed and more modern university course of study, expanding the subjects taught beyond the traditional mathematics and classics to include modern history and the natural sciences. between 1896 and 1902, Downing College sold depart of its estate to build the Downing Site, with new scientific laboratories for anatomy, genetics and Earth sciences. [ 37 ] During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and music. [ 38 ] The University of Cambridge began to award PhD degrees in the first third of the twentieth hundred. The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in 1924. [ 39 ] In the First World War, 13,878 members of the university served and 2,470 were killed. Teaching, and the fees it earned, came about to a stop and severe fiscal difficulties followed. As a consequence the university first received taxonomic state support in 1919, and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the university ( but not the colleges ) should receive an annual grant. [ 40 ] Following the second gear World War, the university saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places ; this was partially due to the achiever and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists. [ 41 ]

parliamentary representation [edit ]

The university was one of only two universities to hold parliamentary seats in the Parliament of England and was later one of eight represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by a Royal Charter of 1603 and returned two members of fantan until 1950, when it was abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948. The constituency was not a geographic area. Its electorate consisted of the graduates of the university. Before 1918 the franchise was restricted to male graduates with a doctor’s degree or MA degree .

Women ‘s education [edit ]

For its first gear respective centuries entirely male students were enrolled into the university. The first gear colleges for women were Girton College ( founded by Emily Davies ) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 ( founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick ), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 ( founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women ), Murray Edwards College ( founded by Rosemary Murray as New Hall ) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948. [ 42 ] Women were allowed to study courses, baby-sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881 ; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the “ steamboat ladies “ to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin. [ 43 ] From 1921 women were awarded diploma which “ conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts ”. As they were not “ admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts ” they were excluded from the govern of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained close to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established lone for women. Darwin College, the first base wholly graduate college of the university, matriculated both men and women students from its origin in 1964 – and elected a mix company. Of the undergraduate colleges, starting with Churchill, Clare and King ‘s Colleges, the former men ‘s colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. One of the female-only colleges, Girton, besides began to admit male students from 1979, but the other female-only colleges did not do similarly. As a result of St Hilda ‘s College, Oxford, ending its banish on male students in 2008, Cambridge is immediately the only remaining United Kingdom university with female-only colleges ( Newnham and Murray Edwards ). [ 44 ] [ 45 ] In the academic year 2004–5, the university ‘s student sex proportion, including post-graduates, was male 52 % : female 48 %. [ 46 ]

Myths, legends and traditions [edit ]

As an institution with such a farseeing history, the university has developed a big number of myths and legends. The huge majority of these are false, but have been propagated however by generations of students and tour guides. A break custom is that of the wooden spoon, the ‘prize ‘ awarded to the student with the lowest die award grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John ‘s College. It was over one meter in distance and had an oar blade for a treat. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John ‘s. Since 1908, examination results have been published alphabetically within course rather than in hard-and-fast order of merit. This made it harder to ascertain who was “ entitled ” to the spoon ( unless there was alone one person in the one-third class ), and thus the rehearse was abandoned. Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television receiver broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols sung by the Choir of King ‘s College, Cambridge. The radio air has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 ( though the festival has existed since 1918 ). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is besides syndicated to hundreds of radio receiver stations in the US. The foremost television broadcast of the festival was in 1954. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Front Court of King ‘s College

Locations and buildings [edit ]

Buildings [edit ]

The university occupies a cardinal placement within the city of Cambridge, with the students taking up a significant symmetry ( closely 20 % ) of the town ‘s population and heavily affecting the long time structure. [ 49 ] Most of the older colleges are situated nearby the city center and river Cam, along which it is traditional to punt to appreciate the buildings and surroundings. [ 50 ] Examples of celebrated buildings include King ‘s College Chapel, [ 51 ] the history faculty build [ 52 ] designed by James Stirling ; and the Cripps Building at St John ‘s College. [ 53 ] The brickwork of respective of the colleges is besides luminary : Queens ‘ College contains “ some of the earliest pattern brickwork in the area ” [ 54 ] and the brick walls of St John ‘s College provide examples of English bond, flemish shackle and Running shackle. [ 55 ]

Sites [edit ]

The university is divided into several sites where the unlike departments are placed. The main ones are : [ 56 ] The university ‘s School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke ‘s Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree, [ 57 ] while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development. [ 58 ] In summation, the Judge Business School, situated on Trumpington Street, provides management education courses since 1990 and is systematically ranked within the lead 20 occupation schools globally by the Financial Times. [ 59 ] Given that the sites are in relative conclude proximity to each early and the area around Cambridge is sanely flat, one of the darling modes of transportation for students is the bicycle : a fifth of the journey in the city are made by bicycle, a figure enhanced by the fact that students are not permitted to hold car park permits, except under limited circumstances. [ 60 ]

‘Town and gown ‘ [edit ]

The relationship between the university and the city has not always been positive. The phrase town and gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the university, who historically wore academical preen. There are many stories of ferocious competition between the two categories. During the Peasants ‘ Revolt of 1381, solid clashes brought about attacks and plunder of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff, the university ‘s ledgers being burned in Market Square to the beat up war cry “ away with the teach of clerks, away with it ! ”. [ 61 ] Following these events, the Chancellor was given particular powers allowing him to prosecute the criminals and re-establish rate in the city. Attempts to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the sixteenth century agreements were signed to improve the quality of streets and student adjustment around the city. however, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites. [ 62 ] Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat sink and the university has become an opportunity for use among the population, providing an increase level of wealth in the area. [ 63 ] The enormous emergence in the number of high-tech, biotechnology, providers of services and refer firms situated near Cambridge has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon : the addition of 1,500 new, register companies and equally many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence of the university as a beginning of employment for Cambridge residents. [ 64 ] however, tensions do still arise between the ‘townies ‘ and university students who are much marked out visibly when making their way to and from Formal Halls in their gowns. forcible altercations are not uncommon .

administration and administration [edit ]

Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of autonomous and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many unlike colleges are present. The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the course of study for teach, oversee by the General Board. together with the central government headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the integral Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels : by the university ( the Cambridge University Library ), by the Faculties ( Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library ), and by the person colleges ( all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, broadly aimed chiefly at their undergraduates ). legally, the university is an exempt charity and a common law corporation with the corporate title “ The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge ”. [ 65 ]

Colleges [edit ]

The colleges are autonomous institutions with their own endowments and place, founded as integral parts of the university. All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the caparison, benefit, sociable functions, and undergraduate teach they provide. All faculties, departments, inquiry centres, and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group education sessions, much with merely one student—within the colleges ( though in many cases students go to other colleges for supervision if the teaching fellows at their college do not specialise in the areas concerned ). Each college appoints its own teach staff and fellows, who are besides members of a university department. The colleges besides decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accord with university regulations. Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which two, Murray Edwards and Newnham, admit women lone. The other colleges are mix, though most were in the first place all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King ‘s were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, in 1972. Magdalene became the stopping point all-male college to accept women, in 1988. [ 66 ] Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, St Edmund ‘s and Wolfson admit alone ripen ( i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation ) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. Lucy Cavendish, which was previously a women-only ripe college, announced that they would admit men and women from the age of 18 from 2021 onwards. [ 67 ] All other colleges admit both undergraduate and graduate student students with no age restrictions. Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as computer architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer stopping point to the complete scope. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and technology, [ 68 ] while others such as St Catharine ‘s aim for a balanced intake. [ 69 ] Others maintain much more cozy reputations, such as for the students of King ‘s to hold leftist political views, [ 70 ] or Robinson ‘s and Churchill ‘s attempts to minimise their environmental impact. [ 71 ] Costs to students ( accommodation and food prices ) vary well from college to college. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] Similarly, college consumption on scholar education besides varies wide between individual colleges. [ 74 ] There are besides several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation. [ 75 ] The 31 colleges are : [ 76 ]

Schools, faculties and departments [edit ]

In accession to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. [ 77 ] Members of these are normally besides members of one of the colleges and responsibility for running the integral academician course of study of the university is divided among them. The university besides has a department dedicated to providing continuing department of education, the Institute of Continuing Education, which is chiefly based in Madingley Hall, a 16th-century manor theater in Cambridgeshire. Its award-bearing programmes range from Undergraduate Certificates through to half-time passkey ‘s degrees. [ 78 ] The Old Schools ( left ) are the administrative center of the university A “ School ” in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative group of relate faculties and early units. Each has an elected supervisory body—the “ Council ” of the school—comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. There are six schools : [ 79 ]

  • Arts and Humanities
  • Biological Sciences
  • Clinical Medicine
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Physical Sciences
  • Technology

Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties. The faculties have different organizational sub-structures which partially reflect their history and partially their functional needs, which may include a number of departments and early institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies called ‘Syndicates ‘ have responsibilities for teaching and research, e.g. Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library .

cardinal government [edit ]

Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor [edit ]

Chancellor Borysiewicz, after a graduation ceremony Officers of the Regent House, including Vice-Chancellor Borysiewicz, after a gradation ceremony The office of Chancellor of the university, for which there are no term limits, is chiefly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June 2011. Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him, [ 80 ] and Abdul Arain, owner of a local anesthetic grocery store shop, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were besides nominated. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ] The election took locate on 14 and 15 October 2011. [ 83 ] David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count .
The current Vice-Chancellor is Stephen Toope. [ 84 ] While the Chancellor ‘s office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto star administrative military officer of the university. The university ‘s inner government is carried out about wholly by its own members, [ 85 ] with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House ( though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University ‘s Council, who are the entirely external members of the Regent House ). [ 86 ]

Senate and the Regent House [edit ]

Light show on the Senate House, for the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the university The Senate consists of all holders of the MA academic degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the university ‘s regulate body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today. [ 87 ] The Regent House is the university ‘s government body, a direct majority rule comprising all nonmigratory senior members of the university and the colleges, in concert with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary. [ 88 ] The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges .

council and the General Board [edit ]

Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the university, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a kind of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the university, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general business to the university. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official daybook of the university. Since January 2005, the membership of the council has included two external members, [ 89 ] and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the count of external members in March 2008, [ 90 ] [ 91 ] and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008. [ 92 ] The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academician and educational policy of the university, [ 93 ] and is accountable to the council for its management of these affairs. [ citation needed ] faculty Boards are creditworthy to the General Board ; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board ( if chiefly for academician purposes ) or to the council. In this way, the respective arms of the university are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and frankincense the Regent House. [ citation needed ]

Finances [edit ]

Benefactions and fundraising [edit ]

In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US $ 210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking graduate study at Cambridge. [ 94 ] In the fiscal class ending 31 July 2019, the central university, excluding colleges, had a entire income of £2.192 billion, of which £592.4 million was from inquiry grants and contracts. [ 4 ] Over the past decade to 2019, Cambridge has received an average of £271m a year in philanthropic donations. [ 4 ] The ‘ Stormzy Scholarship for Black UK Students ‘ covers tuition costs for two students and alimony grants for up to four years. [ 95 ] In October 2021, the university paused the £400m collaboration with the United Arab Emirates, citing the claims of the Arab nation ‘s involvement in the controversial hack using the NSO Group ‘s Pegasus software. As per the reports, the Emirates was the major nation involved in the leak of over 50,000 call numbers, including hundreds belonging to the british. The university ‘s surpass Vice-Chancellor, Stephen Toope said the decision to reconsider plans with the UAE was caused by far revelations about the Pegasus software hacking. [ 96 ]

Bonds [edit ]

The University of Cambridge borrowed £350 million by issuing a 40-year security system chemical bond in October 2012. [ 97 ] Its interest rate is about 0.6 percentage higher than a british government 40-year attachment. Vice-Chancellor Leszek Borysiewicz hailed the success of the publish. [ 98 ] In a 2010 report, the Russell Group of 20 leading universities made a stopping point that higher education could be financed by issuing bonds. [ 97 ]

Affiliations and memberships [edit ]

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group of research-led british universities, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities, and forms separate of the “ golden triangulum “ of inquiry intensifier and southern English universities. [ 99 ] It is besides close linked with the growth of the high-tech business cluster known as “ Silicon Fen “, and as share of the Cambridge University Health Partners, an academician health science center .

Academic visibility [edit ]

Admissions [edit ]

operation [edit ]

undergraduate applications to Cambridge must be made through UCAS in time for the early deadline, presently mid-October in the year before starting. Until the 1980s candidates for all subjects were required to sit special entrance examinations, [ 106 ] since replaced by extra tests for some subjects, such as the Thinking Skills Assessment and the Cambridge Law Test. [ 107 ] The university has at times considered reintroducing an admissions exam for all subjects. [ 108 ] The university gave offers of admission ( typically conditional on examination results ) to 33.5 % of its applicants in 2016, the second lowest amongst the Russell Group, behind Oxford ( an effect of Cambridge ‘s median offer conditions being higher than that of Oxford ). [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ 111 ] [ 112 ] The acceptance pace for students in the 2018–2019 cycle was 18.8 %. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] In 2021, Cambridge introduced an ‘over-subscription ‘ article to its offers, which allows it to withdraw places if besides many students meet its entrance criteria. The article can be invoked in the event of ‘circumstances outside the reasonable control of the university ‘. It was introduced due to a read number of A-level pupils getting the highest grades from teacher assessment, which was introduced due to the cancellation of A-levels in the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 115 ] [ 116 ] Most applicants who are called for interview will have been predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or the equivalent in other qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. The A* A-level grad ( introduced in 2010 ) nowadays plays a part in the credence of applications, with the university ‘s standard offer for most courses being set at A*AA, [ 117 ] [ 118 ] with A*A*A for sciences courses. Due to a high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview action is needed for distinguishing between the most able candidates. The consultation is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original think and creativity. [ 119 ] For exceeding candidates, a Matriculation Offer was sometimes previously offered, requiring only two A-levels at class e or above. In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63 % of all applicants rejected. [ 120 ] The Sutton Trust maintains that Oxford University and Cambridge University recruit disproportionately from 8 schools which accounted for 1,310 Oxbridge places during three years, contrasted with 1,220 from 2,900 other schools. [ 121 ] strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by early colleges. This is in orderliness to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department associate to the applicant ‘s capable. When an offer is made, this efficaciously guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant ‘s favored choice. [ 122 ]

access [edit ]

[123][124] percentage of state-school students at Oxford and Cambridge public consider in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely deservingness based and fair ; whether adequate students from department of state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge ; and whether these students succeed in gaining introduction. In 2007–08, 57 % of all successful applicants were from country schools [ 125 ] ( roughly 93 percentage of all students in the UK attend state schools ). Critics have argued that the miss of state school applicants with the ask grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a minus shock on Oxbridge ‘s reputation for many years, and the university has encouraged pupils from department of state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. [ 126 ] Others counter that government imperativeness to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate sociable technology. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a ( very large ) minority ( 43 % ) [ 125 ] [ 129 ] of the intake. In 2005, 32 % of the 3599 applicants from freelancer schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24 % of the 6674 applications from department of state schools. [ 130 ] In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a endowment of £4m to improve its approachability to candidates from maintained schools. [ 131 ] Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formula that gives a rating to the GCSE operation of every school in the area to “ weight ” the scores of university applicants. [ 132 ] [ failed verification ] With the release of admissions figures, a 2013 article in The Guardian reported that cultural minority candidates had lower achiever rates in individual subjects even when they had the same grades as white applicants. The university was hence criticised for what was seen as institutional discrimination against ethnic minority applicants in privilege of white applicants. The university denied the claims of institutional discrimination by stating the figures did not take into explanation “ early variables ”. [ 133 ] A following article stated that in the years 2010–2012 heathen minority applicants to medicine with 3 A* grades or higher were 20 % less likely to gain admission than egg white applicants with exchangeable grades. The university refused to provide figures for a broad crop of subjects claiming it would be besides costly. [ 134 ] There are a issue of educational consultancies that offer support with the applications process. Some make claims of improved chances of entrance fee but these claims are not independently verified. none of these companies are affiliated to or endorsed by the University of Cambridge. The university informs applicants that all significant data regarding the application process is public cognition and none of these services is providing any inside information. [ 135 ] Cambridge University has been criticised because many colleges admit a low proportion of black students though many apply. Of the 31 colleges at Cambridge 6 admitted fewer than 10 black or mix race students from 2012 to 2016. [ 136 ] Figures from 2019 prove that 2 % of students were egg white and ‘working class ‘. [ 137 ] In January 2021, Cambridge created foundation courses for ‘disadvantaged ‘ students. [ 138 ] While the common introduction requirements are A*AA in A-Levels, the annual foundation course has 50 places for students who achieve BBB. [ 139 ] If successful on the naturally, students will receive a acknowledge CertHE qualification and can progress to degrees in the arts, humanities and social sciences at Cambridge. [ 138 ] Candidates include those who have been in care, who are estranged from their families, who have missed significant periods of learning because of health issues, those from low-income backgrounds and those from schools that send few students to university. [ 138 ]

Teaching [edit ]

The academic year is divided into three academician terms, determined by the statutes of the university. [ 140 ] Michaelmas condition lasts from October to December ; Lent term from January to March ; and Easter term from April to June. Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. According to the university statutes, it is a prerequisite that during this period all students should live within 3 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great ; this is defined as Keeping term. Students can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms ( three years ) when obtaining a bachelor of Arts or twelve terms ( four years ) when studying for a master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics. [ 141 ] These terms are shorter than those of many other british universities. [ 142 ] Undergraduates are besides expected to prepare heavy in the three holidays ( known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations ). This is why they are referred to as ‘Vacations ‘ quite than holidays ; students have merely vacated the premises, but are hush expected to work. Triposes involve a mix of lectures ( organised by the university departments ), and supervisions ( organised by the colleges ). skill subjects besides involve lab sessions, organised by the departments. The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. Supervisions are typically hebdomadally hour-long sessions in which small groups of students ( normally between one and three ) meet with a extremity of the teaching staff or with a doctoral scholar. Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisory program during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the substantial presented in that workweek ‘s lectures. The assignment is frequently an essay on a subject set by the supervisory program, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. Depending on the national and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per workweek. [ 143 ] This pedagogical system is frequently cited as being singular to Oxford ( where “ supervisions ” are known as “ tutorials “ ) [ 144 ] and Cambridge.

A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students ‘ work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792. [ 145 ]

research [edit ]

The University of Cambridge has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. All inquiry and lectures are conducted by university departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student adjustment, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s, Cambridge added a hearty number of newly specialist research laboratories on several sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites. [ 146 ] Cambridge besides has a research partnership with MIT in the United States : the Cambridge–MIT Institute .

graduation [edit ]

Graduands enter the Senate House at a graduation ceremony Unlike in most universities, the Cambridge Master of Arts is not awarded by deserve of study, but by correct, six years and one term after matriculation. At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university ‘s govern body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any early act. A formal meet of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this function. [ 147 ] This is the common survive act at which all the different university procedures ( for : undergraduate and graduate students ; and the different degrees ) land. After degrees are approved, to have them conferred candidates must ask their Colleges to be presented during a Congregation .
University officials leading the Vice-Chancellor ‘s deputy into the Senate House Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academician snip that they were entitled to before graduate : for model, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a graduate degree ( e.g. PhD or Master ‘s ) wear the academic apparel that they were entitled to before calibrate, alone if their first base degree was besides from the University of Cambridge ; if their first academic degree is from another university, they wear the academician dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of long time, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over. [ 148 ] Graduates are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of basis or recognition by the university, except for the royal colleges. During the congregation, graduands are brought forth by the Praelector of their college, who takes them by the right pass, and presents them to the vice-chancellor for the academic degree they are about to take. The Praelector presents graduands with the following latin statement ( the comply forms were used when the vice-chancellor was female ), substituting “ ____ ” with the diagnose of the academic degree :

Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hunc virum quem scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneum ad gradum assequendum _____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae. ( Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this man whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____ ; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University. ) ” and female graduands with the come : “ Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hanc mulierem quam scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneam ad gradum assequendum ____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae. ( Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the wholly University, I present to you this woman whom I know to be suitable as a lot by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____ ; for which I pledge my religion to you and to the whole University. ) ” After presentation, the graduand is called by name and kneels before the vice-chancellor and proffers their hands to the vice-chancellor, who clasps them and then confers the degree through the following Latin statement—the Trinitarian formula ( in nomine Patris … ) may be omitted at the request of the graduand : “ Auctoritate mihi commissa admitto te ad gradum ____, in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. ( By the authority committed to me, I admit you to the academic degree of ____, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. ) ”

The now-graduate then rises, bows and leaves the Senate House through the Doctor ‘s doorway, where they receive their certificate, into Senate House Passage. [ 147 ]

Libraries and museums [edit ]

The university has 116 libraries. [ 149 ] The Cambridge University Library is the cardinal research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland. [ 150 ] In addition to the University Library and its dependents, about every staff or department has a specialized library ; for exercise, the History Faculty ‘s Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. furthermore, every college has a library arsenic well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teach, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For exemplar, Trinity College ‘s Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College ‘s Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts .
The Fitzwilliam Museum, the artwork and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge Cambridge University operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, and a botanic garden. [ 151 ] The Fitzwilliam Museum, is the artwork and antiquities museum, the Kettle ‘s Yard is a contemporary art drift, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology houses the university ‘s collections of local antiquities, in concert with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the universe, the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology houses a wide range of zoological specimens from around the world and is known for its iconic finback whale skeletal system that hangs external. This museum besides has specimens collected by Charles Darwin. other museums include, the Museum of Classical Archaeology, the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences which is the geology museum of the university, the Polar Museum, part of the Scott Polar Research Institute which is dedicated to Captain Scott and his men, and focuses on the exploration of the Polar Regions. The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is the botanic garden of the university, created in 1831 .

Publishing and assessments [edit ]

The university ‘s print arm, the Cambridge University Press, is the oldest printer and publisher in the global, and it is the second largest university press in the populace. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] The university set up its local examination Syndicate in 1858. today, the syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment, is Europe ‘s largest judgment agency and it plays a lead role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the earth. [ 154 ]

repute and rankings [edit ]

As of 2021, the University of Cambridge ranked third in the universe by the esteemed ARWU rankings ( 1st in the UK ), only behind Harvard and Stanford. [ 163 ] Cambridge is besides ranked as the third best University in the world by the QS Ranking, this time behind MIT and Oxford, and tied with Stanford, [ 164 ] and fifth in the global ( tied with MIT ) by the 2022 Times Higher Education Rankings. [ 165 ] Cambridge besides ranked fourth in the 2020 World Reputation Ranking behind Harvard, MIT and Stanford, and ahead of Oxford. [ 166 ] Cambridge is systematically ranked as one of the top universities in the world. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ] In 2011, Times Higher Education ( THE ) recognised Cambridge as one of the worldly concern ‘s “ six ace brands ” on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford. [ 170 ] Within the UK, Cambridge is ranked at No.1 by the Times Ranking and at No. 2 by The Complete Guide. According to the 2016 Complete University Guide, the University of Cambridge is ranked inaugural amongst the UK ‘s universities ; this rank is based on a broad raft of criteria from entrance standards and student satisfaction to timbre of teaching in particular subjects and job prospects for graduates. [ 171 ] The university is ranked as the irregular best university in the UK for the timbre of graduates according to recruiters from the UK ‘s major companies. [ 172 ] In 2014–15, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance ( URAP ), Cambridge is ranked second in UK ( coming second to Oxford ) and ranked one-fifth in the world. [ 173 ] In the 2001 and 2008 Government Research Assessment Exercises, Cambridge was ranked first in the country. [ 174 ] In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any early british university ( over 30 % more than second gear placed Oxford ). [ 175 ] In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research wallpaper end product of any british university, and is besides the top inquiry producer ( as assessed by entire wallpaper quotation count ) in 10 out of 21 major british inquiry fields analysed. [ 176 ] Another study published the lapp year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion ( 6.6 % ) of total british research grants and contracts than any other university ( coming beginning in three out of four across-the-board discipline fields ). [ 177 ] The university is besides closely linked with the development of the high-tech business bunch in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the “ Cambridge Phenomenon ”. In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second base largest venture capital marketplace in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active agent startup companies directly linked with the university, deserving around US $ 6 billion. [ 178 ] Cambridge has been highly ranked by most international and UK league tables. In detail, it had topped the QS World University Rankings from 2010/11 to 2011/12. [ 179 ] [ 180 ] A 2006 Newsweek overall rank, which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an mental hospital ‘s global “ receptiveness and diverseness ”, suggested Cambridge was sixth around the ball. [ 181 ] In The Guardian newspaper ‘s 2012 rankings, Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in doctrine, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and advanced languages. [ 182 ] In the 2009 Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, it was ranked top ( or joint top ) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers. [ 183 ] But Cambridge has been ranked only 30th in the world and third gear in the UK by the Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities based on the count of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies .

sexual harassment [edit ]

In late years, Cambridge has come under increased criticism and legal challenges for its botch of intimate harassment claims. [ 184 ] [ 185 ] In 2019, for example, early scholar Danielle Bradford sued Cambridge through noted sexual harassment lawyer Ann Olivarius for how the university handled her complaint of intimate misbehave. “ I was told that I should think about it identical cautiously because making a ailment could affect my rate in my department. ” [ 186 ] In 2020, hundreds of current and former students accused the university in a letter of “ a complete failure ” to deal with complaints of intimate misconduct. [ 187 ]

student life [edit ]

The University Centre main dine hall

scholar Unions [edit ]

All students at the University of Cambridge are represented by Cambridge Students ‘ Union. The SU was founded in 2020 as a fusion of two existing scholar Unions in Cambridge : CUSU ( the Cambridge University Students ‘ Union ) and the GU ( the Graduate Union ). CUSU previously represented all University students, and the GU entirely represented graduate students. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] The eight most important positions in the SU are occupied by sabbatical officers. [ 190 ] In 2020, the sabbatical officers were elected with a turnout of 20.88 % of the wholly student body. [ 191 ] In 2021, Cambridge Students ‘ Union started a request against the fiscal collaboration between the university and the government of the United Arab Emirates worth £400m. The Union cited the induce of the petition as the warn of the “ values gap ” and menace to “ academician exemption and institutional autonomy ” reviewed in the internal documents. Citing the grave accent history of violating the international police of human rights, the Cambridge UCU warned of the university staff of being vulnerable to the repression of gender, sex, or freedom of expression. [ 192 ]

mutant [edit ]

Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are besides Varsity matches against Oxford in many early sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the university in certain sports are entitled to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is besides the self-described “ unashamedly elite ” Hawks ‘ Club, which is for men only, whose membership is normally restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. [ 193 ] The Ospreys are the equivalent female club. The University of Cambridge Sports Centre opened in August 2013. Phase 1 included a 37x34m Sports Hall, a Fitness Suite, a Strength and Conditioning Room, a Multi-Purpose Room and Eton and Rugby Fives courts. Phase 1b included 5 glass backed squash courts and a Team Training Room. future phases include indoor and outdoor tennis courts and a swimming pool. [ 194 ] The university besides has an Athletics track at Wilberforce Road, an Indoor Cricket School and Fenner ‘s Cricket Ground .

Societies [edit ]

numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who partake a common mania or sake to sporadically meet or discuss. As of 2010, there were 751 register societies. [ 195 ] In addition to these, person colleges much promote their own societies and sports teams. Although technically autonomous from the university, the Cambridge Union serves as a concentrate for debating and public talk, as the oldest rid language society in the world, and the largest in Cambridge. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club ( ADC ) and the drollery club Footlights, which are known for producing long-familiar show-business personalities. The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from democratic symphonies to lesser known works ; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university .

Newspapers and radio [edit ]

Cambridge ‘s oldest scholar newspaper is Varsity. Established in 1947, luminary figures to have edited the wallpaper include Jeremy Paxman, BBC media editor program Amol Rajan, and Vogue international editor Suzy Menkes. It has besides featured the early writings of Zadie Smith ( who appeared in Varsity ‘s literary anthology outgrowth, The Mays ), Robert Webb, Tristram Hunt, and Tony Wilson. With a print run of 9,000, Varsity is the entirely student paper to go to print on a weekly footing. News stories from the newspaper have recently appeared in The Guardian, The Times, The Sunday Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and The i. other student publications include The Cambridge Student, which is funded by Cambridge University Students ‘ Union and goes to print on a fortnightly basis, and The Tab. Founded by two Cambridge students in 2009, The Tab is online-only ( apart from one print edition in Freshers ‘ Week ), and by and large features blithe features capacity. The Mays is a literary anthology made up of scholar prose, poetry, and ocular art from both Cambridge and Oxford. Founded in 1992 by three Cambridge students, the anthology goes to print on an annual basis. It is oversee by Varsity Publications Ltd, the like torso that is responsible for Varsity, the newspaper. There are many early journals, magazines, and zines. Another literary diary, Notes, is published roughly two times per term. many colleges besides have their own publications run by students. The scholar radio receiver station, Cam FM, is run in concert with students from Anglia Ruskin university. One of few student radio stations to have an FM license ( frequency 97.2 MHz ), the station hosts a assortment of music, spill, and sports shows .

JCR and MCR [edit ]

In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR ( Junior Combination Room ) for undergraduates and MCR ( Middle Combination Room ) for postgraduates. These serve as a connection between college staff and members and consists of officers elected per annum between the mate students ; individual JCR and MCRs besides report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the positions within the body. [ 196 ]

formal Halls and May Balls [edit ]

One privilege of scholar life at Cambridge is the opportunity to attend formal dinners at college. These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time, much daily at some colleges. Students sit down for a meal in their gowns, while Fellows eat individually at High Table : the beginning and end of the function is normally marked with a grace said in Latin. Special Formal Halls are organised for events such as Christmas and the Commemoration of Benefactors. [ 197 ] After the examination period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls. These are nightlong long lavish parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. Time magazine argues that some of the larger May Balls are among the best individual parties in the world. Suicide Sunday, the first sidereal day of May Week, is a democratic date for organising garden parties. [ 198 ]

luminary alumni and academics [edit ]

Over the naturally of its history, a number of Cambridge University academics and alumni have become noteworthy in their fields, both academic and in the wide populace. As of October 2020, 121 affiliates of the University of Cambridge have won 122 Nobel prizes ( Frederick Sanger won twice [ 199 ] [ 200 ] ), with 70 erstwhile students of the university having won the pry. In addition, as of 2019, Cambridge alumnus, staff members and researchers have won 11 Fields Medals and 7 turing Awards .

Mathematics and sciences [edit ]

Among the most celebrated of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton, who conducted many of his experiments in the grounds of Trinity College. Others are Sir Francis Bacon, who was creditworthy for the development of the scientific method and the mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor. pure mathematicians include G. H. Hardy, John Edensor Littlewood, Mary Cartwright and Augustus De Morgan ; Sir Michael Atiyah, a specialist in geometry ; William Oughtred, inventor of the logarithmic scale ; John Wallis, foremost to department of state the law of acceleration ; Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self-taught genius who made solid contributions to mathematical psychoanalysis, act theory, space series and cover fractions ; and James Clerk Maxwell, who brought about the “ second base big union of physics ” ( the beginning being accredited to Newton ) with his classical theory of electromagnetic radiotherapy. In 1890, mathematician Philippa Fawcett was the person with the highest seduce in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos examination, but as a charwoman was unable to take the style of ‘ Senior Wrangler ‘. In biota, Charles Darwin, celebrated for developing the theory of natural choice, was an alumnus of Christ ‘s College, although his education was intended to allow him to become a clergyman. Biologists Francis Crick and James Watson worked out a model for the cubic structure of DNA while working at the Cavendish Laboratory ; Cambridge graduates Maurice Wilkins and particularly Rosalind Franklin produced key x ray crystallography data, which was shared with Watson by Wilkins. Wilkins went on to help verify the proposed structure and win the Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick. More recently, Sir Ian Wilmut was separate of the team responsible for the first clone of a mammal ( Dolly the Sheep in 1996 ), naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough, ethologist Jane Goodall, technical on chimpanzees was a PhD scholar, anthropologist Dame Alison Richard, former vice-chancellor of the university, and Frederick Sanger, a biochemist known for developing Sanger sequence and receiving two Nobel prizes. Despite the university ‘s delay in admitting women to full degrees, Cambridge women were at the kernel of scientific research throughout the twentieth century. celebrated female scientists include ; biochemist Marjory Stephenson, implant physiologist Gabrielle Howard, social anthropologist Audrey Richards, psycho-analyst Alix Strachey, who with her conserve translated the works of Sigmund Freud, Kavli Prize -winner Brenda Milner, co-discovery of speciate brain networks for memory and cognition. veterinary epidemiologist Sarah Cleaveland has worked to eliminate rabies in the Serengeti. [ 201 ] The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, mathematician and “ forefather of the calculator ” Charles Babbage designed the worldly concern ‘s foremost computing system angstrom early on as the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to devise what is basically the footing for modern computer science and Maurice Wilkes late created the first gear programmable computer. The webcam was besides invented at Cambridge University, showing the Trojan Room coffee bean pot in the Computer Laboratories. In physics, Ernest Rutherford who is regarded as the don of nuclear physics, spent much of his liveliness at the university where he worked closely with E. J. Williams and Niels Bohr, a major subscriber to the sympathy of the atom, J. J. Thomson, inventor of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, finder of the neutron, and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, creditworthy for first splitting the atom. J. Robert Oppenheimer, leader of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bombard, besides studied under Rutherford and Thomson. Joan Curran devised the ‘chaff ‘ technique during the moment World War to disrupt radar on foe planes .
Astronomers Sir John Herschel, Sir Arthur Eddington, Paul Dirac, the finder of antimatter and one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics ; Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist and the university ‘s long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009 ; and Lord Martin Rees, the stream Astronomer Royal and former Master of Trinity College. John Polkinghorne, a mathematician before his capture into the Anglican ministry, received the Templeton Prize for his work reconciling skill and religion. other significant scientists include Henry Cavendish, the finder of hydrogen ; Frank Whittle, co-inventor of the jet engine ; William Thomson ( Lord Kelvin ), who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics ; William Fox Talbot, who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead, Einstein ‘s major adversary ; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, one of the fathers of radio receiver skill ; Lord Rayleigh, who made extensive contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics in the twentieth hundred ; and Georges Lemaître, who first proposed a Big Bang hypothesis .

Humanities, music and art [edit ]

In the humanities, greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth hundred by Desiderius Erasmus ; contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson. John Chadwick was associated with Michael Ventris in the decoding of Linear B. The Latinist A. E. Housman taught at Cambridge but is more wide known as a poet. Simon Ockley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies .
Distinguished Cambridge academics include economists such as John Maynard Keynes, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall, Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, Ha-Joon Chang and Amartya Sen, a early master of Trinity College. Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, George Santayana, G. E. M. Anscombe, Sir Karl Popper, Sir Bernard Williams, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal and G. E. Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay, Frederic William Maitland, Lord Acton, Joseph Needham, E. H. Carr, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rhoda Dorsey, E. P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Quentin Skinner, Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and Karl W Schweizer, generator and historian. religious figures have included Rowan Williams, erstwhile archbishop of Canterbury and his predecessors ; William Tyndale, the biblical translator ; Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, known as the “ Oxford martyr ” from the rate of their execution ; Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists ; William Paley, the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argument for the universe of God ; William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade ; Evangelical cleric Charles Simeon ; John William Colenso, the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed perilously free radical at the time ; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford, theologians ; and six winners of the Templeton Prize, the highest award for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972 .
Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, William Sterndale Bennett, Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, Alexander Goehr, Thomas Adès, John Rutter, Julian Anderson, Judith Weir and Maury Yeston were all at Cambridge. The university has besides produced instrumentalists and conductors, including Colin Davis, John Eliot Gardiner, Roger Norrington, Trevor Pinnock, Andrew Manze, Richard Egarr, Mark Elder, Richard Hickox, Christopher Hogwood, Andrew Marriner, David Munrow, Simon Standage, Endellion Quartet and Fitzwilliam Quartet. Although known chiefly for its chorale music, the university has besides produced members of contemporary bands such as Radiohead, Hot Chip, Procol Harum, Clean Bandit, Sports Team songwriter and entertainer Jonathan King, Henry Cow, and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake. Artists Quentin Blake, Roger Fry, Rose Ferraby and Julian Trevelyan, sculptors Antony Gormley, Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro, and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones, Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock wholly attended as undergraduates .

literature [edit ]

Writers to have studied at the university include the Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe, his mate University Wits Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene, arguably the first gear professional authors in England, and John Fletcher, who collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble Kinsmen, Henry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house dramatist of The King ‘s Men. Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, known for his diary, the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. Lawrence Sterne, whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles. In the stick to century, the novelists W. M. Thackeray, best known for Vanity Fair, Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! and Water Babies, and Samuel Butler, remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon, were all at Cambridge. Ghost narrative writer M. R. James served as provost of King ‘s College from 1905 to 1918. novelist Amy Levy was the first jewish charwoman to attend the university. modernist writers to have attended the university include E. M. Forster, Rosamond Lehmann, Vladimir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry. Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One’s Own while in residence at Newnham College. Playwright J. B. Priestley, physicist and novelist C. P. Snow and children ‘s writer A. A. Milne were besides among those who passed through the university in the early twentieth hundred. They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White, J. G. Ballard, and the early on postcolonial writer E. R. Braithwaite. More recently, alumni include comedy writers Douglas Adams, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson, the popular novelists A. S. Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Louise Dean, Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks, the action writers Michael Crichton, David Gibbins and Jin Yong, and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff, Michael Frayn and Sir Peter Shaffer .
Cambridge poets include Edmund Spenser, generator of The Faerie Queene, the Metaphysical poets John Donne ( who penned “ For Whom the Bell Tolls “ ), George Herbert and Andrew Marvell, John Milton, renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost, the Restoration poet and dramatist John Dryden, the pre-romantic Thomas Gray, best known his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is frequently seen to mark the get down of the romantic drift, late Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson, authors of the best known carpe diem poems including Robert Herrick best known “ To the Virgins, to Make much of Time “ with the inaugural credit line “ Gather ye rosebud while ye may ” and Andrew Marvell who authored “ To His Coy Mistress “, classical scholar and lyric poet A. E. Housman, war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke, modernist T. E. Hulme, confessional poets Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and John Berryman, and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill. At least nine of the Poets Laureate graduated from Cambridge. The university has besides made a noteworthy contribution to literary criticism, having produced, among others, F. R. Leavis, I. A. Richards, C. K. Ogden and William Empson, much jointly known as the Cambridge Critics, the Marxists Raymond Williams, sometimes regarded as the founding father of cultural studies, and Terry Eagleton, author of Literary Theory: An Introduction, the most successful academic bible ever published, the Aesthetician Harold Bloom, the New Historicist Stephen Greenblatt, and biographic writers such as Lytton Strachey, a central visualize in the Bloomsbury Group, Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin .
Actors and directors such as Sir Ian McKellen, Eleanor Bron, Miriam Margolyes, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, John Oliver, Freddie Highmore, Eric Idle, Graham Chapman, Graeme Garden, Tim Brooke-Taylor, Bill Oddie, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinton, Thandie Newton, Georgie Henley, Rachel Weisz, Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Sara Mohr-Pietsch, Eddie Redmayne, Dan Stevens, Jamie Bamber, Lily Cole, David Mitchell, Robert Webb, Richard Ayoade, Mel Giedroyc and Sue Perkins all studied at the university, as did directors such as Mike Newell, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz and John Madden .

Sports [edit ]

As of 2016, athletes who are university graduates or attendees had won a total of 194 Olympic medals, including 88 gold. [ 22 ] The fabled chinese six-time earth table tennis champion Deng Yaping ; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams ; the inventors of the modern game of football, H. de Winton and J. C. Thring ; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer all attended Cambridge. Furthermore, indian Cricketer Colonel H. H. Shri Sir Ranjitsinhji Vibhaji II, Jam Saheb of Nawanagar ( often known as Ranji ), is widely regarded as one of the best batsmen of not lone his generation but besides all clock time. He only played for one year at the university from 1893 to 1894 .

education [edit ]

luminary educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University, including John Harvard himself ; Emily Davies, founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley, founder of the foremost mixed-sex public school ( i.e. not public ) in England ; Anil Kumar Gain, twentieth hundred mathematician and laminitis of the Vidyasagar University in Bengal, Siram Govindarajulu Naidu founder frailty chancellor of Sri Venkateswara University and Menachem Ben-Sasson, Israeli President of Hebrew University of Jerusalem .

Politics [edit ]

Cambridge has a strong reputation in the field of politics, having educated : [ 202 ]

engineering [edit ]

Cambridge has a long history of developing technical endowment, boasting a rich tilt of companies founded by Cambridge alumni. notably, the postdate alumni :

  • Sophie Wilson and Steve Furber, co-founders of ARM, a British semiconductor and software design company still based in Cambridge.
  • Sam Chaudhary, co-founder of ClassDojo, a San Francisco-based EdTech company connecting teachers with their students and families.
  • Philip Kwok, co-founder of EasyA, an EdTech company which gets students 1:1 academic help from tutors in minutes.
  • Rahul Vohra, founder of Superhuman, an email messaging app which reduces the time people need to spend on emails.
  • Herman Narula and Rob Whitehead, co-founders of Improbable, a British multinational company developing video game simulation software.

In literature and popular culture [edit ]

Throughout its history, the university has frequently featured in literature and artistic works by assorted authors. As of 2020, IMDb lists 71 films or television receiver shows that include Cambridge as a film placement. [ 205 ] Cambridge was mentioned deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as the fourteenth hundred in Chaucer ‘s Canterbury Tales. In The Reeve’s Tale, the two main characters are students at a Cambridge college called “ Soler Halle ”. It is believed that this refers to King ‘s Hall, which is now share of Trinity College. [ 206 ] The university has been the setting for all or part of numerous novels, including Douglas Adams ‘ Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency, Rose Macaulay ‘s They Were Defeated, [ 207 ] and Tom Sharpe ‘s Porterhouse Blue. [ 208 ] other noteworthy examples of Cambridge in popular polish include :

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

  • Taylor, Kevin (1994). Central Cambridge: A Guide to the University and Colleges. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45913-6.

bibliography [edit ]

Coordinates :

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Category : Education

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