Bukhara – Wikipedia

City in southwestern Uzbekistan
place in Uzbekistan
Bukhara ( uzbek : Buxoro /Бухоро, pronounced [ buχɒrɒ ] ; Tajik : Бухоро, pronounced [ buxɔːˈɾɔː ] ) is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 247,644 as of 31 August 2016, [ 1 ] and the capital of Bukhara Region. People have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennium, and the city has existed for half that time. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of barter, scholarship, culture, and religion. The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is Tajik, a dialect of the irani linguistic process, [ 2 ] although Uzbek is spoken as a second speech by most residents. Bukhara served as the capital of the Samanid Empire, Khanate of Bukhara, and Emirate of Bukhara and was the birthplace of Imam Bukhari. [ 3 ] The city has been known as “ noble Bukhara ” ( Bukhārā-ye sharīf ). Bukhara has about 140 architectural monuments. UNESCO has listed the historic focus on of Bukhara ( which contains numerous mosques and madrasa ) as a World Heritage Site. [ 4 ]

Names [edit ]

The claim identify of the city of Bukhara in ancient times is unknown. The whole oasis was called Bukhara in ancient times, and probably only in the one-tenth century it was finally transferred to the city. [ 5 ] There are versatile versions of the origin of the name of the city. According to a act of scholars based on the information of Juwaini, the appoint dates back to the Sanskrit “ Vihara “ ( Buddhist monastery ). This bible is very stopping point to the discussion in the lyric of the Uyghur and Chinese Buddhists, who named their places of worship the lapp room. however, no artifacts related to Buddhism and Manichaeism have however been found in the city and oasis. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the Sogdian βuxārak ( “ Place of Good Fortune ” ) [ 6 ] In the Tang dynasty, and early consecutive dynasties of Imperial China, Bukhara was known under the name of Buhe/Puhe ( 捕喝 ), [ 7 ] which has been replaced in chinese by the modern generic phonetic spell Bùhālā ( 布哈拉 ). In the 19-20th centuries, Bukhara was known as Bokhara, in the english publications, as exemplified by the writings and reports on the Emirate of Bukhara during the big Game .
Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara ( completed AD 943-44 ) mentions :

Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat. It has besides been called “ Bumiskat ”. It has 2 names in Arabic. One is “ Madinat alabama Sufriya ” meaning— ” the copper city ” and another is “ Madinat Al Tujjar ” meaning— ” The city of Merchants ”. But, the appoint Bukhara is more know than all the other names. In Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names. [ 8 ]

Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Arabic and iranian sources. The modern Uzbek spell is Buxoro. The city ‘s name was mythologized as Albracca in the italian epic poem poem Orlando Innamorato published in 1483 by Matteo Maria Boiardo. [ 9 ]

history [edit ]

Suzani textiles from Bukhara are famous worldwide. This one was made before 1850 Coin belonging to the greek government of Balkh found in Bukhara The history of Bukhara stretches back millennium. In medieval times, Bukhara served as the capital of the Samanid Empire, Khanate of Bukhara and was the birthplace of Imam Bukhari. At the beginning of the eleventh hundred, Bukhara became share of the Turkic state of matter of the Karakhanids. The rulers of the Karakhanids built many buildings in Bukhara : the Kalyan minaret, the Magoki Attori mosque, palaces and parks. [ 10 ] Bukhara lies west of Samarkand and was previously a focal point of learning eminent all through the Islamic world. It is the old vicinity of the incomparable Sheik Naqshbandi. He was a focal figure in the advancement of the cryptic Sufi way to deal with theory, religion and Islam. [ 11 ] It is now the capital of Bukhara Region ( viloyat ) of Uzbekistan. Located on the Silk Road, the city has farseeing been a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. During the aureate age of the Samanids, [ 12 ] Bukhara became a major intellectual center of the Islamic populace. The historic kernel of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site .
Minister of Interior, Bukhara, circa 1905–1915 The Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, in AD 903. [ 13 ] Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for 15 days in 1220. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] As an authoritative trade center, Bukhara was home to a community of medieval indian merchants from the city of Multan ( contemporary Pakistan ) who were noted to own nation in the city. [ 16 ] Bukhara under siege by Red Army troops and sunburn, September 1, 1920 Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara process of 1920, Red Army troops under the instruction of Bolshevik cosmopolitan Mikhail Frunze attacked the city of Bukhara. On 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara ( later he escaped from Dushanbe to Kabul in Afghanistan ). On 2 September 1920, after four days of crusade, the emir ‘s bastion ( the Ark ) was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret. On 14 September 1920, the All-Bukharan Revolutionary Committee was set up, headed by A. Mukhitdinov. The government—the Council of People ‘s Nazirs ( see nāẓir ) —was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev. The Bukharan People ‘s Soviet Republic existed from 1920 to 1925 when the city was integrated into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Fitzroy Maclean, then a young diplomat in the british Embassy in Moscow, made a furtive visit to Bokhara in 1938, sight-seeing and sleeping in parks. In his memoir Eastern Approaches, he judged it an “ capture city ” with buildings that rivalled “ the finest architecture of the italian Renaissance “. In the latter half of the twentieth hundred, the war in Afghanistan and civil war in Tajikistan brought Dari- and Tajik-speaking refugees into Bukhara and Samarkand. After integrating themselves into the local anesthetic Tajik population, these cities face a movement for annexation into Tajikistan with which the cities have no common bound. [ 17 ]

historic monuments in Bukhara [edit ]

or Kalon Minor ( مناره کلان) (Great Minaret) KalyanKalon Minor ( Persian ) ( Great Minaret ) church of Archangel Michael in Bukhara

Architectural complexes [edit ]

  • Po-i-Kalyan Complex. The title Po-i Kalan (also Poi Kalân, Persian: پای کلان meaning the “Grand Foundation”) belongs to the architectural complex located at the base of the great minaret Kalân.
  • Kalyan minaret. More properly, Minâra-i Kalân, (Persian/Tajik for the “Grand Minaret”). Also known as the Tower of Death, as according to legend it is the site where criminals were executed by being thrown off the top for centuries. The minaret is the most famed part of the ensemble, and dominates over historical center of the city. The role of the minaret is largely for traditional and decorative purposes—its dimension exceeds the bounds of the main function of the minaret, which is to provide a vantage point from which the muezzin can call out people to prayer. For this purpose it was enough to ascend to a roof of mosque. This practice was common in initial years of Islam. The word “minaret” derives from the Arabic word “minara” (“lighthouse”, or more literally “a place where something burn”). The minarets of the region were possible adaptations of “fire-towers” or lighthouses of previous Zoroastrian eras.[18] The architect, whose name was simply Bako, designed the minaret in the form of a circular-pillar brick tower, narrowing upwards. The diameter of the base is 9 meters (30 feet), while at the top it is 6 m (20 ft). The tower is 45.6 m (150 ft) high, and can be seen from vast distances over the flat plains of Central Asia. There is a brick spiral staircase that twists up inside around the pillar, leading to the landing in sixteen-arched rotunda and skylight, upon which is based a magnificently designed stalactite cornice (or “sharif”).[19]

آرامگاه اسماعیل سامانی

Ismail Samani mausoleum ,

  • Kalân Mosque (Masjid-i Kalân), arguably completed in 1514, is equal to the Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Samarkand in size. The mosque is able to accommodate twelve thousand people. Although Kalyan Mosque and Bibi-Khanym Mosque of Samarkand are of the same type of building, they are different in terms of art of building. Two hundred and eighty-eight monumental pylons serve as a support for the multi-domed roofing of the galleries encircling the courtyard of Kalyan Mosque. The longitudinal axis of the courtyard ends up with a portal to the main chamber (maksura) with a cruciform hall, topped with a massive blue cupola on a mosaic drum. The edifice keeps many architectural curiosities, for example, a hole in one of domes. Through this hole one can see foundation of Kalyan Minaret. Then moving back step by step, one can count all belts of brickwork of the minaret to the rotunda.[20]
  • Mir-i Arab Madrassah (1535–1536). The construction of Mir-i-Arab Madrasah (Miri Arab Madrasah) is ascribed to Sheikh Abdullah Yamani of Yemen—called Mir-i-Arab—the spiritual mentor of Ubaidullah-khan and his son Abdul-Aziz-khan. Ubaidullah-khan waged permanent successful war with Iran. At least three times his troops seized Herat. Each of such plundering raids on Iran was accompanied by capture of great many captives. They say that Ubaidullah-khan had invested money gained from redemption of more than three thousand Persian captives into construction of Mir-i-Arab Madrasah. Ubaidullah-khan was very religious. He had been nurtured in high respect for Islam in the spirit of Sufism. His father named him in honor of prominent sheikh of the 15th century Ubaidullah al-Ahrar (1404–1490), by origin from Tashkent Region. By the thirties of the 16th century the time, when sovereigns erected splendid mausoleums for themselves and for their relatives, was over. Khans of Shaibanid dynasty were standard-bearers of Koran traditions. The significance of religion was so great that even such famed khan as Ubaidullah was conveyed to earth close by his mentor in his madrasah. In the middle of the vault (gurhana) in Mir-i-Arab Madrasah is situated the wooden tomb of Ubaidullah-khan. At his head is wrapped in the moulds his mentor, Mir-i-Arab. Muhammad Kasim, mudarris (a senior teacher) of the madrasah (died in 1047 hijra) is also interred near by here. The portal of Miri Arab Madrasah is situated on one axis with the portal of the Kalyan Mosque. However, because of some lowering of the square to the east it was necessary to raise a little an edifice of the madrasah on a platform.[21]

Simurgh on the portal of Nadir Divan-Beghi madrasah (part of Lab-i Hauz complex)

کوچه ای در نزدیکی لب حوض

An bowling alley close to Lab-i Hauz

  • Lab-i Hauz Complex (or Lab-e hauz, Persian: لب حوض, meaning by the pond) Ensemble (1568–1622) is the name of the area surrounding one of the few remaining hauz, or pond, in the city of Bukhara. Several such ponds existed in Bukhara prior to Soviet rule. The ponds acted as the city’s principal source of water, but were also notorious for spreading disease, and thus were mostly filled in during the 1920s and 1930s by the Soviets. The Lab-i Hauz survived owing to its role as the centerpiece of an architectural ensemble dating back to the 16th to 17th centuries. The Lab-i Hauz ensemble consists of the 16th-century Kukeldash Madrasah,[22] the largest in the city, along the north side of the pond.[23] On the eastern and western sides of the pond are a 17th-century lodging-house for itinerant Sufis, and a 17th-century madrasah.[24]

There is besides a alloy sculpt of Nasruddin Hodja, the quick-witted and warm-hearted man, who forms the central character of many children ‘s tribe stories in Central Asian, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, sitting atop his mule with one hand on his affection and the early with an ‘All OK ‘ sign above his principal .

  • Bahoutdin Architectural Complex is a necropolis commemorating Shaykh Baha-ud-Din or Bohoutdin, the founder of Naqshbandi order. The complex includes the dahma (gravestone) of Bahoutdin, Khakim Kushbegi mosque, Muzaffarkan mosque, and Abdul-Lazizkhan khanqah. The site is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site tentative list on January 18, 2008.

fortress [edit ]

Wall of the Bukhara Fortress, the Ark

  • Bukhara Fortress, the Ark

Mausoleums [edit ]

Chashma-Ayub, or Job’s spring, is located near the Samani mausoleum. Its name is said to reflect a legend that states the prophet Job ( “ Ayub ” in the Quran ) visited this station and brought forth a spring of water by the blow of his staff on the grind. The water of this well is said to be exceptionally saturated, and is regarded for its supposed “ bring around qualities. ” The current building at the locate was constructed during the reign of Timur, and features a Khwarazm-style conic dome that is differently rare in the region .
The Ismail Samani mausoleum ( 9th–10th centuries ), is one of the most highly think of oeuvre of central asian architecture. It was built in the ninth century ( between 892 and 943 ) as the resting-place of Ismail Samani —the founder of the Samanid dynasty, which was the last native iranian dynasty to rule the region in the 9th to 10th centuries, after the Samanids established virtual independence from the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. The locate is unique for its architectural stylus which combines both zoroastrian and Islamic motifs. The build ‘s facade is covered in elaborately decorated brick cultivate, which features circular patterns evocative of the sun—a common image in zoroastrian artwork from the region at that prison term which is evocative of the Zoroastrian god, Ahura Mazda, who is typically represented by fire and easy. The build ‘s shape is cubelike, and evocative of the Ka’aba in Makkah, while the domed roof is a typical feature of mosque architecture. The syncretic style of the shrine is reflective of the 9th to 10th centuries—a time when the area placid had large populations of Zoroastrians who had begun to convert to Islam around that time.

The shrine is besides regarded as one of the oldest monuments in the Bukhara area. At the prison term of Genghis Khan ‘s invasion, the enshrine was said to have already been buried in mud from flooding. therefore, when the Mongol hordes reached Bukhara, the enshrine was spared from their destruction. The mausoleum of Pakistan ‘s initiation father, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, known as the Mazar-e-Quaid in Karachi, was modeled after the enshrine .

Mosques [edit ]

Built in 1712, on the inverse side of the bastion of Ark in Registan district, Bolo Haouz Mosque is inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list along with the early parts of the historic city. It served as a Friday mosque during the time when the emir of Bukhara was being subjugated under the Bolshevik Russian rule in 1920s .
Char Minar Char Minor ( alternatively spelled Chor Minor, and besides alternatively known as the Madrasah of Khalif Niyaz-kul ) is a building tucked away in a lane northeast of the Lyabi Hauz complex. The structure was built by Khalif Niyaz-kul, a affluent Bukharan of Turkmen origin in the nineteenth century under the predominate of the Janid dynasty. [ 25 ] The four-towered structure is sometimes mistaken for a gate to the madras that once existed behind the social organization ; however, the Char-Minar is actually a building complex of buildings with two functions, ritual and tax shelter. The main building is a mosque. In hurt of its unusual outward supreme headquarters allied powers europe, the build has a typical department of the interior for a Central Asian mosque. Owing to the buildings cupola, the room has dependable acoustic properties and consequently takes on particular significance of ‘dhikr-hana’—a rate for ritualized ‘dhikr ‘ ceremonies of Sufi, the holy eucharist of which frequently include recitation, cantabile, and instrumental music. On either slope of the cardinal building are located dwelling rooms, some of which have collapsed, leaving only their foundations visible. consequently, for full function of madrasa only of classroom and some utility rooms is lacking. however, it was coarse drill that alleged madrasahs had no lecture rooms or, even if they had, no lectures had been given in them. These madrasahs were employed as student hospices. [ 25 ] Each of the four towers has different decorational motif. Some say that elements of decoration reflect the four religions known to Central Asians. One can find element evocative of a cross, a christian fish motif, and a Buddhist praying-wheel, in addition to Zoroastrian and Islamic motifs. [ 26 ] In 1995, due to an underground digest, one of the four towers collapsed [ 27 ] and emergency aid was applied for and granted by UNESCO under the World Heritage Fund. Although the collapse resulted in destabilizing the entire social organization, the authorities were anxious to keep awareness of the catastrophe to a minimal. Without explanation the build disappeared from the list of sights and after travel rapidly reconstruction of the tower “ using non-traditional construction corporeal, such as poor quality cement and steel ” [ 28 ] Char Minar returned as one of the most democratic sights of the city, yet the consequence has been kept hidden ever since. On the esplanade to the right from Char-Minar is a pond, likely of the lapp long time as the rest of the building complex. Char Minar is immediately surrounded chiefly by small houses and shops along its margin .
The Magoki-Attari mosque ( south façade ) The early Magoki Attori mosque was constructed in the ninth century on the remains of what may have been an older zoroastrian temple. The mosque was destroyed and rebuilt more than once, and the oldest region nowadays remaining is the south façade, which dates from the 12th century—making it one of the oldest surviving structures in Bukhara, and one of few which survived the onslaught of Genghis Khan. Lower than the surrounding flat coat horizontal surface, the mosque was excavated in 1935. It no longer functions as a mosque, but, rather, houses a carpet museum .

  • Mosque of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani

In Bukhara there is a mosque which is said to be that of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, the patron canonize of Kashmiri Muslims in the Valley of Kashmir. [ 29 ] مدرسه میر عرب، مناره کلان و مدرسه خان

geography [edit ]

About 140 miles ( 225 kilometer ) west of Samarkand in south-central Uzbekistan, Bukhara is located on the Zeravshan River, at an natural elevation of 751 feet ( 229 meters ) .

climate [edit ]

Bukhara has a typically central asian cool arid climate ( Köppen BWk ). The average maximum good afternoon temperature in January is 6.6 °C or 43.9 °F, rising to an average maximal of around 37.2 °C or 99.0 °F in July. Mean annual precipitation is 135 millimetres or 5.31 inches. The urine was authoritative in the hot, dry climate of Central Asia, so from ancient times, irrigation farm was developed. Cities were built near rivers and water channels were built to serve the stallion city. Uncovered reservoirs, known as hauzes, were constructed. special cover water system reservoirs, or sardobas, were built along caravan routes to supply travelers and their animals with water. however, the heavy practice of agrochemicals during the era under the Soviet Union, diversion of huge amounts of irrigation body of water from the two rivers that feed Uzbekistan, and the chronic miss of water treatment plants, have caused health and environmental problems on an enormous scale. [ citation needed ]

Climate data for Bukhara (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
Average low °C (°F) −2.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.1
Average precipitation days 10 10 10 8 7 2 1 1 1 4 7 9 70
Average relative humidity (%) 80 75 72 59 46 38 40 44 48 56 64 79 58
Source 1: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan[30]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity)[31]

fare [edit ]

Bukhara caravan station Bukhara International Airport has regularly scheduled flights to cities in Uzbekistan and Russia. The Turkmenistan molding is about 80 km aside with the nearest city there being Türkmenabat, connected via the M37 highway which continues to other places in Turkmenistan including Ashgabat. The city is besides served by railway links with the rest of Uzbekistan, and is a hub for roadways leading to all major cities in Uzbekistan and beyond, including Mazar-i-Sharif in Afghanistan via the M39 highway. The city of Samarkand is 215 kilometer to the east of Bukhara. [ 32 ]

Internal department of transportation facilities [edit ]

Bukhara city is the largest transport hub after Tashkent in Uzbekistan. Inside the city there is facility of bus fare. There are over 45 bus lines. majority of them have been equipped with ISUZU buses but some buses are being brought from China. By the number of buses and busbar routes facilities Bukhara is the largest after tashkent in Uzbekistan .

Demographics [edit ]

Bukhara recorded a population of 279,200 in the 2019. Bukhara ( along with Samarkand ) is one of the two major centers of Uzbekistan ‘s Tajik minority. Bukhara was besides home to the Bukharian Jews, whose ancestors settled in the city during Roman times. Most Bukharian Jews left Bukhara between 1925 and 2000. Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda defines the identify Bukhara itself as meaning “ entire of cognition ”, referring to the fact that in antiquity, Bukhara was a scientific and eruditeness powerhouse. In the italian quixotic epic Orlando innamorato by Matteo Maria Boiardo, Bukhara is called Albracca and described as a major city of Cathay. There, within its wall city and fortress, Angelica and the knights she has befriended make their rack when attacked by Agrican, emperor butterfly of Tartary. As trace, this siege by Agrican resembles the historic siege by Genghis Khan in 1220. [ 33 ]

cultural groups [edit ]

According to the official statistics, the city ‘s population is 82 % Uzbeks, 6 % Russians, 4 % Tajiks, 3 % Tatars, 1 % Koreans, 1 % Turkmens, 1 % Ukrainians, 2 % of early ethnicities. [ 34 ] however, official Uzbek numbers have for long been criticized and refuted by assorted observers and western sources [ 35 ] [ 36 ] and it is widely assumed that the population of the city consists chiefly of Tajik-speaking Tajiks, with ethnic Uzbeks forming a growing minority. [ 37 ] Exact figures are difficult to evaluate, since many people in Uzbekistan either identify as “ Uzbek ” even though they speak Tajik as their first linguistic process, or because they are registered as Uzbeks by the cardinal government despite their Tajik language and identity. According to soviet estimates in the early twentieth hundred ( based on numbers from 1913 and 1917 ), the Tajiks formed the consuming majority of city. [ 36 ] Until the twentieth century, Bukhara was besides home plate to the Bukharan Jews, whose linguistic process ( Bukhori ) is a dialect of Tajiki. Their ancestors settled in the city during Roman times. Most Bukharan Jews left the city between 1925 and 2000 and settled in Israel and the United States .

religion [edit ]

The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Sunni Muslims make up 88 percentage of the population, Eastern Orthodox 9 percentage, and others 3 percentage . Uzbekistan, Bukhara, Spices and silk festival

celebrated people [edit ]

many luminary people lived in Bukhara in the past. Among them are :

International relations [edit ]

The following is a number of Bukhara ‘s sister cities : [ 38 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

further read [edit ]

  • Moorcroft, W. and Trebeck, G. (1841). Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara… from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.

Coordinates :

source : https://enrolldetroit.org
Category : Education

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