Emerging technologies – Wikipedia

Technologies whose exploitation, practical applications, or both are still largely unfulfilled
For specific emerging technologies, see the tilt of emerging technologies Emerging technologies are technologies whose development, practical applications, or both are silent largely unfulfilled, such that they are figuratively emerging into prominence from a background of nonexistence or obscurity. These technologies are generally new but besides include older technologies that are still relatively unexploited in likely, such as gene therapy ( which dates to circa 1990 but even today still has big unexploited likely ). Emerging technologies are frequently perceived as capable of changing the condition quo. Emerging technologies are characterized by radical freshness ( in application tied if not in origins ), relatively fast increase, coherence, big impact, and uncertainty and ambiguity. In other words, an emerging technology can be defined as “ a radically fresh and relatively fast growing technology characterised by a certain degree of coherence persevere over time and with the electric potential to exert a considerable impact on the socio-economic domain ( sulfur ) which is observed in terms of the composition of actors, institutions and patterns of interactions among those, along with the associate cognition product processes. Its most big impingement, however, lies in the future and so in the emergence phase is still slightly uncertain and ambiguous. ” [ 1 ]

Emerging technologies include a diverseness of technologies such as educational technology, information engineering, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, robotics, and artificial intelligence. [ note 1 ] New technical fields may result from the technological convergence of different systems evolving towards similar goals. Convergence brings previously separate technologies such as articulation ( and telephone features ), data ( and productiveness applications ) and video together so that they share resources and interact with each other, creating new efficiencies. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage ; [ 2 ] converging technologies represent previously distinct fields which are in some way moving towards stronger inter-connection and similar goals. however, the opinion on the degree of the impact, condition and economic viability of several emerging and converging technologies varies .

history of emerging technologies [edit ]

In the history of technology, emerging technologies [ 3 ] [ 4 ] are contemporary advances and invention in respective fields of engineering. Over centuries innovative methods and new technologies are developed and opened up. Some of these technologies are due to theoretical inquiry, and others from commercial inquiry and development. technical growth includes incremental developments and disruptive technologies. An example of the former was the gradual roll-out of DVD ( digital video disk ) as a exploitation intended to follow on from the previous optical technology pack magnetic disk. By contrast, disruptive technologies are those where a newly method acting replaces the former technology and makes it pleonastic, for exemplar, the surrogate of horse-drawn carriages by automobiles and other vehicles .

Emerging technology debates [edit ]

many writers, including computer scientist Bill Joy, [ 5 ] have identified clusters of technologies that they consider critical to humanness ‘s future. Joy warns that the technology could be used by elites for good or evil. They could use it as “ full shepherds ” for the rest of world or decide everyone else is otiose and push for batch extinction of those made unnecessary by engineering. [ 6 ] Advocates of the benefits of technical change typically see emerging and converging technologies as offering hope for the amelioration of the human condition. Cyberphilosophers Alexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist argue in The Futurica Trilogy that while Man himself is basically constant throughout human history ( genes change identical slowly ), all relevant exchange is rather a direct or indirect consequence of technological invention ( memes change very fast ) since newfangled ideas always emanate from technology consumption and not the other manner around. [ 7 ] Man should consequently be regarded as history ‘s main changeless and technology as its main variable star. however, critics of the risks of technical change, and tied some advocates such as transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom, warn that some of these technologies could pose dangers, possibly even contribute to the extinction of humanness itself ; i.e., some of them could involve existential risks. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] a lot ethical consider centers on issues of distributive judge in allocating access to beneficial forms of technology. Some thinkers, including environmental ethicist Bill McKibben, oppose the continuing development of advanced engineering partially out of fear that its benefits will be distributed unevenly in ways that could worsen the predicament of the poor. [ 10 ] By contrast, inventor Ray Kurzweil is among techno-utopians who believe that emerging and converging technologies could and will eliminate poverty and abolish suffer. [ 11 ] Some analysts such as Martin Ford, author of The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future, [ 12 ] argue that as information engineering advances, robots and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines and software begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine jobs. As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, evening many skilled jobs may be threatened. Technologies such as machine learning [ 13 ] may ultimately allow computers to do many knowledge-based jobs that ask significant education. This may result in hearty unemployment at all skill levels, stagnant or falling wages for most workers, and increased concentration of income and wealth as the owners of capital capture an ever-larger fraction of the economy. This in twist could lead to press down consumer spend and economic growth as the bulk of the population lacks sufficient discretionary income to purchase the products and services produced by the economy. [ 14 ]

Examples of emerging technologies [edit ]

Artificial Neural Network with Chip artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence ( AI ) is the bomber news exhibited by machines or software, and the arm of computer science that develops machines and software with animal-like intelligence. major AI researchers and textbooks define the playing field as “ the cogitation and design of intelligent agents, ” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the terminus in 1956, defines it as “ the cogitation of making intelligent machines ”. The central functions ( or goals ) of AI research include reasoning, cognition, planning, learning, natural terminology serve ( communication ), sensing and the ability to move and manipulate objects. general news ( or “ firm AI “ ) is still among the plain ‘s long-run goals. presently, popular approaches include bass learning, statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There is an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and numerical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others . 3D printer 3D print, besides known as linear fabrication, has been posited by Jeremy Rifkin and others as function of the third industrial revolution. [ 17 ] Combined with Internet engineering, 3D impression would allow for digital blueprints of about any material merchandise to be sent immediately to another person to be produced on the point, making purchasing a product on-line about instantaneous. Although this technology is distillery excessively unrefined to produce most products, it is quickly developing and created a controversy in 2013 around the consequence of 3D print guns. [ 18 ]

Gene therapy [edit ]

Gene therapy was foremost successfully demonstrated in late 1990/early 1991 for adenosine deaminase lack, though the treatment was bodily – that is, did not affect the affected role ‘s microbe cable and frankincense was not inheritable. This led the way to treatments for other genetic diseases and increased concern in source agate line gene therapy – therapy affecting the gametes and descendants of patients. Between September 1990 and January 2014, there were about 2,000 gene therapy trials conducted or approved. [ 19 ]

Cancer vaccines [edit ]

A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that treats existing cancer or prevents the growth of cancer in certain bad individuals. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines. There are presently no vaccines able to prevent cancer in general. On April 14, 2009, The Dendreon Corporation announced that their Phase III clinical trial of Provenge, a cancer vaccine designed to treat prostate gland cancer, had demonstrated an increase in survival. It received U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) approval for function in the treatment of advance prostate cancer patients on April 29, 2010. [ 20 ] The approval of Provenge has stimulated matter to in this type of therapy. [ 21 ]

Cultured kernel [edit ]

Cultured meat, besides called in vitro meat, clean meat, cruelty-free meat, shmeat, and test-tube meat, is an animal-flesh product that has never been region of a live animal with exception of the fetal calf serum taken from a butcher cow. In the twenty-first hundred, several research projects have worked on in vitro meat in the testing ground. [ 22 ] The first in vitro hamburger, created by a dutch team, was eaten at a demonstration for the press in London in August 2013. [ 23 ] There remain difficulties to be overcome before in vitro kernel becomes commercially available. [ 24 ] Cultured kernel is prohibitively expensive, but it is expected that the cost could be reduced to compete with that of conventionally obtained meat as technology improves. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In vitro meat is besides an ethical offspring. Some argue that it is less exceptionable than traditionally obtained meat because it does n’t involve killing and reduces the gamble of animal cruelty, while others disagree with eating kernel that has not developed naturally. [ citation needed ]

nanotechnology [edit ]

Nanotechnology ( sometimes shortened to nanotech ) is the handling of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest widespread description of nanotechnology [ 27 ] [ 28 ] referred to the finical technical goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, besides now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are authoritative at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a inquiry category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size doorsill.

Robotics [edit ]

Robotics is the outgrowth of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and lotion of robots, [ 29 ] ampere well as computer systems for their restraint, centripetal feedback, and information march. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the plaza of humans in dangerous environments or fabricate processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. A good example of a automaton that resembles humans is Sophia, a social android automaton developed by Hong Kong -based company Hanson Robotics which was activated on April 19, 2015. Many of today ‘s robots are inspired by nature contributing to the sphere of bio-inspired robotics .
Self-replicating 3D printer

Stem-cell therapy [edit ]

Stem cell therapy is an intervention scheme that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury. many medical researchers believe that shank cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and facilitate miserable. [ 30 ] The ability of root cells to self-renew and give get up to subsequent generations with variable degrees of differentiation capacities [ 31 ] offers significant electric potential for genesis of tissues that can potentially replace diseased and damaged areas in the body, with minimal risk of rejection and side effects. Chimeric antigen receptor ( CAR ) -modified T cells have raised among other immunotherapies for cancer discussion, being implemented against B-cell malignancies. Despite the bright outcomes of this innovative technology, CAR-T cells are not nontaxable from limitations that must however to be overcome in order to provide reliable and more effective treatments against other types of cancer. [ 32 ]

Distributed ledger technology [edit ]

Distributed daybook or blockchain technology provides a transparent and immutable list of transactions. A wide stove of uses has been proposed for where an open, decentralize database is required, ranging from supply chains to cryptocurrencies. smart contracts are self-executing transactions which occur when pre-defined conditions are met. The bearing is to provide security that is superior to traditional abridge law, and to reduce transaction costs and delays. The original idea was conceived by Nick Szabo in 1994, [ 33 ] but remained unfulfilled until the development of blockchains. [ 34 ] [ 35 ]

medical field advancements [edit ]

With technology being faster with delivering data with cloud calculation, the medical field is taking advantage of this by creating digital health records. Since doctors recently created digital health records, this can greatly improve the efficiency, the hospital can have with patients. Hospitals will improve public health by being able to contribution valuable information about an illness, make the work flow more smooth by doctors being able to pull up records on a patient with ease, and even lower healthcare costs by not using as a lot wallpaper ( Banova [ 36 ] ). With the progress of cloud computer science, data can be delivered faster for doctors to help the checkup field develop. [ citation needed ]

Development of emerging technologies [edit ]

As invention drives economic growth, and big economic rewards come from modern inventions, a great cover of resources ( fund and campaign ) go into the growth of emerging technologies. Some of the sources of these resources are described below …

inquiry and development [edit ]

research and development is directed towards the promotion of engineering in general, and consequently includes development of emerging technologies. See also List of countries by research and development spending. Applied research is a kind of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of skill. It accesses and uses some share of the inquiry communities ‘ ( the academia ‘s ) accumulated theories, cognition, methods, and techniques, for a particular, often state-, business-, or client-driven aim. science policy is the area of populace policy which is concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the skill and research enterprise, including the fund of skill, frequently in pursuance of other home policy goals such as technological invention to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitor .

defense advanced research projects agency [edit ]

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense creditworthy for the growth of emerging technologies for use by the military. DARPA was created in 1958 as the Advanced Research Projects Agency ( ARPA ) by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Its determination was to formulate and execute research and development projects to expand the frontiers of engineering and science, with the aim to reach beyond immediate military requirements. Projects funded by DARPA have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as the Internet and Global Positioning System technology .

technology competitions and awards [edit ]

There are awards that provide incentive to push the limits of technology ( generally synonymous with emerging technologies ). Note that while some of these awards reward accomplishment after-the-fact via psychoanalysis of the merits of technical breakthroughs, others provide bonus via competitions for awards offered for goals even to be achieved. The Orteig Prize was a $ 25,000 award offered in 1919 by french hotelier Raymond Orteig for the beginning nonstop flight between New York City and Paris. In 1927, underdog Charles Lindbergh won the prize in a change single-engine Ryan aircraft called the Spirit of St. Louis. In full, nine teams spent $ 400,000 in avocation of the Orteig Prize. The XPRIZE series of awards, populace competitions designed and managed by the non-profit arrangement called the X Prize Foundation, are intended to encourage technological development that could benefit world. The most high-profile XPRIZE to go steady was the $ 10,000,000 Ansari XPRIZE relating to spacecraft development, which was awarded in 2004 for the development of SpaceShipOne. The Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery ( ACM ) to “ an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing residential district. ” It is stipulated that the contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field. The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest differentiation in calculator science, and in 2014 grew to $ 1,000,000. The Millennium Technology Prize is awarded once every two years by Technology Academy Finland, an independent fund established by finnish industry and the finnish express in partnership. The first gear recipient was Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web. In 2003, David Gobel seed-funded the Methuselah Mouse Prize ( Mprize ) to encourage the growth of modern life annex therapies in mouse, which are genetically similar to humans. therefore far, three Mouse Prizes have been awarded : one for breaking longevity records to Dr. Andrzej Bartke of Southern Illinois University ; one for late-onset rejuvenation strategies to Dr. Stephen Spindler of the University of California ; and one to Dr. Z. Dave Sharp for his oeuvre with the pharmaceutical rapamycin .

Role of science fiction [edit ]

science fiction has much affected initiation and new engineering – for example many rocketry pioneers were inspired by skill fiction [ 37 ] – and the objective How William Shatner Changed the World gives a number of examples of imagine technologies being actualized .

In the media [edit ]

The condition bleeding edge has been used to refer to some new technologies, formed as an allusion to the similar terms “ leading edge “ and “ cutting edge “. It tends to imply flush greater advancement, albeit at an increased risk because of the undependability of the software or hardware. [ 38 ] The inaugural attested exercise of this condition being used dates to early 1983, when an nameless deposit administrator was quoted to have used it in reference to Storage Technology Corporation. [ 39 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ other examples of developments described as “ emerging technologies ” can be found here – O’Reilly Emerging Technology Conference 2008 .

References [edit ]

Citations

further read [edit ]

General
  • Giersch, H. (1982). Emerging technologies: Consequences for economic growth, structural change, and employment : symposium 1981. Tübingen: Mohr.
  • Jones-Garmil, K. (1997). The wired museum: Emerging technology and changing paradigms. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.
  • Kaldis, Byron (2010). “Converging Technologies”. Sage Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology and Society, Thousand Oaks: CA, Sage
  • Rotolo D.; Hicks D.; Martin B. R. (2015). “What is an emerging technology?”. Research Policy. 44 (10): 1827–1843. arXiv:1503.00673doi:10.1016/j.respol.2015.06.006. S2CID 15234961.
Law and policy
  • Branscomb, L. M. (1993). Empowering technology: Implementing a U.S. strategy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
  • Raysman, R., & Raysman, R. (2002). Emerging technologies and the law: Forms and analysis. Commercial law intellectual property series. New York, N.Y.: Law Journal Press.
Information and learning
  • Hung, D., & Khine, M. S. (2006). Engaged learning with emerging technologies. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Kendall, K. E. (1999). Emerging information technologies: Improving decisions, cooperation, and infrastructure. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Illustrated
Other
  • Cavin, R. K., & Liu, W. (1996). Emerging technologies: Designing low power digital systems. [New York]: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
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