This article is about the Cebuano terminology. It is not to be confused with Bisayan languages or Brunei Bisaya speech
Cebuano [ 7 ] ( ), besides referred to by most of its speakers just and generically as Binisaya ( translated into English as Visayan, though this should not be confused with other Bisayan languages ), [ 8 ] is an austronesian speech spoken in the southerly Philippines. It is spoken by the Visayan ethnolinguistic groups native to the islands of Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, the eastern half of Negros, the western half of Leyte, and the northerly coastal areas of Northern Mindanao and the Zamboanga Peninsula. In advanced times, it has besides spread to the Davao Region, Cotabato, Camiguin, parts of the Dinagat Islands, and the lowland regions of Caraga ; much displacing native languages in those areas ( most of which are closely related to Cebuano ). [ 9 ] [ 10 ]
Reading: Cebuano language – Wikipedia
While Tagalog has the largest number of native speakers among the languages of the Philippines today, Cebuano had the largest native-language-speaking population in the Philippines from the 1950s until about the 1980s. [ 11 ] [ failed verification ] It is by far the most wide spoken of the Bisayan languages. [ not verified in body ] Cebuano is the lingua franca of the Central Visayas, westerly parts of Eastern Visayas, some western parts of Palawan and most parts of Mindanao. The name Cebuano is derived from the island of Cebu, which is the generator of Standard Cebuano. [ 9 ] Cebuano is besides the primary lyric in western Leyte — perceptibly in Ormoc, and in other municipalities surrounding the city ; most of the residents in the area denote to the Cebuano lyric by their own demonyms, for example, as “ Ormocanon ” in Ormoc, and as “ Albuerahanon ” in Albuera. [ 12 ] Cebuano is assigned the ISO 639-2 three-letter code ceb, but not a ISO 639-1 two-letter code .
terminology [edit ]
The condition Cebuano derives from “ Cebu “ + ” ano “, a Latinate calque, brooding of the Philippines ‘s spanish colonial inheritance. In common or casual parlance, particularly by those speakers from outside of the island of Cebu, Cebuano is more frequently referred to as Bisaya. Bisaya, however, may become a source of confusion as many other Bisayan languages may besides be referred to as Bisaya tied though they are not mutually apprehensible with speakers of what is referred to by linguists as Cebuano. Cebuano in this common sense applies to all speakers of vernaculars mutually apprehensible with the vernaculars of Cebu island, careless of origin or placement, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as to the linguistic process they speak. [ citation needed ] The term Cebuano has garnered some objections. For example, generations of Cebuano speakers in northerly Mindanao ( Dipolog, Dapitan, Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental together with coastal areas of Butuan ) say that their ancestry traces back to Cebuano speakers native to their place and not from immigrants or settlers from the Visayas. Furthermore, they ethnically refer to themselves as Bisaya and not Cebuano, and their language as Binisaya. [ 13 ] The language is besides sometimes referred to in English sources as Cebuan ( seh-BOO-ən ) .
classification [edit ]
Cebuano is an austronesian lyric ; it is generally classified as one of the five basal branches of the Bisayan languages, depart of the wide genus of Philippine languages. [ 14 ]
distribution [edit ]
Cebuano is spoken in the provinces of Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental, northeastern Negros Occidental, ( deoxyadenosine monophosphate good as the municipality of Hinoba-an and the cities of Kabankalan and Sipalay to a great extent, aboard Ilonggo ), southern Masbate, western portions of Leyte and Biliran ( to a capital extent, aboard Waray ), and a big parcel of Mindanao, notably the urban areas of Zamboanga Peninsula, Cagayan de Oro, Davao Region, Surigao and Cotabato. [ 9 ] Some dialects of Cebuano have different names for the lyric. Cebuano speakers from Cebu are chiefly called “ Cebuano ” while those from Bohol are “ Boholano ” or “ Bol-anon ”. Cebuano speakers in Leyte identify their dialect as Kanâ meaning that ( Leyte Cebuano or Leyteño ). Speakers in Mindanao and Luzon refer to the terminology simply as Binisaya or Bisaya. [ 12 ]
history [edit ]
Cebuano was first documented in a list of vocabulary compiled by Antonio Pigafetta, an italian internet explorer who was separate of and document Ferdinand Magellan ‘s 1521 excursion. [ 15 ] spanish missionaries started to write in the linguistic process during the early eighteenth century. As a resultant role of the eventual 300-year spanish colonial period, Cebuano contains many words of spanish origin. While there is attest of a pre-Spanish writing arrangement for the linguistic process, its use appears to have been sporadic. Spaniards recorded the Visayan handwriting [ 16 ] which was called Kudlit-kabadlit by the natives. [ 17 ] The speech was heavily influenced by the spanish terminology during the period of colonialism from 1565 to 1898. With the arrival of spanish colonists, for example, a Latin-based publish system was introduced alongside a count of spanish loanwords. [ 18 ]
phonology [edit ]
Vowels [edit ]
Below is the vowel system of Cebuano with their corresponding letter representation in angular brackets : [ 13 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ]
sometimes, ⟨a⟩ may besides be pronounced as the open-mid back unrounded vowel /ʌ/ ( as in English “ guanine u deoxythymidine monophosphate ” ) ; ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ as the near-close near-front unrounded vowel /ɪ/ ( as in English “ b i thymine ” ) ; and ⟨o⟩ or ⟨u⟩ as the open-mid back round vowel /ɔ/ ( as in English “ thorium ou ght ” ) or the near-close near-back rounded vowel /ʊ/ ( as in English “ h oo kilobyte ” ). [ 13 ] During the precolonial and spanish period, Cebuano had entirely three vowel phonemes : /a/, /i/ and /u/. This was former expanded to five vowels with the initiation of spanish. As a consequence, the vowels ⟨o⟩ or ⟨u⟩, adenine well as ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, are even by and large allophones. They can be freely switched with each early without losing their intend ( free variation ) ; though it may sound strange to a native hearer, depending on their dialect. The vowel ⟨a⟩ has no variations, though it can be pronounced subtly differently, as either /a/ or /ʌ/ ( and very rarely as /ɔ/ immediately after the consonant /w/ ). Loanwords, however, are normally more cautious in their orthography and pronunciation ( e.g. dyip, “ jeepney “ from English “ jeep ”, will never be written or spoken as dyep ). [ 13 ] [ 21 ]
Consonants [edit ]
For Cebuano consonants, all the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal consonant /ŋ/ occurs in all positions, including at the beginning of a bible ( e.g. ngano, “ why ” ). The glottal stop / ʔ / is most normally encountered in between two vowels, but can besides appear in all positions. [ 13 ] Like in Tagalog, glottal stops are normally not indicated in writing. When indicate, it is normally written as a hyphenate or an apostrophe if the glottal catch occur in the middle of the word ( e.g. tu-o or tu’o, “ correctly ” ). More formally, when it occurs at the end of the give voice, it is indicated by a circumflex emphasis if both a try and a glottal stop occur at the final examination vowel ( e.g. basâ, “ wet ” ) ; or a dangerous stress if the glottal stop occur at the final examination vowel, but the stress occurs at the penult syllable ( e.g. batà, “ child ” ). [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Below is a chart of Cebuano consonants with their comparable letter representation in parentheses : [ 13 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 25 ] In sealed dialects, /l/ ⟨l⟩ may be interchanged with /w/ ⟨w⟩ in between vowels and frailty versa depending on the pursuit conditions : [ 13 ]
- If ⟨l⟩ is in between ⟨a⟩ and ⟨u⟩/⟨o⟩, the vowel succeeding ⟨l⟩ is usually (but not always) dropped (e.g. lalom, “deep”, becomes lawom or lawm).
- If ⟨l⟩ is in between ⟨u⟩/⟨o⟩ and ⟨a⟩, it is the vowel that is preceding ⟨l⟩ that is instead dropped (e.g. bulan, “moon”, becomes buwan or bwan)
- If ⟨l⟩ is in between two like vowels, the ⟨l⟩ may be dropped completely and the vowel lengthened. For example, dala (“bring”), becomes da ( /d̪aː/); and tulod (“push”) becomes tud ( /t̪uːd̪/). Except if the l is in between closed syllables or is in the beginning of the penultimate syllable; in which case, the ⟨l⟩ is dropped along with one of the vowels, and no lengthening occurs. For example, kalatkat, “climb”, becomes katkat ( /ˈkatkat/ not /ˈkaːtkat/).
A final ⟨l⟩ can besides be replaced with ⟨w⟩ in certain areas in Bohol ( e.g. tambal, “ medicine ”, becomes tambaw ). In very rare cases in Cebu, ⟨l⟩ may besides be replaced with ⟨y⟩ in between the vowels ⟨a⟩ and ⟨e⟩/⟨i⟩ ( e.g. tingali, “ possibly ”, becomes tingayi ). [ 13 ] In some parts of Bohol and Southern Leyte, /j/ ⟨y⟩ is besides much replaced with d͡ʒ ⟨j/dy⟩ when it is in the begin of a syllable ( e.g. kalayo, “ burn ”, becomes kalajo ). It can besides happen even if the ⟨y⟩ is at the final position of the syllable and the news, but only if it is moved to the initial status by the accession of the append -a. For example, baboy ( “ devour ” ) can not become baboj, but baboya can become baboja. [ 13 ] All of the above substitutions are considered allophonic and do not change the mean of the news. [ 13 ] In rare instances, the accordant ⟨d⟩ might besides be replaced with ⟨r⟩ when it is in between two vowels ( e.g. Boholano ido for standard Cebuano iro, “ dog ” ), but ⟨d⟩ and ⟨r⟩ are not considered allophones, [ 13 ] though they may have been in the by. [ 26 ]
tension [edit ]
Stress stress is phonemic, so that dapít ( adverb ) means “ near to a home, ” while dāpit ( noun ) means “ place. ” dū-ol ( verb ) means “ fall near, ” while du-ól ( adverb ) means “ near ” or “ finale by. “ [ citation needed ]
grammar [edit ]
Cebuano uses VSO prison term structure .
vocabulary [edit ]
Cebuano is a member of the Philippine languages. early barter reach resulted in a boastfully number of older lend words from other languages being embedded in Cebuano, like Sanskrit ( e.g. sangka, “ crusade ” and bahandi, “ wealth ”, from Sanskrit sanka and bhānda respectively ), and Arabic ( e.g. salámat, “ thanks ” ; hukom or hukm, “ judge ” ). [ 27 ] It has besides been influenced by thousands of words from spanish, such as kurus [ cruz ] ( cross ), swerte [ suerte ] ( “ luck ” ), gwapa [ guapa ], ( “ beautiful ” ), merkado [ mercado ] ( “ market ” ) and brilyante [ brillante ] ( “ brilliant ” ). It has several hundred loan words from English adenine well, which are altered to conform to the phonemic inventory of Cebuano : brislit ( watchband ), hayskul ( high educate ), syáping ( shopping ), bakwit ( evacuate ), and dráyber ( driver ). however, today, it is more common for Cebuanos to spell out those words in their original english form rather than with spelling that might conform to Cebuano standards. [ citation needed ]
Phrases [edit ]
A few common phrases in Cebuano include : [ 28 ]
- How are you? (used as a greeting) – Komusta ka?
- Good morning – Maayong buntag
- Good afternoon (specifically at 12:00 Noon up to 12:59 PM) – Maayong udto
- Good afternoon – Maayong hapon
- Good evening – Maayong gabii
- Good bye – Ayo-ayo (“Take care”, formal), Adios (rare), Babay (informal, corruption of “Goodbye”), Amping (“Take care”), Hangtod sa sunod nga higayon (“Until next time”) Adto nako (“I will go now”), Panamilit (“Farewell”, very formal and rare)
- You’re so beautiful – Gwapa kay ka
- Thanks! – Salamat
- Thank you – Salamat sa imo
- Many thanks! – Daghang Salamat
- Thank you very much! – Daghan kaayong salamat
- You’re welcome – Wala’y sapayan
- Do not (imperative) – Ayaw
- Don’t know – Ambot or Wala ko kabalo
- Yes – Oo
- Maybe – Basin
- Dili – for future verb negation (“will not”, “does/do not”, “not going to”); and negation of identity, membership, property, relation, or position (“[he/she/it/this/that] is not”)
- Wala – for past and progressive verb negation (“have not”, “did not”); and to indicate the absence of (“none”, “nothing”, “not have”, “there is not”)
- Who – Kinsa
- What – Unsa
- diin – where (past)
- Ása – where (present)
- Which – Hain
- When – Kanus-a
- How – Giunsa, Unsaon
- Why – Ngano
- These/This – Kini
- kanha (kana is the short term) – that/those (near)
- kadto – that/those (far)
Dialects [edit ]
The de facto Standard Cebuano dialect ( sometimes referred to as General Cebuano ) is derived from the button-down Sialo slang speak in southeastern Cebu ( besides known as the Sialo dialect or the Carcar-Dalaguete dialect ). It first base gained prominence due to its adoption by the Catholic Church as the criterion for written Cebuano. It retains the intervocalic /l/. [ 13 ] In contrast, the Urban Cebuano dialect spoken by people in Metro Cebu and surrounding areas is characterized by /l/ exception and heavily contracted words and phrases. [ 13 ] For example, waláy problema ( “ no problem ” ) in Standard Cebuano can become way ‘blema in Urban Cebuano. [ citation needed ] Colloquialisms can besides be used to determine the regional beginning of the speaker. Cebuano-speaking people from Cagayan de Oro and Dumaguete, for exemplar, say chada or tsada / patsada ( roughly translated to the English colloquialism “ amazing ” ) [ 31 ] and people from Davao City say atchup which besides translated to the lapp English context ; [ 32 ] meanwhile Cebuanos from Cebu on the other hand say nindot or, sometimes, aníndot. however, this word is besides normally used in the like context in other Cebuano-speaking regions, in effect make this password not only limited in use to Cebu. [ citation needed ] There is no standardize orthography for Cebuano, but spelling in print normally follow the pronunciation of Standard Cebuano, regardless of how it is actually spoken by the speaker. For example, baláy ( “ sign of the zodiac ” ) is pronounce /baˈl̪aɪ/ in Standard Cebuano and is frankincense spelled “ baláy ”, even in Urban Cebuano where it is actually marked /ˈbaɪ/. [ 13 ] Cebuano is spoken natively over a large area of the Philippines and thus has numerous regional dialects. It can vary significantly in terms of vocabulary and phonology depending on where it is spoken. [ 13 ] Increasing usage of speak English ( being the primary language of commerce and education in the Philippines ) has besides led to the introduction of new pronunciations and spellings of old Cebuano words. Code-switching forms of English and Bisaya ( Bislish ) are besides common among the educated younger generations. [ 33 ] [ 34 ]
There are four main dialectal groups within Cebuano apart from the Standard Cebuano and Urban Cebuano. They are as follows : [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ]
Boholano [edit ]
The Boholano dialect of Bohol shares many similarities with the southerly form of the standard Cebuano dialect. It is besides spoken in some parts of Siquijor. Boholano, specially as spoken in central Bohol, can be distinguished from early Cebuano variants by a few phonetic changes :
- The semivowel y is pronounced [ dʒ ]: iya is pronounced [ iˈdʒa ];
- Ako is pronounced as [ aˈho ];
- Intervocalic l is occasionally pronounced as [ w ] when following u or o: kulang is pronounced as [ ˈkuwaŋ ] (the same as Metro Cebu dialect).
leyte [edit ]
Southern Kanâ [edit ]
southern Kanâ is a dialect of both southerly Leyte and Southern Leyte provinces ; it is closest to the Mindanao Cebuano dialect at the southerly area and northerly Cebu dialect at the northern boundaries. Both North and South Kana are subgroups of Leyteño dialect. Both of these dialects are spoken in western and central Leyte and in the southerly state, but the Boholano is more boil down in Maasin City .
Northern Kanâ [edit ]
North Kanâ ( found in the northern part of Leyte ), is closest to the variety of the language spoken in northern separate of Leyte, and shows meaning influence from Waray-Waray, quite notably in its pace which speakers from Cebu find very fast, and its more mellow tone ( compared to the urban Cebu City dialect, which Kana speakers find “ rocky ” ). A distinguish feature of this dialect is the reduction of /A/ outstanding, but an frequently unnoticed feature of this dialect is the labialisation of /n/ and /ŋ/ into /m/, when these phonemes come before /p/ /b/ and /m/, velarisation of /m/ and /n/ into /ŋ/ before /k/ /ɡ/ and /ŋ/, and the dentalisation of /ŋ/ and /m/ into /n/ before /t/, /d/ and /n/ and sometimes, before vowels and other consonants as well .
mindanao [edit ]
This is the kind of Cebuano spoken throughout most of Mindanao and it is the standard dialect of Cebuano in Northern Mindanao. local anesthetic historical sources found in Cagayan de Oro indicates the early presence of Cebuano Visayans in the Misamis-Agusan coastal areas and their contacts with the Lumads and peoples of the Rajahnate of Butuan. Lumads refer to these Visayan groups as “ Dumagat ” ( “ people of the ocean ” ) as they came in the area seaborne. It became the tongue franca of precolonial Visayan settlers and native Lumads of the area, and peculiarly of the ancient Rajahnate of Butuan where Butuanon, a southerly Visayan language, was besides spoken. Cebuano influence in Lumad languages around the highlands of Misamis Oriental and Bukidnon was furthered with the inflow of Cebuano Visayan laborers and conscripts of the Spaniards from Cebuano areas of Visayas ( peculiarly from Bohol ) during the colonial period around the contemporary region of Northern Mindanao. It has spread west towards the Zamboanga Peninsula, east towards Caraga, and south towards Bukidnon, Cotabato and the Davao Region in the final years of spanish colonial govern. alike to the Sialo dialect of southeast Cebu, it is distinctive in retaining /l/ sounds, long since considered antediluvian in Urban Cebuano. For model : bulan alternatively of buwan ( “ moon ” or “ month ” ), dalunggan alternatively of dunggan ( ear ), and halang alternatively of hang ( “ hot ” ). due to the inflow of migrants ( by and large from westerly Visayas and Leyte ) during the promotion of settlement in the highlands of Central Mindanao in the 1930s, vocabulary from other Visayan languages ( predominantly Hiligaynon and Waray-Waray ) have besides been incorporated into Mindanao Cebuano. For exercise, the Hiligaynon sábat ( “ reply ” ) is normally used aboard Cebuano tubag, bulig aboard tábang ( “ help ” ), and Waray lutô alongside kan-on ( “ cooked rice ” ). Though, these influences are merely limited to the speakers along the port area and Hiligaynon-speaking communities .
Davaoeño [edit ]
A arm of Mindanao Cebuano in Davao is besides known as Davaoeño ( not to be confused with the Davao version of Chavacano which is called “ Castellano Abakay ” ). Like the Cebuano-speakers of Luzon, it contains some Tagalog vocabulary to a greater extent. Its grammar is similar to other varieties. however, speakers nowadays exhibits stronger Tagalog influence in their actor’s line by substituting most cebuan words with Tagalog ones. One characteristic is the practice of saying atà, derived from Tagalog yatà to denote doubt of a speaker ‘s any aforesaid statements. For example, “Tuá man atà sa baláy si Manuel” rather of “Tuá man tingáli sa baláy si Manuel”. however, the give voice atà exists in Cebuano though it means ‘squid ink ‘ ( atà sa nukos ). other examples include : Nibabâ ko sa jeep sa kanto, tapos niulî ko sa among baláy ( “ I got off the jeepney at the street corner, and then I went home ” ) alternatively of Ninaog ko sa jeep sa kanto, dayon niulî ko sa among baláy. The words babâ and naog mean “ to disembark ” or “ to go down ”, while tapos and dayon mean ‘then ‘ ; the erstwhile is Tagalog, and the latter Cebuano. It besides sometimes add some Bagobo and Mansakan vocabulary, like : Madayaw nga adlaw, amigo, kumusta ka? ( “ Good day, acquaintance, how are you ? “, literally “ good morning/afternoon ” ) rather than “Maayo nga adlaw, amigo, kamusta ka?” The words madayaw and maayo mean ‘good ‘ ; the former is Bagobo, and the latter Cebuano .
Negros [edit ]
The Cebuano dialect in Negros is reasonably alike to the Standard Cebuano ( spoken by the majority of the provincial areas of Cebu ), with discrete Hiligaynon influences. It is classifiable in retaining /l/ sounds and longer bible forms as well. It is the primary dialectal linguistic process of the entire province of Negros Oriental and northeastern parts of Negros Occidental ( while the majority of the latter province and its border areas speaks Hiligaynon/Ilonggo ), angstrom well as some parts of Siquijor. Examples of Negrense Cebuano ‘s distinction from other Cebuano dialects is the custom of the son maot rather of batî ( “ despicable ” ), alálay, kalálag alternatively of kalag-kalag ( Halloween ), kabaló/kahíbaló and kaágo/kaántigo alternatively of kabawó/kahíbawó ( “ know ” ) .
luzon [edit ]
There is no specific Luzon dialect, as speakers of Cebuano in Luzon come from many different regions in Central Visayas and Mindanao. Cebuano-speaking people from Luzon in Visayas can be easily recognized chiefly by their vocabulary which incorporates Tagalog words. Their accents and some aspects of grammar can besides sometimes expose Tagalog influence. The dialect is sometimes colloquially known as “ Bisalog “ ( a portmanteau of Tagalog and Binisaya ) .
Saksak sinagol [edit ]
The term saksak sinagol in context means “ a collection of many-sided things ” and literally “ tuck mix ”, therefore those other few Cebuano-influenced regions that have a variety of regional languages uses this term to refer to their dialect with considerable incorporated Cebuano words. example of these regions are places likes those in Masbate .
Examples [edit ]
Numbers [edit ]
Cebuano uses two numeral systems :
The native system ( presently ) is largely used in counting the number of things, inspire and inanimate, e.g. the numeral of horses, houses.
The spanish-derived system, on the other hand, is entirely applied in monetary and chronological terminology and is besides normally used in counting from 11 and above .
|100||usá ka gatós||siyén, siyento|
|200||duhá ka gatós||dosiyéntos|
|300||tuló ka gatós||tresiyéntos|
|400||upát ka gatós||kwatrosiyéntos|
|500||limá ka gatós||kiniyéntos|
|1,000||usá ka libo||mil|
|5,000||limá ka libo||singko mil|
|10,000||usá ka laksà, napulò ka libo||diyes mil|
|50,000||limá ka laksà, kalím-an ka libo||singkwenta mil|
|100,000||napulò ka laksà, usá ka gatós ka líbo||siyén mil|
|1,000,000||usá ka yukót||milyón|
|1,000,000,000||usá ka wakát||bilyón (mil milyones)|
Shapes [edit ]
|English Term||Common Cebuano Term||Rare Cebuano Term|
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
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