Vasyl Semenovych Stus ( ukrainian : Васи́ль Семе́нович Стус ; 6 January 1938, Rakhnivka, ukrainian SSR – 4 September 1985, Perm-36, Kuchino, Russian SFSR ) was a ukrainian poet, interpreter, literary critic, journalist, and an active member of the ukrainian dissenter movement. For his political convictions, his works were banned by the soviet regimen and he spent 13 years in detention, until his death in Perm-36 —then a Soviet forced department of labor camp for political prisoners, subsequently The museum of the History of Political Repression—after having declared a starve hit on September 4, 1985. On November 26, 2005, the ukrainian president of the united states Viktor Yushchenko posthumously awarded him the highest national title : hero of Ukraine. [ 1 ] Stus is wide regarded as one of Ukraine ‘s first poets .
biography [edit ]
Vasyl Stus was born on January 6, 1938 into a peasant syndicate in the village of Rakhnivka, Haisyn Raion, Vinnytsia Oblast ( modern Ukraine ) ( province ), ukrainian SSR. The follow class, his parents Semen Demyanovych and Iryna Yakivna moved to the city of Stalino ( nowadays Donetsk ). Their children joined them one year by and by. Vasyl first encountered the ukrainian linguistic process and poetry from his mother who sang him ukrainian folk music songs. After secondary school, Vasyl Stus entered the Department of history and literature of the Pedagogical Institute in Stalino ( nowadays Donetsk University ). In 1959 he graduated from the Institute with honours. Following commencement, Stus briefly worked as a high school teacher of the ukrainian lyric and literature in Tauzhnia village of Kirovohrad Oblast, and then was conscripted into the soviet Army for two years. While studying at the university and during his military service in the Ural mountains, he started to write poetry and translated into Ukrainian more than a hundred verses by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Rainer Maria Rilke. The original copies of his translations were late confiscated by the KGB, and were lost.
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After his military serve, Stus worked as an editor for the newspaper Sotsialistychnyi Donbas ( Socialist Donbas ) between 1960-1963. In 1963, he entered a Doctoral ( PhD ) program at the Shevchenko Institute of Literature of ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kyiv. At the same time he published his selected poetry. In 1965, Stus married Valentyna Popeliukh ; his son, Dmytro was born in 1966. On September 4, 1965 during the premier of Sergei Parajanov ‘s film Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors in Kyiv ‘s Ukrayina film, Vasyl Stus took depart in a protest against the arrests of ukrainian intelligentsia. As a result, he was expelled from the Institute on September 30 and late lost his job at the State Historical Archive. After that, he worked on a construction web site, a stoker, and an engineer, continuing his intensive work on poetry. In 1965, he submitted his first base ledger Circulation ( Круговерть ) to a publisher, but it was rejected ascribable to its discrepancy with soviet political orientation and artistic style. His next koran of poetry Winter Trees ( Зимові дерева ) was besides rejected, careless of positive reviews from the poet Ivan Drach and the critic Eugen Adelgejm. In 1970, the koran was published in Belgium. On January 12, 1972, Stus was arrested for “ anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda ”. He served a five-year sentence in a parturiency camp, and two year exile in Magadan Oblast .
memorial in the Stus feather laid out in once the Peremoga street, 119, where the house stood Stus lived in from 1965 to 1972 The house in the Chernobylska street, Kyiv, where Stus lived in 1979–1980 The photograph of Stus shoot by the KGB in 1980 The prison cellular telephone at Perm-36 where Stus died on 4 September 1985 In August 1979, having finished his prison term, he returned to Kyiv and worked in a foundry. He spoke out in defense of members of the ukrainian Helsinki group ( UHG ). Stus himself joined the UHG in October 1979 .
“ In Kyiv I learned that people close to the Helsinki Group were being repressed in the most crying manner. This at least had been the casing in the trials of Ovsiyenko, Horbal, Lytvyn, and they were soon to deal similarly with Chornovil and Rozumny. I didn ’ triiodothyronine want that kind of Kyiv. Seeing that the Group had been left adrift, I joined it because I couldn ’ t do differently … When liveliness is taken away, I had no motivation of pathetic crumbs. psychologically I understood that the prison gates had already opened for me and that any day now they would close behind me – and close for a long time. But what was I supposed to do ? Ukrainians were not able to leave the nation, and anyhow I didn ’ t peculiarly want to go beyond those borders since who then, here, in Great Ukraine, would become the voice of indignation and protest ? This was my destiny, and you don ’ thyroxine choose your destiny. You accept it, whatever that fortune may be. And when you don ’ thymine accept it, it takes you by storm … however I had no intention of bowing my head down, any happened. Behind me was Ukraine, my oppress people, whose honor I had to defend or perish ”. ( “ Z tabornoho zoshyta ” [ “ From the camp notebook ” ], 1983 ) .
On 14 May 1980, anterior to the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, he was arrested and received a 10-year sentence for “ anti-Soviet action ”. [ 2 ] The late influential ( in ukrainian politics ) [ 3 ] Viktor Medvedchuk defended Stus during this test in 1980. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] In the close address from the defense Medvedchuk stated all of Stus ‘ crimes deserved punishment ; however, he besides told the woo that the defendant fulfilled his day by day average at the factory where he worked at the time, despite unplayful abdomen problems. [ 4 ] Stus ‘ requests to get another public defender were dismissed by the court. [ 2 ] In a 2018 interview with The Independent Dissident Yevhen Sverstyuk besides recalled : “ When Stus met with his appointed lawyer, he immediately felt that Medvedchuk was a man of the Komsomol-aggressive character, that he did not protect him, did not want to understand him and, in fact, was not interest in his case. “ [ [ 6 ] BBC ] Medvedchuk claimed he could not have operated differently : “ Stus denounced the soviet government, and didn ’ metric ton consider it to be legalize. Everyone decides their own destine. Stus admitted he agitated against the soviet government. He was found guilty by the laws of the time. When the laws changed, the encase was dropped. unfortunately, he died. ” [ 7 ] Vasyl Stus died after he declared hunger hit on September 4, 1985 in a soviet forced undertaking camp for political prisoners Perm-36 near the greenwich village of Kuchino, Perm Oblast, Russian SFSR, where he had been transferred in November 1980. Danylo Shumuk reported that the commanding officer, a Major Zhuravkov, committed suicide after the death of Stus. [ 8 ] In the Kuchino camp, out of 56 inmates kept there between 1980 and 1987, eight died, including four members of the ukrainian Helsinki Group. In August 1990 the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union cancelled Stus ‘ verdict and the case was closed due to lack of evidence. [ 2 ]
bequest [edit ]
 commemorative seal “ 70th Birth Anniversary of Vasil Stus ”. In 1985, an international committee of scholars, writers, and poets nominated Stus for the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, but he died before the nomination materialized. [ 11 ] On 19 November 1989 the remains of Vasyl Stus, Oleksa Tykhy and Yury Lytvyn were brought back to Kyiv and reburied at the Baikove Cemetery in a ceremony attended by more than 30,000 people. [ 12 ]
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In January 1989, the first non-governmental Vasyl Stus Prizes were awarded for “ talent and courage ”. This Prize was set up by the ukrainian Association of the Independent Creative Intelligentsia, and is awarded every year on the poet ‘s date of birth in Lviv. [ 13 ] In 1993 Stus was posthumously awarded the Taras Shevchenko State Prize for Literature. [ 13 ] On 8 January 2008, the National bank of Ukraine issued a commemorative coin dedicated to Vasyl Stus [ 9 ] and on 25 January 2008 Ukrposhta issued a cast in his memory. [ 10 ] In December 2008, a group of current and erstwhile students of the Donetsk National University sent an appeal to the Minister of Education, Ivan Vakarchuk, [ 14 ] asking that the university be named after one of its alumni, Vasyl Stus. The Minister supported the first step and approached the Rector of the university with a request to discuss the issue among staff and at the academic council. [ 15 ] On 17 February 2009 62 out of 63 members of the university ‘s academician council voted against renaming the university to Vasyl Stus or Volodomyr Degtyaryov [ 16 ] ( 61 voted against this ), 63 voted for not changing the diagnose of the institute. On 13 February 2009, representatives of the university ‘s students voted in the same fashion. [ 17 ] The Donetsk National University, relocated to Vinnytsia ascribable to the War in Donbass, was finally renamed named after Stus on 10 June 2016. The modern name was approved by 75 votes out of 105 of the university ‘s academic council. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] After it was taken over by the pro-Russian rebels during the War in Donbass, the university construction in Donetsk removed its commemorative brass of Stus in 2015. [ 20 ] Stus is highly see among intellectuals in Ukraine. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Dozens of streets all over Ukraine are named in Vasyl Stus ‘s honor. Vasyl Stus ‘s second test was discussed on The Rachel Maddow Show in May 2017. [ 23 ] Oct 19,2020-Because of the mention of Medvedchuk : the court forbade the distribution of a book about Stus. [ 24 ]
Awards [edit ]
foster take [edit ]
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