Hamilton ( Māori : Kirikiriroa ) is an inland city in the North Island of New Zealand. Located on the banks of the Waikato River, it is the seat and most populous city of the Waikato region. With a territorial population of 178,500, [ 4 ] it is the country ‘s fourth most-populous city. Encompassing a kingdom sphere of about 110 km2 ( 42 sq mile ), [ 5 ] Hamilton is part of the wide Hamilton Urban Area, which besides encompasses the nearby towns of Ngāruawāhia, Te Awamutu and Cambridge. In 2020, Hamilton was awarded the title of most beautiful big city in New Zealand. [ 6 ] The area now covered by the city was originally the web site of several Māori villages, including Kirikiriroa, from which the city takes its Māori name. By the fourth dimension english settlers arrived, most of these villages, which sat beside the Waikato River, were abandoned as a leave of the Invasion of Waikato and down confiscation ( Raupatu ) by the Crown.
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initially an agricultural service center, Hamilton now has a diverse economy and is the third fastest growing urban area in New Zealand, behind Pukekohe and Auckland. [ 7 ] Hamilton Gardens is the region ‘s most democratic tourist attraction. education and research and development play an significant separate in Hamilton ‘s economy, as the city is home to approximately 40,000 third students and 1,000 PhD-qualified scientists. [ 8 ]
name [edit ]
The settlement was named by Colonel William Moule after Captain John Fane Charles Hamilton, [ 9 ] the commander of HMS Esk, who was killed in the battle of Gate Pā, Tauranga. [ 10 ] On 10 March 2013 a statue of Captain Hamilton was given to the city by the Gallagher Group ; [ 11 ] a gesticulate that has since been viewed as controversial by some. [ 12 ] On 12 June 2020, the Hamilton City Council removed the statue at the request of local Māori iwi Waikato Tainui. [ 13 ] The statue ‘s removal has been linked to calls for the removal of statues of figures associated with colonialism and racism in New Zealand and the world, which were precipitated by the protests related to the mangle of George Floyd. A local Māori elder Taitimu Maipi, who had vandalised the statue in 2018, has besides called for the city to be renamed Kirikiriroa, its original Māori diagnose. [ 14 ]
history [edit ]
The area now covered by the city was originally the web site of several Māori villages ( kāinga ), including Te Parapara, [ 29 ] Pukete, Miropiko and Kirikiriroa ( “ hanker stretch of gravel ‘ ), from which the city takes its Māori name. local Māori were the target of raids by Ngāpuhi during the Musket Wars, [ 30 ] and several pā sites from this period can inactive be found beside the Waikato River. In December 2011 several rua or food storage pits were found near the Waikato River bank, close to the Waikato museum. In 1822, Kirikiriroa Pa was briefly abandoned to escape the Musket Wars. however, by the 1830s Ngati Wairere ’ south principal dad was Kirikiriroa, [ 31 ] where the missionaries, who arrived at that time, [ 32 ] estimated 200 people lived permanently. [ 31 ] A chapel and sign of the zodiac were built at Kirikiriroa for visiting clergy, [ 33 ] presumably after Benjamin Ashwell established his mission near Taupiri. between 1845 and 1855 crops such as pale yellow, fruit and potatoes were exported to Auckland, with up to 50 canoes serving Kirikiriroa. Imports included blankets, dress, axes, sugar, rummy, and tobacco. [ 33 ] Millstones were acquired and a water bicycle constructed, though possibly the flour mill was n’t completed. [ 31 ] however, one article said Kirikiriroa flour was good known. [ 34 ] Magistrate Gorst, estimated that Kirikiriroa had a population of about 78 before the Invasion of Waikato via the Waikato Wars of 1863–64. The politics estimated the Waikato sphere had a Maori population of 3,400 at the lapp time. After the war in the Waikato, large areas of land ( 1.2 Million Acres ), including the sphere of the present city of Hamilton were unjustly confiscated by the Crown under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863. [ 35 ] By the clock british settlers arrived after 1863, most of these villages had been abandoned as a leave of the kingdom confiscation, besides known as Raupatu. After the Invasion of the Waikato and confiscation of the intrude on kingdom, militia-settlers were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney. [ 36 ] On 10 August 1864 the politics advertised for tenders to build 10 huts and a hospital at Kirikiriroa. [ 37 ] Hamilton was settled by the 4th regiment of the Waikato Militia. [ 36 ] The 1st regiment was at Tauranga, the 2nd at Pirongia, the 3rd at Cambridge and the 4th at Kirikiriroa. [ 32 ] [ 38 ] The settlement was founded on 24 August 1864. [ 39 ] Many of the soldier/settlers who intended to farm after the 1863 war, walked off their land in 1868 due to its poor timbre. much of the land was boggy or under body of water. In 1868 Hamilton ‘s population, which was about 1,000 in 1864, dropped to 300 as farmers left. [ 40 ] On 22 December 1875 the first brickworks opened in Hamilton. [ 41 ] Victoria Bridge in 1910 The road from Auckland reached Hamilton in 1867 and the railway in December 1877. That same calendar month, the towns of Hamilton West and Hamilton East merged under a unmarried borough council. [ 42 ] The first gear traffic bridge between Hamilton West and Hamilton East, known as the Union Bridge, opened in 1879. It was replaced by the Victoria Bridge in 1910. The beginning railway bridge, the Claudelands Bridge, was opened in 1884. It was converted to a road traffic bridge in 1965. [ 43 ] Hamilton reached 1,000 people in 1900, and the town of Frankton merged with the Hamilton Borough in 1917. [ 38 ] Between 1912 and 1936, Hamilton expanded with newly farming in Claudelands ( 1912 ), Maeroa ( 1925 ), and Richmond – modern day Waikato Hospital and northerly Melville ( 1936 ). [ 44 ] Hamilton was proclaimed a city in 1945. [ 32 ] Hood Street in 1962 The city is near the southernmost navigable range ( by the settlers ‘ steam boats ) of the Waikato River, amidst New Zealand ‘s richest and now fat agricultural country that was once largely Raupo and Kahikatea swamp. [ 45 ] Beale Cottage is an 1872 listed construct in Hamilton East. From 1985 MV Waipa Delta [ 46 ] provided excursions along the river through the town center. In 2009 Waipa Delta [ 47 ] was moved to provide trips on Waitematā Harbour in Auckland, [ 48 ] but replaced by a smaller boat. That excessively discontinue operation and the pontoon at Parana Park was removed in 2013. [ 49 ] The Delta moved to Taupō in 2012. [ 50 ] The former Golden Bay vessel, [ 51 ] Cynthia Dew, has run 4 days a workweek [ 52 ] on the river since 2012. [ 53 ]
Hamilton today [edit ]
Corner of Hood Street . Hood Street in Hamilton Central. Hamilton Central, on the Waikato River, is a bustling retail precinct. The entertainment sphere is quite vibrant due to the large scholar population. The 2008 Lonely Planet guide states that “ the city ‘s main street has sprouted a sophisticated and vibrant extend of bars and eateries that on the weekend at least leave Auckland ‘s Viaduct Harbour for dead in the bibulous fun stakes. ” [ 54 ] Many of the city ‘s venues and attractions are located on the previous Town Belt, including Hamilton Gardens, Waikato Stadium, Seddon Park, and the Hamilton Lake Domain. As of 2016, the city continues to grow quickly. Development is focused on the northern end of the city although in 2012 the council made a decision to balance the city ‘s growth by approving an urban development to the south. Traffic congestion is increasing due to population increase, though the council has undertaken many road development projects to try to keep up with the rapid growth. [ 55 ] State Highway 1 runs through the westerly and southerly suburbs and has a major junction with State Highway 3 south of the city center, which contributes to congestion. The Hamilton City Council is building a 2/4-lane arterial road, Wairere Drive, through the northerly and eastern suburbs to form a 25 kilometer suburban ring road with State Highway 1, which is due for completion in early 2015., [ 56 ] while the New Zealand Transport Agency plans to complete the Hamilton section of the Waikato Expressway by 2019, easing congestion taking State Highway 1 out of the city and bypassing it to the east. [ 57 ] The rapid growth of Hamilton has brought with it the side effects of urban sprawl particularly to the north east of the city in the Rototuna area. Further development is planned in the Rototuna and Peacocke suburbs. [ 58 ] There has been significant exploitation of life style blocks adjacent to the Hamilton Urban Area, in particular Tamahere, and Matangi .
list of suburbs [edit ]
- Western Hamilton suburbs
Beerescourt ; Bader ; Crawshaw ; Deanwell ; Dinsdale ; Fitzroy ; Forest Lake ; Frankton ; Glenview ; Grandview Heights ; Hamilton Central ; Hamilton North ; Hamilton West ; Livingstone ; Maeroa ; Melville ; Nawton ; Peacocke ; Pukete ; Rotokauri ; St Andrews ; Stonebridge ; Te Rapa ; Temple View ; Thornton ; western Heights ; Whitiora .
- Eastern Hamilton suburbs
Ashmore ; Callum Brae ; Chartwell ; Chedworth Park ; Claudelands ; Enderley ; Fairfield ; Fairview Downs ; Flagstaff ; Hamilton East ; Harrowfield ; Hillcrest ; Huntington ; Magellan Rise ; Queenwood ; Ruakura ; Riverlea ; Rototuna ; Silverdale ; Somerset Heights ; St James Park ; St Petersburg .
- Towns/Suburbs in the Hamilton Urban Area
Cambridge ; Te Awamutu ; Ngāruawāhia ; Taupiri ; Horotiu ; Horsham Downs ; Huntly ; Gordonton ; Ōhaupō ; Ngāhinapōuri ; Te Kowhai ; Whatawhata ; Tamahere ; Matangi ; Tauwhare ; Rukuhia ; Kihikihi .
geography [edit ]
Waikato River in Hamilton Central from Parana Park Hamilton ‘s geography is largely the consequence of consecutive volcanic ash falls, plus debris, which swept down the Waikato River in at least two massive floods, created by ash blocking the release of Lake Taupō. In its present shape the landscape originated around 20,000 years ago ( 20 ka ), after the Oruanui outbreak of the Taupō Volcano. The dates given for the bang vary. A 2007 study said it was between 22.5 and 14 ka. [ 59 ] Another in 2004 put it 26.5 ka. After the eruption Lake Taupō rose to about 145 m ( 476 foot ) above the deliver lake. Around 20 ka. the ash dam eroded and the lake quickly fell some 75 m ( 246 foot ), creating massive floods. The ash they carried formed the chief Hinuera Surface into an alluvial fan of volcanic ash, which extends north of Hamilton and drops about 60 m ( 200 foot ) from Karapiro. The Waikato changed its class from flowing into the ocean at Thames at about that fourth dimension, possibly good because sediment built up. The peat lakes and bogs besides formed about that time ; carbon dating gives utmost ages of 22.5 to 17 ka. Due to an internal-combustion engine age, vegetation was slow to restabilise the ash, so dunes formed up to 25 meter ( 82 foot ) above the local Hinuera surface. The current Waikato valley had cut into the debris by about 12 ka. and was further modified by the 181 AD Hatepe outbreak, when again Lake Taupō horizontal surface fell 34 thousand ( 112 foot ), generating a 20 km3 ( 4.8 copper mile ) deluge, equivalent to 5 years ‘ normal flow in just a few weeks. [ 60 ] About 800 years ago aggradation began raising the river bed by about 8 m ( 26 foot ). [ 59 ] With the exceptions of the many low hills such as those around the University of Waikato, Hamilton Lake, Beerescourt, Sylvester Road, Pukete and to the west of the city, and an extensive net of gullies, the terrain of the city is relatively flat. In some areas such as Te Rapa, one erstwhile path of an ancient river can be traced. The relatively soft and unconsolidated dirt material is still being actively eroded by rain and runoff. In its natural state, Hamilton and environs was identical boggy in winter with 30 little lakes connected to surrounding peatlands. Hamilton was surrounded by 7 large peat bogs such as Komakorau to the North and Rukuhia and Moanatuatua to the South, angstrom well as many smaller ones all of which have now been drained with entirely little remnants remaining. [ 61 ] The full area of peat bog down was about 655 km2. [ 62 ] Early photograph of Hamilton East show carts buried up to their axles in thick mire. Up until the 1880s it was possible to row and drag a dinghy from the city to many outlying farms to the North East. This boggy, dampen environment was at the time thought to be an ideal breed reason for the TB bacillus, which was a major health hazard in the initiate days. The first Hamilton hospital was constructed on a hill to avoid this trouble. One of the reasons why population growth was so slow in Hamilton until the 1920s was the great difficulty in bridging the many arms of the abstruse boggy gullies that cross the city. Hamilton has 6 major dendritic gully complexes with the 15 kilometer long, 12 outgrowth, Kirikiriroa organization being in the north of the city and the southern Mystery creek-Kaipaki gully complex being the largest. [ 63 ] Others are Mangakotukutuku, Mangaonua and Waitawhiriwhiri. [ 64 ] In the 1930s, Garden Place Hill, one of the many small hills sometimes referred to as the Hamilton Hills, was removed by unemployed workers working with picks and shovels and model T Ford trucks. The western remains of the mound are retained by a big concrete wall. The original mound ran from the salute Wintec site eastwards to the old post office ( now casino ). The land was taken 4 kilometer north to partially fill the Maeroa gully adjacent to the Central Baptist Church on Ulster Street, the independent road heading north. [ 65 ] Lake Rotoroa ( Hamilton Lake ) began forming about 20,000 years ago. primitively it was function of an ancient river organization that was cut off by deposition substantial and became two small lakes divided by a narrow peninsula. With higher rain and drain from the extensive peat estate to the west, the water level rose so the narrow peninsula was drowned therefore forming one larger lake. To the north the lake is 8 thousand thick and in the southern ( hospital ) end 6 megabyte deep. The old separate peninsula, the startle of which is however visible above water on the eastern english, is only 2 m below the surface .
climate [edit ]
Hamilton ‘s climate is oceanic ( Köppen : Cfb ), with highly moderated temperatures ascribable to New Zealand ‘s localization surrounded by ocean. As the largest inland city in the state, winters are cool and mornings can feature the coldest temperatures of the North Island ‘s independent centres, dropping arsenic first gear as −3 °C ( 27 °F ) several times per class. Nighttime temperatures are even cooler outside of the city. Likewise, summers can be some of the warmest in the state with temperatures rising over 28 °C ( 82 °F ), on an annual basis. Hamilton besides features very high humidity ( like to tropical climates such as Singapore ) which can make temperatures feel a lot warmer or colder than they are. Ground frosts are park and snow is possible but rare. The only record snow in modern times was light snowflakes in mid-august 2011 during a prolong cold period that saw snow as far north as Dargaville. Hamilton receives considerable precipitation amounting to around 1,100mm over 125 days per class. This coupled with annual sunlight hours of around 2,000 makes Hamilton and the surrounding Waikato an extremely fat region. typically summers are dry and winters wet. Fog is common during winter mornings, particularly close to the Waikato River which runs through the city center. Hamilton is one of the foggiest cities on earth, however, fog normally burns off by noon to produce cheery and calm winter days. [ 66 ] Hamilton besides has the lowest average wind speed of New Zealand ‘s main centres as a resultant role of its inland localization, in a depression surrounded by high hills and mountains. [ 67 ]
|Climate data for Hamilton, New Zealand (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.4
|Average low °C (°F)||12.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||76.3
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter )||7.8||6.2||7.7||8.4||11.0||12.6||12.8||13.3||11.7||11.7||10.7||10.5||124.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80.5||84.3||84.7||86.4||89.9||91.4||90.8||88.2||83.2||81.9||79.1||79.9||85.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||229.8||192.9||193.3||165.1||138.3||112.8||126.4||144.1||147.5||174.8||187.1||207.6||2,019.6|
|Climate data for Hamilton Airport, New Zealand|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.4
|Average low °C (°F)||10.3
Demographics [edit ]
Hamilton is growing per annum, with populations of 178,500 for the urban area and 178,500 for the territorial authority ( June 2021s ). [ 4 ] The urban area and territorial authority are home to 3.5 percentage and 3.5 percentage of New Zealand ‘s population respectively .
Hamilton City had a population of 160,911 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 19,299 people ( 13.6 % ) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 31,323 people ( 24.2 % ) since the 2006 census. There were 54,858 households. There were 78,354 males and 82,554 females, giving a sexual activity proportion of 0.95 males per female. The median age was 32.2 years, the youngest of all territorial authorities in New Zealand, with 34,413 people ( 21.4 % ) aged under 15 years, 40,293 ( 25.0 % ) aged 15 to 29, 67,197 ( 41.8 % ) aged 30 to 64, and 19,005 ( 11.8 % ) aged 65 or older .
2018 census Hamilton distribution of exist and working areas Ethnicities were 63.6 % European/Pākehā, 23.7 % Māori, 6.1 % Pacific peoples, 18.5 % asian, and 3.5 % early ethnicities ( totals add to more than 100 % since people could identify with multiple ethnicities ) The proportion of people hold overseas was 26.9 %, compared with 27.1 % nationally. Although some people objected to giving their religion, 46.5 % had no religion, 36.3 % were Christian, and 11.5 % had other religions. Of those at least 15 years old, 32,202 ( 25.5 % ) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 19,701 ( 15.6 % ) people had no formal qualifications. The median income was $ 30,200. The employment condition of those at least 15 was that 62,763 ( 49.6 % ) people were employed full-time, 17,631 ( 13.9 % ) were half-time, and 7,095 ( 5.6 % ) were unemployed. [ 70 ] The main sphere of population growth is in the Flagstaff -Rototuna sphere. With its large tertiary scholar population at Wintec and Waikato University, approximately 40,000 third students, Hamilton has a significant transient population. [ 71 ] Hamilton is the irregular fastest growing population center after Auckland. In the 2013 census, Roman Catholicism was the largest christian denomination with 12.0 percentage consort, followed by Anglicanism ( 9.9 percentage ) and Presbyterianism ( 6.3 percentage ). Hinduism ( 2.9 percentage ), Islam ( 1.9 percentage ) and Buddhism ( 1.6 percentage ) were the largest non-Christian religions. [ 72 ]
Government and politics [edit ]
local government [edit ]
Hamilton is located in the administrative sphere of the Hamilton City Council. Hamilton City is itself separate of the Waikato area, controlled administratively by the Waikato Regional Council .
central government [edit ]
Hamilton has three electorate MPs in the New Zealand Parliament. Both Hamilton East and Hamilton West electorates are considered bellwether seats. The electorates are presently represented by : General electorates:
Hamilton based List MPs:
economy [edit ]
education and research are authoritative to the city—Hamilton is home to two institutes of higher education, the University of Waikato and the Waikato Institute of Technology ( Wintec ). inquiry at the Ruakura inquiry centres have been responsible for much of New Zealand ‘s invention in agribusiness. Hamilton ‘s main tax income source is the dairy industry, due to its localization in the center of New Zealand ‘s largest dairying area. Hamilton annually hosts the National Agricultural Fieldays at Mystery Creek, the southern hemisphere ‘s biggest agrarian barter exhibition. Mystery Creek is the state ‘s largest consequence center and hosts other events of national importance, such as Parachute Christian Music Festival, the National Car Show and the National Boat Show. manufacture and retail are besides authoritative to the local economy, as is the planning of health services through the Waikato Hospital. The city is home to New Zealand ‘s largest aircraft manufacturer, Pacific Aerospace, which manufactured its 1,000th aircraft in August 2009, and previously Micro Aviation NZ which manufactured and exported high-quality microlight aircraft. [ 76 ] It besides has its largest concentration of trailer-boat manufacturers such as Buccaneer. Hamilton is besides the home of Gallagher Group Ltd, a manufacturer and exporter of electric argue and security system systems. Employing 600 people Gallagher has been doing occupation in Hamilton since 1938. Hamilton is besides base to Vickers Aircraft Company, a inauguration aircraft manufacturer making a carbon fiber amphibious aircraft called the Wave. [ 77 ] recent years have seen the firm administration of the New Zealand base of the british flight education organization L3. L3 trains over 350 airline pilots a class at its crew coach center at Hamilton Airport. [ 78 ] Tainui Group Holdings Ltd, the commercial weapon of the Waikato tribe, is one of Hamilton ‘s largest property developers. The Waikato tribe is one of the city ‘s largest landowners. Tainui owns land at The Base, Centre Place, The Warehouse Central, University of Waikato, Wintec, the Courthouse, Fairfield College, and the Ruakura AgResearch center. [ 79 ] The Waikato tribe is a major stockholder of the Novotel Tainui and the Hotel Ibis. It has developed the large retail concentrate The Base in the old Te Rapa air force basis site which was returned to Tainui, following confiscation in the 1860s, as contribution of a 1995 Treaty of Waitangi settlement. In mid-2010, The Base was further expanded with Te Awa Mall building complex stage 1. [ citation needed ] Many large retailers such as Farmers and early nationally specialization chains have located at Te Awa. In 2011 a further stage was opened, with film, restaurants, shops and an underground carpark. The city ‘s three major covered shop malls are Centre Place ( once Downtown Plaza ) [ 80 ] in the CBD, Chartwell Shopping Centre and most recently Te Awa at The Base. After Farmers Hamilton moves from its existing locate on corner of Alexandra and Collingwood streets into the redeveloped Centre Place in belated 2013, [ 81 ] each major plaza will have the department storehouse as an anchor tenant. The western suburb of Frankton is home to a smaller shopping center and long-standing local furniture and home department store Forlongs. [ 82 ] There are many other small suburban shopping centres or plaza, frequently centred on a New World or Countdown supermarket, such as in Rototuna, Hillcrest and Glenview .
polish [edit ]
Garden place In 2004, Hamilton City Council honoured former nonmigratory Richard O’Brien with a life-size bronze statue of him as fictional character Riff Raff, of The Rocky Horror Picture Show, in his space suit. The statue was designed by Weta Workshop, props makers for The Lord of the Rings films. It stands on the former site of the Embassy Cinema, where O’Brien watched skill fiction-double features. [ 83 ] respective Maori Pa have been part restored at Pukete, Hikuwai and Miropiko along the banks of the Waikato River. The city is host to a big numeral of little galleries and the Waikato Museum. The latter includes Te Winika, one of the best-preserved waka taua ( Māori war canoe ) from the pre-colonisation earned run average. It is besides home to one of the nation ‘s premier experimental black box theatres, The Meteor Theatre .
music [edit ]
Hamilton is host to several bombastic scale music festivals including the Soundscape music festival, which is one of New Zealand ‘s largest street parties. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] The city besides hosts the Opus Chamber Orchestra which draws musicians from around the Waikato Region [ 87 ] and is the home of the New Zealand Chamber Soloists. [ 88 ] An ongoing classical concert serial featuring populace class musicians [ 89 ] is held throughout the year at the Gallagher Concert Chamber, organised by the University of Waikato, Conservatorium of Music .
Events [edit ]
Tronik DJs maneuver at the sellout Soundscape street party
mutant [edit ]
The local rugby union teams are Waikato ( Mitre 10 Cup ) and the Chiefs ( Super Rugby ). The local colours are bolshevik, yellow and black, and the provincial mascot is Mooloo, an anthropomorphic overawe. Both teams play at Waikato Stadium. Hamilton is besides home to a football club, WaiBOP United, that competes in the ASB Premiership during summer. The winter football clubs Hamilton Wanderers and Melville United competing in the Lotto Sport Italia NRFL Premier League are besides based in Hamilton .
Waikato Stadium, Lions vs. NZ Māori, 2005. Seddon Park ( once Westpac Park ) is Hamilton ‘s chief cricket venue and hosts Test matches, One Day Internationals and T20 Internationals. It is the home grind of the Northern Districts Cricket Association. Hamilton is fast becoming a motorsport venue vitamin a well. A polish of the WRC was held in 2006 and the annual V8 Supercars race on a street circuit started in 2008 and ended in 2012. Rugby league is besides played in Hamilton with the two local teams, Hamilton City Tigers and Hamilton Hornets/College Old Boys, playing in the Premier Division of the Waikato Rugby League. Sailing takes plaza on Hamilton lake for 9 months of the year. The Hamilton Yacht Club has its clubrooms, ways and ramp on the western side of Lake Rotoroa. Motor boats are not allowed on the lake, with an exception of the Yacht Club rescue boats. Each year in April, Hamilton supports the ‘5 Bridges ‘ swim challenge. The path starts in Hamilton Gardens, and continues for 6 kilometres finishing at Ann St Beach. The swim is assisted by the current, with the full distance typically covered in under an hour. The event celebrated its 71st year on 11 April 2010. [ 91 ]
Media [edit ]
The major daily newspaper is the Waikato Times. Weekly community newspapers include the Hamilton Press, Hamilton News and Waikato University student magazine Nexus. local radio stations include The Breeze, Free FM, More FM, Contact FM. The Edge and The Rock, two of New Zealand ‘s most popular radio stations, were in the first place based in Hamilton .
City facilities and attractions [edit ]
Hamilton Gardens is the area ‘s most popular tourist attraction and hosts the Hamilton Gardens Summer Festival each year. The Base is New Zealand ‘s second largest shopping center, with over 7.5 million visitors per year to the 190 stores. Te Awa, an enclosed forte retail plaza at The Base, was awarded a silver decoration by the International Council of Shopping Centres for the second-best expansion in the Asia Pacific region. [ 97 ] other local attractions include Hamilton Zoo, the Waikato Museum, the Hamilton Astronomical Society Observatory, the Arts Post artwork gallery, and the SkyCity casino. good 20 minutes ‘ tug off is Ngāruawāhia, the placement of Turangawaewae Marae and the home plate of Māori King Tuheitia Paki. Hamilton has six populace libraries located throughout the city with the Central Library house the main character and inheritance collection. Hamilton City Theaters provides professional venue and event management at two of the three theatrical venues in the city : Founders Theatre ( closed since 2016 ), [ 98 ] and Clarence St Theater. The Meteor field was bought by the One Victoria Trust in 2013 after the Hamilton City Council proposed the sale of the dramaturgy and is nowadays privately operated. St Peter ‘s Cathedral, built in 1916, is the anglican cathedral in Hamilton, on Cathedral Hill at the southerly end of Victoria Street. There is besides St Mary ‘s Roman Catholic cathedral on the antonym side of the river. The Hamilton New Zealand Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints is located in Temple View, Hamilton. It was opened along with the Church College of New Zealand, a big gamey school owned by the church, in the former 1950s. Both the college and the synagogue were built by british labour party missionaries. The school was closed in December 2009. Every year, the synagogue hosts a large Christmas fall indicate which attracts big crowds from all over the state .
Hospitals [edit ]
Waikato Hospital in Hamilton West Hamilton ‘s public hospital is Waikato Hospital with 600 beds and a staff of approximately 2,500 located between Melville and Hamilton West. [ 99 ] There are two other major secret hospitals in Hamilton City ; Braemar Hospital, located in the like area that Waikato Hospital is located, and Southern Cross Hospital, located in Hamilton East. Hamilton besides has a two private primary motherhood hospitals, which are in full funded by the Waikato District Health Board, Waterford Birth Centre and River Ridge East Birth Centre. [ 100 ]
transportation [edit ]
The New Zealand Household Travel Survey 2015 – 2018 said that 86 % of Hamilton trip leg were made by car ( 60 % as driver, 26 % as passenger ), 10 % were walking, 2 % cycle and 1 % by bus. [ 101 ]
Air [edit ]
Hamilton Airport serves as a domestic airport. It is jointly owned by Hamilton City and neighbouring district councils. The airport is located just outside Hamilton ‘s limit, within the Waipa District. There are lineal flights with Air New Zealand to Christchurch, Palmerston North and Wellington, and with Sun Air to Great Barrier Island, Gisborne and Whangarei besides there are rent flights to other destinations throughout the North Island. The airport besides served as a major foundation for now defunct low-cost airlines Freedom Air and Kiwi Air. Virgin Australia offered three international flights a week, to and from Brisbane Airport and Sydney Airport. however, all international flights have now been discontinued, primarily due to a small market.
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The airport is the nucleotide for pilot burner prepare schools and the aircraft manufacturer, Pacific Aerospace, is located at the northern end of the runway .
motorbike [edit ]
Hamilton has 97 kilometer ( 60 nautical mile ) of on-road, 21 kilometer ( 13 mile ) of off-road and 28 kilometer ( 17 michigan ) of riverbank cycleways, [ 102 ] which link the city center with the outlying suburb. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] These cycleways consist of a assortment of dedicated bicycle lanes, which are 1-metre-wide strips either coloured green or with a painted sketch of a cycle and mix use cycle/walk ways which are chiefly located alongside the Waikato River. [ 105 ] The City ‘s design usher says the choose width for cycleways is 3 molarity ( 9.8 foot ). [ 106 ] A cycleway was built beside Greenwood Street and Kahikatea Drive in 2015 and beside Ohaupo Road and Normandy Avenue in 2016. [ 107 ] A $ 6.7m, 2.7 kilometer ( 1.7 nautical mile ) western Rail Trail opened in 2017 linking Glenview, Melville, and Deanwell, Hamilton Girls ’ High School, Wintec and the city kernel. [ 108 ]
road [edit ]
New Zealand ‘s main road artery State Highway 1 runs through several of Hamilton ‘s suburb and connects with State Highway 3 at a major overlap within the city boundaries. The Hamilton section of the Waikato Expressway, due for completion in 2020, or possibly 2021, [ 109 ] or mid 2022, [ 110 ] will shift SH 1 to the east of Hamilton City, efficaciously bypassing the city and easing congestion between commuting city traffic and through traffic. It will besides, as expressed in a Regional Council reputation, “ undermine the attractiveness of public transportation as a mode of choice for many years to come. ” [ 111 ] Safer Speed Areas 40 kilometers per hour limits were beginning introduced in Hamilton in 2011 and by 2014 there were 36 of them, [ 112 ] many in suburb near the river. [ 113 ] From 1864 Hamilton was on the Great South Road, linking Auckland to Te Awamutu. The road was gradually promote and renamed. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ]
Ring road [edit ]
ampere well as being bypassed by the Expressway, Hamilton will besides have the Ring Road and, anterior to those, the city center was bypassed by Anglesea Street in 1964 [ 118 ] and the main road diverted from the north end of Victoria Street [ 119 ] onto Ulster Street, which was extended to absorb Gurnell Avenue and form a 4-lane chief road, [ 120 ] by putting Waitewhiriwhiri Stream in a culvert and filling the valley. [ 121 ] The Hamilton Ring Road project was initiated to free some of the city ‘s streets from peak-traffic congestion and improve connectivity around the city. It consists of five segments, opening between 1963 and 2024. It was linked to the Te Rapa Section of the Waikato Expressway in 2012. [ 122 ]
Cobham Drive [edit ]
The first separate of the hoop road, Cobham Drive, from Tristram St to Cambridge Road, was named in 1963 after the Governor-General, Viscount Cobham. It was in the first place named Southern Outlet. [ 123 ] It linked to SH3 along Normandy Drive. [ 124 ] Prior to that the junction with SH3 had been at Victoria Street / Bridge Street and SH1 had used Grey Street and Cambridge Road. [ 125 ]
Greenwood Street and Kahikatea Drive [edit ]
To the west and south, Greenwood Street, which had existed since 1907, was extended south to Kahikatea Drive, [ 126 ] which was named in 1971 [ 127 ] and opened about 1974. [ 128 ] [ 129 ]
Avalon Drive [edit ]
The adjacent depart of the ring road, on the western side, opened when SH1 was diverted from the city center to run east of the city, through Nawton from 1 July 1992. [ 130 ] Norton Road Extension was renamed Avalon Drive. [ 131 ] The road was originally built about 1919. [ 132 ] [ 133 ]
Wairere Drive [edit ]
Wairere Drive forms the union east separate of the ring road. Initially it ran from Avalon Drive to River Road at Flagstaff, via Pukete Bridge. The land for it was gazetted in 1995 [ 134 ] [ 135 ] and the road was on the 1998 function. [ 136 ] It had a 70 km/h speed limit. [ 137 ] The extension to Hukanui Rd was on the 2009 map. [ 138 ] It was then extended from Hukanui Rd to Crosby Rd in 2010, to Ruakura Rd in 2013 [ 122 ] and 5.5 kilometer ( 3.4 security service ) to Cambridge Rd in 2014, [ 139 ] when the Pukete Rd to Resolution Dr section was widened from 2 to 4 lanes, [ 122 ] and roundabouts replaced with traffic lights, at a monetary value of $ 84m. [ 139 ] The reference from Hukanui Road to Tramway Road cost $ 1.5m in 2005/06, plus $ 3.3m in 2007/08. [ 140 ] In 2008, on the budget had been over $ 14m. [ 113 ] The road includes a 3 megabyte ( 9.8 foot ) broad cycleway. [ 141 ] completion is planned for 2022. [ 142 ] traffic at Pukete Bridge in 2006 was 25,200 vehicles a sidereal day. [ 143 ] In 2018 it was 38,400. [ 144 ] In 2017, it was noted that a drop in passenger numbers on the Orbiter busbar correlated with first step of the extension to Cambridge Rd in 2014. [ 145 ] The final examination part of the ring road will be the southerly Links, through Peacocke. [ 146 ] construction of the $ 150m bridge over the Waikato is planned between 2020 and 2023. [ 147 ] The design for the area says, “ it is intended that the arterial routes besides make planning for option modes of transportation such as light rail by maintaining corridors. ” [ 148 ]
Bridges [edit ]
Claudlands Bridge, Waikato Claudelands Bridge, Hamilton, NZ. Taken from just below the Bridge Street bridge. The six road bridges that cross the river [ 149 ] are frequently the focus of dawn and even dealings delays. The six road bridges within the city are ( from north to south ) :
In accession to the road bridges within the city, the Horotiu bridge is located approximately 10 kilometer north of the city concentrate and the Narrows Bridge approximately 10 km to the south. The Narrows bridge was closed for reconstruction of its piles in September 2010. [ 150 ] In Jan 2011 widening of the 1 kilometer approach road Wairere Drive to Pukete bridge began. The bridge was expanded to 4 lanes in early 2013. The river is besides crossed by a rail bridge and a pedestrian bridge :
- Claudelands Rail Bridge
- Pukete – Flagstaff Pedestrian / Sewer Bridge (see Sewage section below)
Buses [edit ]
Hamilton has buses linking the CBD to most of its suburb and an Orbiter service linking many of those suburbs to each other, to suburban patronize centres, the hospital, university, etc .
rail [edit ]
Stations [edit ]
Hamilton ‘s place is located in Frankton at the articulation of the East Coast Main Trunk agate line ( ECMT ) and the North Island Main Trunk tune ( NIMT ). A disused platform on the ECMT lies beneath the CBD. [ 151 ] In 2006, a sketch was done into a potential re-introduction of daily commuter train services to Auckland and the benefits that might flow from it. [ 152 ] The new service, dubbed Te Huia, commenced on the 6th of April 2021 .
cargo [edit ]
Hamilton ‘s rail network serves as a major hub for the distribution of dairy products to the ports of Auckland and Tauranga. This hub is located on Crawford St, on land that was once separate of the Te Rapa Marshalling Yard, just north of the locomotive storehouse. [ 153 ] Te Rapa is at the northerly end of the 25 kilovolt AC 50 Hz electrification between Hamilton and Palmerston North .
Preserved stock certificate [edit ]
Hamilton besides has two locomotives on display :
- NZR F class 230 was donated by Ellis & Burnand, the central North Island sawmillers, in 1956 for static display. Formerly used as the yard engine at their Mangapehi sawmill, it was placed on display at Lake Rotoroa and its boiler filled with concrete. This engine has become a 0-4-2ST in later years following the loss of her rear coupling rod.
- NZR DSA 230 (TMS DSA359), a 0-6-0DM diesel shunting locomotive built by English Electric for the Drewry Car Company, was withdrawn in 1986 and placed on display at Frankton minus its Gardner 8L3 diesel engine and transmission. It was moved in the early 2000s with its shelter to Minogue Park, where it was united with an open seating wagon built on the underframe of wagon W 960, built in 1946 and converted to Way & Works wagon E 7784 in April 1966.
The railroad track settlement [edit ]
From the arrival of the railroad track in Hamilton, Frankton was a railroad track town. In 1923, the suburb became tied more railway-orientated when the Frankton Junction Railway House Factory opened, producing the celebrated George Troup designed railroad track houses sent to many North Island railway settlements, which are now sought pieces of real number estate. Its 60 workers [ 155 ] produced about 1400 pre-fabricated railroad track houses at a bill rate of 400 a year, using rimu and matai from the railway ‘s central North Island forests. When, in 1926, politics cuts reduced the need for railway houses, the factory besides started to supply houses for local councils. [ 156 ] Those supplied to Lower Hutt were claimed to be £500 cheaper than comparable houses. [ 157 ] The lumbermill besides produced everything else such as bespeak masts and boxes, bridges, sleepers, and even furniture for railroad track stations. It was besides efficient for secret builders, who got the caparison factory closed in 1929. When it ultimately closed in the 1990s it was very bedraggled, but NZHPT supported restoration of the Category 1 historic place, retaining original windows, big skid doors and the saw-tooth roof. [ 158 ] It is now home to a range of businesses. [ 159 ] Frankton besides was home to the Way and Works storehouse, still in operation as the KiwiRail Network storehouse. This was connected to the independent tune by a short siding that ran past the factory ; this lineage was last used in 1997 when a shunting locomotive retrieved two categoric wagons from the Way and Works storehouse. [ citation needed ] The railway workers ‘ community was centred largely around the W & W storehouse and lumbermill, containing some 200 houses and a Railways Social Hall. [ 160 ] Many of the houses are still in place, the majority being the classical 90sq2 three-bedroom design used as standard across New Zealand for railway staff. [ 161 ]
education [edit ]
Hamilton is home to more than 40,000 third students, largely enrolled in one of the city ‘s three main third institutes ; the University of Waikato, Waikato Institute of Technology and Te Wananga o Aotearoa. arsenic well as state and secret primary, intermediate and high schools, it besides notably includes a numeral of Kura Kaupapa Māori basal schools offering education in the Māori language. The city has seven country secondary schools, in a clockwise steering from north : Rototuna High School in Rototuna, Fairfield College in Fairfield, Hamilton Boys ‘ high School in Hamilton East, Hillcrest High School in Silverdale, Melville High School in Melville, Hamilton Girls ‘ high gear School in the central city, and Fraser High School in Nawton. Both Boys ‘ and Girls ‘ High offer boarding facilities. A newly state secondary school is opened for the Rototuna area to serve the boom north-eastern corner of the city. The project had been delayed several years as the former secondary coil school serving the area, Fairfield College, was below capacity. The newly secondary coil school opened in 2016. [ 162 ] additionally, Hamilton is home to a number of state-integrated and private schools. There are numerous state-integrated Catholic basal schools throughout the city. Sacred Heart Girls College and St John ‘s College are the integrated Catholic high schools, for girls and boys respectively. Southwell School is a private co-educational Anglican basal school. Waikato Diocesan School for Girls is an integrate Anglican eminent educate. ‘ [ 162 ] St Paul ‘s Collegiate School is a private high school for boys, besides accepting girls from year 11. All three Anglican schools are boarding and day schools. Hamilton Christian School is a private co-ed nondenominational christian school for Years 1–13, founded in 1982 .
Utilities [edit ]
Although telegraph came to Hamilton with the 1864 invasion which established the town, it was quite late in developing its accelerator ( 1895 ), water ( 1903 ), sewage ( 1907 ) and electricity supplies ( 1913 ), credibly because its population remained low ; in 1911 Hamilton ‘s population was 3,542 and Frankton ‘s 1,113. [ 163 ] Optical cables and microwave towers immediately provide telecommunications links, natural gas is supplied by grapevine from Taranaki, water from the Waikato River by the Water Treatment Station at Waiora Terrace, sewage flows for treatment at Pukete and electricity comes from the national power system. Restrictions are distillery placed on garden sprinklers in summer and the Pukete sewage influence was still not always meeting fire Resource accept conditions in 2013. [ 164 ]
telephone [edit ]
A cable line from Auckland came shortly after the invasion, [ 165 ] reaching Whatawhata, Te Awamutu and Cambridge by October 1864. [ 166 ] Telephones came to Hamilton from 1882. [ 166 ] Hamilton got a telephone change in 1904 with 39 subscribers. [ 167 ] Hamilton telephones were put on an automatic commute between 1915 [ 168 ] and 1920. [ 166 ] From the 1950s Hamilton was linked into the network of microwave towers via the towers at Te Aroha and Te Uku .
Gas [edit ]
Auckland Gas Company had been set up in 1862, but it was n’t until the Hamilton Gasworks Act 1895 that Henry Atkinson ( son of the coach of Auckland gasworks ) [ 169 ] was allowed to set up a gasworks in Clarence St on allotment 322 ( see photograph of the [ 3 ] Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine ) and put flatulence pipes under the streets. work started on laying about 50 tons of pipes in July 1895. [ 170 ] It besides allowed the city to purchase after 12 years at a price determined by arbitration. [ 171 ] A 1907 referendum authorised the city council to take over the gasworks. In 1911 the Privy Council set the purchase price at £34,402/14/3d ( $ 5.7m at 2017 prices ), [ 172 ] half of which was for grace. [ 173 ] A 100,000 cubic feet ( 2,800 m3 ) gasholder was authorised in 1911. [ 174 ] In 1913 the work was expanded and mains laid over the railway bridge into Hamilton East and along Ohaupo Rd. [ 175 ] a well as boast, coke, pitch and pitch paint were produced. [ 176 ] Additions were made to the works vitamin a belated as 1961. [ 177 ] Waikato coal was shuffle with char shipped via Greymouth and Raglan from 1964 until 25 March 1970, when Hamilton switched to natural gas and the gasworks closed. The web site was cleaned up after demolition in the 1990s, but is placid monitored by Regional Council for contamination. [ 178 ] Hamilton was one of the original nine towns and cities in the North Island to be supplied with natural gas when the Kapuni gasoline field enters production in 1970. Gas from the Kapuni discipline in south Taranaki was transported north via a 373 kilometer long, 200 millimeter diameter grapevine to Papakura in confederacy Auckland, with Hamilton supplied via an offtake at Temple View. [ 179 ]
water [edit ]
By 1890 complaints were being made of a dearth of body of water in the wells and tanks. [ 180 ] In 1902, a poll of ratepayers approved borrowing £5,000 to set up a water supply. [ 181 ] In 1903 3.2 kilometer ( 2 mile ) of pipes supplied water to 80 properties in Victoria, Anglesea, Collingwood, Clarence and Selkirk streets and the borough stopcock reported average consumption at 15 imperial gallons ( 68 lambert ) a day [ 182 ] ( modal consumption is now 224 litres ( 49 imp gal ) a day ). [ 183 ] By 1908 closely all of Hamilton West had piped water, extended to Frankton and Claudelands in 1912. [ 184 ] A compress to pump the water into a loom was let in 1912. [ 185 ] By 1916 [ 186 ] a 75-foot-high ( 23 thousand ) urine tugboat on Lake Rd [ 187 ] had been built to give excess imperativeness, chiefly for the Fire Brigade [ 188 ] whose station opened in 1917. [ 189 ] Use was reported as 6,942,000 imperial gallons ( 31,558,957 l ) in the month of August 1918. [ 190 ] In 1931 the arrangement was upgraded, with larger pipes and an 86 foot ( 26 thousand ) tower on Ruakiwi Rd, holding 2,600,000 elf gal ( 11,819,834 liter ). [ 191 ] Until 1939 on Sundays visitors could climb the column for 6d. [ 192 ] The honest-to-god column remained until 1966. [ 193 ] A treatment knead was built in 1923, [ 194 ] using candy filters and supplying water at 75psi. [ 187 ] The 1930 Hillsborough Terrace Water Treatment Station had a maximum continuous capacity slightly over 30 megalitres per day ( ML/d ). By 1970 point demands exceeded 45 ML/d with the average annual day by day demand being around 25 ML/d, but the site was excessively little to expand. so Waiora Terrace Station, Glenview ( opposite Hamilton Gardens ), was commissioned in mid 1971. It was designed for a maximal capacity of 65 ML/d, expandable to 190 ML/d, [ 195 ] was increased to approximately 85ML/d with the addition of polymer drug in the 1980s [ 196 ] and by 2010 had a capacity of 106 ML/d. [ 183 ] It was built to a Patterson Candy design with curdling, rapid sand gravity filtration and chlorine gasoline disinfection. [ 197 ] Chlorine is added at 0.3 ppm and fluoride has been added since 1966, though with a brief withdrawal in 2013/14 and referenda supporting it in 2006 [ 198 ] and 2013. [ 199 ] The river water has 0.2 to 0.4 ppm [ 195 ] fluoride which is increased to around 0.75ppm [ 183 ] through the station. Arsenic in the Waikato River is besides monitored. It can be about 3 times above the WHO limit, but treatment effects a 5-fold decrease to a charge which meets the standards. [ 200 ] From river level the water is pumped up to 8 reservoirs, which uses 410 kWh of power for each million litres of water pumped. [ 183 ] To cope with river levels below the inhalation pipes, a floating pump platform was installed in 2016. It can pump up to 70 million litres a day. [ 201 ] Average manipulation in 2010 was 224 litres per day per person. The 2006 population was 129,249, sol entire annual consumption was a bite over 10,000 million litres, using over 4 million kWh. [ 183 ] A Hamilton City map shows the placement of water, stormwater and sewage infrastructure and a description of the urine distribution system is in this 2001 HCC Strategic Planning document .
Reservoirs [edit ]
A 24 million liter reservoir opened at Kay Road in north Rototuna in 2017, [ 202 ] providing Hamilton ‘s ninth reservoir, the others being at Dinsdale ( 2 ), Fairfield, Hillcrest, Maeroa, Pukete and, as above, at Ruakiwi. [ 203 ] A 12 million liter reservoir will be added at Ruakura in 2020. [ 204 ]
sewage [edit ]
sewage long lagged behind other utilities. Initially sections were boastfully adequate for septic tanks to work american samoa well as they could in peatlands, but it was n’t long before the 1882 drain outline [ 194 ] was used for sewage connections. By 1904 complaints were being made about the block unsanitary drain between Victoria and Anglesea Streets, resulting in a hesitation beginning on a night land service. The 1907 referendum, which approved leverage of the gasworks besides agreed to raise a loan for sewage pipes ( though rejected a plan for a steam [ 205 ] tramcar ). [ 184 ] In 1917 Mayor Ellis rejected the Health Minister ‘s trace, saying it was impossible to afford a sewage farm. [ 206 ] By 1919 only about a third of the city had sewers, [ 207 ] but between 1923 and 1925 “ considerable progress ” was made and sewage reticulation was further extended in 1933. however, there was a sewage related epidemic in Melville in 1940 and Melville, Fairfield and Hillcrest were added to the gutter net from 1949. Although by 1956 80 % of Hamilton had sewage pipes, it was only piped to 14 septic tanks ( 17 when replaced in 1976 [ 208 ] ), which were emptied several times a year, either into the Waitawhirwhiri Stream, or directly into the Waikato. [ 184 ] In 1956 the Pollution Advisory Council said, “ the daily menstruate of sewage effluent and deal wastes from Hamilton City is three million gallons… in effect, partially digested sludge and raw sewage is being disposed of into the Waikato River ”. downstream from Hamilton contaminants increased 10 times between the 1950s and the early 1970s. [ 209 ] The 1953 Water Pollution Act set up a Pollution Advisory Council, but it had no operate powers until 1963. [ 210 ] Pukete sewer bridge 165m long 14 megabyte high built mid 1970s. photograph 2015. In 1964, the Department of Health ordered adequate treatment for the sewage. Steven and Fitzmaurice, Consulting Engineers, presented a plan to Council early in 1966. There was some exercise on piping raw areas in 1966, but study on the major trunks and interceptors did n’t start until 1969 and build at Pukete sewage works started in January 1972. The beginning sewage was treated in July 1975 and was fully connected early in 1977. [ 208 ] Prestressed concrete box girder bridge over Kirikiriroa Stream at Tauhara Gully. photograph 2015. The trunk lines needed a 165-metre-long ( 541 foot ) bridge, about 14 m ( 46 foot ) above the Waikato, another prestressed concrete box girder bridge over Kirikiriroa Stream at Tauhara Gully and 2 steel organ pipe bridges over early gullies. The River bridge was designed by Murray-North Partners and the others by council engineers. [ 208 ] The Pukete sewage works monetary value $ 12.5m ( $ 160m at 2015 prices ). It now cleans 40 million litres ( 11,000,000 US gal ) /day, which is aerated for about 2 hours in a deposit tank, disinfected with chlorine, dechlorinated with sulphur dioxide and discharged into the Waikato through a diffuse outfall on the river layer. [ 211 ] CH2M Beca, successor to the previous engineers, upgraded the plant from 1998 to 2002 to improve nitrogen, BOD and suspended solids levels, with a change from chlorination to UV treatment and biogas and natural gasoline 1.5 million watt ( 2,000 horsepower ) cogeneration units, able to power the treatment processes and export excess to the grid. [ 212 ] A far 5 year upgrade started about 2009 expanding and improving the plant, including phosphorus removal. [ 213 ] Despite the improvements there have been ongoing problems. In 2012 the council was prosecuted for a sewage sludge spillway [ 214 ] and consent conditions were breached in 2013 ascribable to a bacterial trouble. [ 164 ] In 2014 up to 800 m3 ( 180,000 elf gallon ) of untreated sewage got into the river. [ 215 ] There are besides problems with pumping stations. Out of over 130, up to 20 fail each calendar month. [ 216 ]
electricity [edit ]
Hamilton was besides late in getting electricity. Reefton had electricity from 1888. Some Hamiltonians had their own dynamo from about 1912, the year the first license was given for build lines and a generate plant in the Frankton Town Board area. It cost over £8,000 ( about $ 1.3m in 2017 prices ) [ 172 ] for the initial network, powered by two 45 kW ( 60 horsepower ) DC Brush generators in Kent St, driven by two 4-cylinder 90 horsepower ( 67 kilowatt ) sucking accelerator engines ( suction gas engines used low pressure gas from ember [ 217 ] ), which started on 23 April 1913 ( officially opened by Prime Minister Massey on 4 June ). Lighting was provided for streets, houses and the Empire Hotel in Frankton, initially only from 7.30am to 5pm, using a laborer, a meter reader and two linesmen. electricity was sold at 10d ( 2015 equivalent $ 15 ) per kWh. The first base Chief Electrical Engineer was Mr A Beale, followed by Lloyd Mandeno, ( 1913–1916 ) and Israel ( Jack ) Webster, who stayed for closely 40 years. From May 1916, Hamilton was connected and, in 1917, the supply area was widened to a 5-mile spoke and an 80 kilowatt ( 110 horsepower ) and then two more 45 kilowatt ( 60 horsepower ) sets were added at Kent St. [ 218 ] Despite this, by 1920, Frankton was ineffective to cope with demand. The mayor, P H Watts, proposed buying a second-hand steam plant for £17,000, but it was rejected at a poll on 23 April 1920. The mayor, 6 councillors and the electricity staff all resigned. [ 219 ] The problem was resolved by a associate to Horahora Power Station completed, like Frankton, in 1913. In 1919 it was bought by the government and, by 1921, an 11 kilovolt AC channel linked it to Hamilton., [ 218 ] allowing the “ noisy, smoky ”, Kent St baron station to close in July 1922, [ 220 ] by which time it was rated at 170 kilowatt. [ 221 ] There were over 1,500 connections in Hamilton by 1923. Undergrounding began in 1926, when the 11 kilovolt cable was extended from Peachgrove Rd to Seddon Rd sub-station. By 1928 the Council had 3,381 consumers and charges were down to 6d per kWh for lighting and 2d per kWh for might and heat. By 1935 4,458 were connected, with 55 mi ( 89 kilometer ) of telephone line and lighting was down another penny. By 1950, the 11 kilovolt rings in Hamilton East and Claudelands were finished. Soon afterwards mercury vapor street lighting was installed in London Street and Norton Rd. 33kV gas- and oil-filled cables were laid from 1960 and switched on in April 1974. By 1987 there were 12,247 connections, 291 kilometer ( 181 myocardial infarction ) of credit line and charges down to 6.577c/kWh [ 218 ] ( about 13c in 2015 prices ). In 2015 prices varied from 11.31 to 22.92 cents per kWh. [ 222 ] legislation in 1988 amalgamated the Central Waikato Electric Power Board with Hamilton ‘s Electricity Division from April 1989 as Waikato Electricity Limited, [ 218 ] now known as WEL Networks, [ 223 ] one of the distribution companies. Hamilton now has a 220kV link to the National Grid and Transpower provides for a extremum burden of 187MW, expected to rise to 216MW by 2030. [ 224 ]
noteworthy people [edit ]
baby cities [edit ]
Hamilton has four sister cities :
- Sacramento, United States
- Saitama, Japan
- Wuxi, People’s Republic of China
- Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
References [edit ]
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