Lesya Ukrainka [ 1 ] ( ukrainian : Леся Українка ) ( born Larysa Petrivna Kosach ( ukrainian : Лариса Петрівна Косач ) ( 25 February [ O.S. 13 February ] 1871 – 1 August [ O.S. 19 July ] 1913 ) was one of ukrainian literature ‘s foremost writers, best sleep together for her poems and plays. She was besides an active political, civil, and feminist activist. [ 2 ]
Reading: Lesya Ukrainka – Wikipedia
Among her most long-familiar works are the collections of poems On the wings of songs ( 1893 ), Thoughts and Dreams ( 1899 ), Echos ( 1902 ), the epic poem Ancient fairy tale ( 1893 ), One word ( 1903 ), plays Princess ( 1913 ), Cassandra ( 1903—1907 ), In the Catacombs ( 1905 ), and Forest Song ( 1911 ) .
biography [edit ]
Ukrainka was born in 1871 in the town of Novohrad-Volynskyi of Ukraine. She was the irregular child of ukrainian writer and publisher Olha Drahomanova-Kosach, better known under her literary pseudonym Olena Pchilka. Ukrainka ‘s don was Petro Antonovych Kosach ( from Serbian Kosača lord family ), head of the district assembly of conciliators, who came from the northern partially of Chernihiv state. After completing high school in Chernihiv Gymnasium, Kosach studied mathematics at the University of Petersburg. Two years late, he moved to Kyiv University and graduated with a degree in police. In 1868 he married Olha Drahomaniv, who was the sister of his supporter Mykhaylo Petrovych Drahomanov, a long-familiar ukrainian scientist, historian, philosopher, folklorist and populace calculate. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Kosach, her father, was devoted to the progress of ukrainian acculturation and financially back ukrainian print ventures. Lesya Ukrainka had three younger sisters, Olha, Oksana, and Isydora, and a younger brother, Mykola. [ 5 ] Ukrainka was very close to her uncle Drahomanov, her apparitional mentor and teacher, adenine well as her brother Mykhaylo, known under the pseudonym Mykhaylo Obachny, whom she called “ Mysholosie. ” Lesya inherited her don ‘s features, eyes, height, and build. Like her beget, she was highly principled, and they both held the dignity of the individual in high see. Despite their many similarities, Lesya and her father were different in that her beget had a endowment for mathematics, but no gift for languages ; on the adverse, Lesya had no give for mathematics, but she knew English, German, French, Italian, Greek, Latin, Polish, Russian, Bulgarian, and her native ukrainian. [ 4 ] Lesya ‘s mother, a poet, wrote poetry and short stories for children in ukrainian. She was besides active in the women ‘s movement and published a feminist almanac. [ 6 ] Ukrainka ‘s mother played a significant function in her upbringing. The ukrainian linguistic process was the merely terminology used in the family, and to enforce this practice, the children were educated by ukrainian tutors at home, in order to avoid schools that taught Russian as the chief language. Ukrainka learned how to read at the old age of four, and she and her brother Mykhaylo could read extraneous languages well enough to read literature in the original. [ 7 ] By the time she was eight, Ukrainka wrote her first poem, “ Hope, ” which was composed in reaction to the check and exile of her aunt, Olena Kosach, for taking region in a political movement against the czarist autocracy. In 1879, her integral syndicate moved to Lutsk. That same class her father started construct houses for the family in the nearby village of Kolodiazhne. [ 8 ] It was at this time that her uncle, Mykhaylo Drahomanov, encouraged her to study ukrainian folk songs, family stories, and history, ampere well to peruse the Bible for its inhale poetry and endless themes. She besides was influenced by the well-known composer Mykola Lysenko, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the celebrated ukrainian dramatist and poet Mykhailo Starytsky. [ 9 ] : 12 At historic period thirteen, her first published poem, “ lily of the Valley, ” appeared in the magazine Zorya in Lviv. It was here that she first used her pseudonym, which was suggested by her beget because in the Russian Empire, publications in the ukrainian language were prevent. Ukrainka ‘s beginning collection of poetry had to be published secretly in westerly Ukraine and snuck into Kyiv under her pseudonym. [ 10 ] At this clock, Ukrainka was well on her way of becoming a pianist, but due to tuberculosis of the cram, she did not attend any outside educational establishment. Writing was to be the main focus of her life. [ 9 ] : 10 The poems and plays of Ukrainka are associated with her impression in her state ‘s exemption and independence. between 1895 and 1897, she became a member of the Literary and Artistic Society in Kyiv, which was banned in 1905 because of its relations with revolutionary activists. [ 11 ] In 1888, when Ukrainka was seventeen, she and her brother organized a literary circle called Pleyada ( The Pleiades ), which they founded to promote the growth of ukrainian literature and translation of foreign classics into ukrainian. The organization was based on the french school of poetry, the Pleiade. Their gatherings took place in different homes and were joined by Mykola Lysenko, P. Kosach, Kostiantyn Mykhalchuk, Mykhailo Starytsky, and others. [ 12 ] One of the works they translated was Nikolai Gogol ‘s Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka. Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko were the main inspiration of her early poetry, which was associated with the poet ‘s loneliness, social isolation and adoration of the ukrainian state ‘s exemption. [ 13 ] Her first collection of poetry, Na krylakh pisen’ ( On the Wings of Songs ), was published in 1893. Since ukrainian publications were banned by the Russian Empire, this record was published in western Ukraine, which was character of Austria-Hungary at the time, and smuggled into Kyiv. Ukrainka ‘s illness made it necessary for her to travel to places where the climate was dry, and, as a result, she spent extensive periods of prison term in Germany, Austria, Italy, Bulgaria, Crimea, the Caucasus, and Egypt. She loved experiencing early cultures, which was apparent in many of her literary works, such as The Ancient History of Oriental Peoples, in the first place written for her younger siblings. The book was published in L’viv, and Ivan Franko was involved in its publication. It included her early poem, such as “ Seven Strings, ” “ The Starry Sky, ” “ Tears-Pearls, ” “ The Journey to the Sea, ” “ Crimean Memories, ” and “ In the Children ‘s Circle. ” Ukrainka besides wrote epic poem poems, prose drama, prose, several articles of literary criticism, and a count of sociopolitical essays. She was best known for her plays Boyarynya ( 1914 ; The Noblewoman ), a psychological calamity centered on the ukrainian kin in the seventeenth hundred, [ 14 ] which refers directly to ukrainian history, and Lisova pisnya ( 1912 ; The Forest Song ), the characters of which include fabulous beings from ukrainian folklore. In 1897, while being treated in Yalta, Ukrainka met Serhiy Merzhynsky, an official from Minsk who was besides receiving treatment for tuberculosis. The two fell in love, and her feelings for Merzhynsky were creditworthy for her showing a different side of herself. Examples include “ Your Letters Always Smell of Withered Roses, ” “ To Leave Everything and Fly to You, ” and “ I ‘d Like to Wind around You Like Ivy, ” which were unpublished in her life. Merzhynsky died with Ukrainka at his bedside on 3 March 1901. She wrote the integral dramatic poem “ Oderzhyma ” ( “ The own ” ) in one night at his deathbed. Ukrainka actively opposed russian tsarism and was a extremity of ukrainian Marxist organizations. In 1902 she translated the Communist Manifesto into ukrainian. She was concisely arrested in 1907 by czarist police and remained under surveillance thereafter. In 1907, Ukrainka married Klyment Kvitka, a court official, who was an amateur ethnographer and musicologist. They settled first in Crimea, then moved to Georgia. Ukrainka died on 1 August 1913 at a health recourse in Surami, Georgia .
creative activity [edit ]
poetry [edit ]
Larysa Kosach began to write poetry at the age of nine : Nadiya wrote her poetry under the influence of the news program about the destiny of her aunt Elena Antonovna Kosach ( married to Teslenko-Prykhodko ), who had been exiled for participating in the revolutionary bowel movement. In 1884 the poem “ Lily of the Valley ” and “ Sappho ” were first published in the Lviv magazine “ Zorya ” and the name Lesya Ukrainka was recorded ; In the follow reprints, Lesya added a commitment to her brother ‘s poem “ Sappho ” : “ Dear Shura Sudovshchikova in memory. ” In 1885 a solicitation of her translations from Mykola Gogol ( made together with Mykhailo ) was published in Lviv. Lesya Ukrainka ‘s literary activity revived in the mid-1890s, when the Kosachs moved to Kyiv, and she became a co-founder of the Pleiades literary circle, surrounded by the Lysenko and Starytsky families. At the request of the Pleiades, in 1889 she compiled her celebrated list of World Literature for translation. In 1892, Heinrich Heine ‘s Book of Songs was published in Lviv, translated by Lesya Ukrainka ( together with M. Slavinsky ). The first solicitation of her original poem “ On the Wings of Songs ” appeared in Lviv ( 1893 ), the second edition in Kiev ( 1904 ), the second collection “ Thoughts and Dreams ” ( 1899 ), the third “ Reviews ” ( 1902 ) – in Chernivtsi. After that, Lesya Ukrainka worked for a ten and created more than a hundred poem, half of which were never published during her life. Lesya Ukrainka entered the canyon of ukrainian literature primarily as a poet of courage and fight. Her thematically deep lyrics are slightly conditionally ( due to the relationship of motives ) divided into personal, landscape and civil. The chief themes of her early lyrical poetry : the beauty of nature, sleep together for his native down, personal experiences, the function of the poet and the function of the poetic son, sociable and social motives. In the first works the influences of Shevchenko, Kulish, Starytsky and Heine are obtrusive, the clear influences of Olena Pchilka and Mykhailo Drahomanov ( pseudonym – ukrainian ) on the choice of motives are visible. And the poetry “ Contra spem spero ! ” ( 1890 ) characterizes the ancient understanding of heroism ( arete ), bright mastery of fabulous illusions, self-creation of a womanhood warrior. It is this aspect of creativity for many years determined the spirit of scientific “ forestry ”. These are the chief motives of the poems “ To Comrades ”, “ Comrades in Memory ”, “ Sinner ”, “ Slavus – Sclavus ”, “ Fiat nox ”, “ epilogue ” and many others. The theme of exemption takes on a variety of colors : from disobedience to the traditional understand of the empire to the person choice of modus vivendi, which means discovering the truth and serving it.Betrayal on any degree is identified with calamity, with the act of Medea. The lyrics of thirst and shroud triumph associated with the inability to realize their love, exposes the scheme of chivalrous sexual love. The lyrical heroine is a knight who sings to her lady of the center. The eroticism of such poems as “ I would like to embrace you like an ivy ”, “ Your letters always smell of dried-up roses ” are mysterious praises in honor of the divine mistress.
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drama [edit ]
In the second half of the 90 ‘s Kosach turned to drama. Her first drama, The Blue Rose ( 1896 ), from the life of the ukrainian intelligentsia, expands on the composition of ukrainian drama, which until then had portrayed largely the peasantry. The drama testified to Lesya Ukrainka ‘s submission into the advanced worldly concern — first of all, the global of the symbol — and her rather absolve “ palpate. ” To cover the topic of human average and abnormality, the writer thoroughly prepared and studied the issues, consulted with a psychiatrist Alexander Drahomanov. The philosophic discourse of play, imposing on Hauptmann ‘s work, presents not entirely lunacy as a shape of exemption, but besides a certain hanker for the body .
Prose [edit ]
fabrication has a particular home in Lesya Ukrainka ‘s literary heritage. The first gear stories from rural animation ( “ such is her destiny ”, “ Holy evening ! “, “ leap songs ” ) are connected in content and language with tribe songs. In the music genre of fagot tales written “ Three Pearls ”, “ Four tales of green noise ”, “ lily ”, “ Trouble will teach ”, “ Butterfly ”. The stories “ Pity ” and “ Friendship ” are marked by sharp drama. The ukrainian woman ‘s end history “ Ekbal Hanem ”, intended to depict the psychology of an arab womanhood, remained bare .
research of life and creativity [edit ]
Museums Lesya Ukrainka ‘s life sentence and cultivate are studied by the Lesya Ukrainka Research Institute .
bequest [edit ]
- ukrainian karbovanets depicting Lesya Ukrainka
- soviet four- kopek stamp commemorating the hundredth anniversary of Lesya Ukrainka ‘s birth
- portrayal on obverse ₴200 bill circa 2007
- Lesya Ukrainka Statue, University of Saskatchewan
- Lesya Ukrainka ‘s burying location and repository at Baikove Cemetery in Kyiv
- Statue of Lesya Ukrainka by Mykailo Chereshniovsky erected in 1975 in High Park, in Toronto, Canada. Engraved is the quote “ Whoever liberates themselves shall be dislodge. Whoever is liberated by others captive shall remain ” .
There are many monuments to Lesya Ukrainka in Ukraine and many other former soviet Republics. particularly in Kyiv, there is a main memorial at the avenue that bears her name and a smaller memorial in the Mariinskyi Park ( future to Mariinskyi Palace ). There is besides a bust in Garadagh raion of Azerbaijan. One of the main Kyiv theaters, the Lesya Ukrainka National Academic Theater of russian Drama is colloquially referred to merely as Lesya Ukrainka Theater. Under initiatives of local ukrainian diaspora, there are several memorial societies and monuments to her throughout Canada and the United States, most notably a monument on the campus of the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. [ 15 ] There is besides a break of Ukrainka in Soyuzivka in New York State. Each summer since 1975, Ukrainians in Toronto accumulate at the Lesya Ukrainka memorial in High Park to celebrate her liveliness and work. [ 16 ] On 28 May 2007, the National Bank of Ukraine released a 200- hryvnia bill depicting Lesya Ukrainka. According to image adviser Oleh Pokalchuk, Ukrainka ‘s hairdo inspired the over-the-head braid of Yulia Tymoshenko. [ 17 ] According to Google Trends, Lesya Ukrainka was in 2020 the third in the ranking of ukrainian women search queries in Google Search in Ukraine ( the lead two was Tina Karol and Olya Polyakova ). [ 18 ]
english translations [edit ]
- The Babylonian Captivity, (play), from Five Russian Plays, With One From the Ukrainian, Dutton, NY, 1916. from Archive.org;
- In the Catacombs (play) translated by David Turow;
- Short stories; “Christmas Eve”, “The Moth”, “Spring Songs”, “It is Late”, “The Only Son”, “The School”, “Happiness”, “A City of Sorrow”, “The Farewell”, “Sonorous Strings”, “A Letter to a Distant Shore”, “By the Sea”, “The Blind Man”, “The Apparition”, “The Mistake”, “A Moment”, “The Conversation” and “The Enemies” translated by Roma Franko;
- The Forest Song, (play), in “In a Different Light: A Bilingual Anthology of Ukrainian Literature Translated into English by Virlana Tkacz and Wanda Phipps as Performed by Yara Arts Group”, compiled and edited by Olha Luchuk, Sribne Slovo Press, Lviv 2008.
theatrical adaptations of works [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
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