Taekwondo – Wikipedia

martial artwork from Korea

Taekwondo, Tae Kwon Do or Taekwon-Do ( ; [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] korean : 태권도/跆拳道 [ tʰɛ.k͈wʌn.do ] ( ) ) is a korean shape of soldierly arts, characterized by punching and kicking techniques, with emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques. The misprint translation for tae kwon do is “ kicking, ” “ punch, ” and “ the artwork or way of. ” [ 6 ] They are a kind of soldierly arts in which one attacks or defends with hands and feet anytime or anywhere, with casual consumption of weapons. The physical prepare undertake in Taekwondo is purposeful and fosters forte of mind through mental arming. [ 7 ] tae kwon do practitioners wear a uniform, known as a dobok. It is a fight frolic and was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by korean martial artists with know in warlike arts such as karate, taiwanese martial arts, and autochthonal korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyon, Subak, and Gwonbeop. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The oldest government body for Taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ), formed in 1959 through a collaborative campaign by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The main international organizational bodies for Taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ), founded by Choi Hong Hi in 1966, and the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo ( WT, once World Taekwondo Federation or WTF ), founded in 1972 and 1973 respectively by the Korea Taekwondo Association. [ 10 ] Gyeorugi ( [ kjʌɾuɡi ] ), a type of full-contact spar, has been an Olympic consequence since 2000. The governing body for Taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo.

history [edit ]

Beginning in 1945, curtly after the end of World War II and japanese Occupation, new soldierly arts schools called kwans opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean soldierly artists with backgrounds in japanese [ 11 ] and chinese martial arts. At the time, autochthonal disciplines ( such as Taekkyeon ) were all but forgotten, due to years of worsen and repression by the japanese colonial government. The umbrella term traditional Taekwondo typically refers to the soldierly arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term “ Taekwondo ” had not however been coined at that meter, and indeed each kwan ( school ) was practicing its own singular fighting dash. In 1952, south korean president of the united states Syngman Rhee witnessed a martial arts demonstration by ROK Army officers Choi Hong-hi and Nam Tae-hi from the 29th Infantry Division. He misrecognized the technique on display as Taekkyeon, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and urged martial arts to be introduced to the army under a single organization. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a incorporate korean martial art. Until then, Tang Soo Do was used to name korean Karate, using the korean hanja pronunciation of the japanese kanji ( 唐手道 ). The name Tae Soo Do ( 跆手道 ) was besides used to describe a unite style Korean martial arts. [ citation needed ] This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae “ to stomp, trample ”, 手 su “ hand ” and 道 do “ direction, discipline “. Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the appoint Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su “ hand ” by 拳 kwon ( Revised Romanization : gwon ; McCune–Reischauer : kkwŏn ) “ fist ”, the term besides used for “ warlike arts ” in Chinese ( pinyin quán ). [ 15 ] The name was besides the closest to the pronunciation of Taekkyeon, [ 16 ] in accord with the views of the president of the united states. [ 12 ] [ 17 ] The new name was initially dull to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. During this time Taekwondo was besides adopted for habit by the south korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian warlike arts schools. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association or KTA ( then-Korea Tang Soo Do Association ) was established to facilitate the union of korean warlike arts. General Choi, of the Oh Do Kwan, wanted all the other member kwans of the KTA to adopt his own Chan Hon-style of Taekwondo, as a unify style. This was, however, met with resistance as the early kwans alternatively wanted a mix stylus to be created based on inputs from all the kwans, to serve as a way to bring on the inheritance and characteristics of all of the styles, not just the expressive style of a single kwan. [ 10 ] As a reaction to this, along with disagreements about teaching Taekwondo in North Korea and unifying the wholly korean Peninsula, Choi broke with the KTA in 1966, in ordering to establish the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) — a separate government consistency devoted to institutionalizing his own style of Taekwondo in Canada. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] initially, the south korean president of the united states, having close ties to General Choi, gave General Choi ‘s ITF limited hold. [ 10 ] however, the south korean government wished to avoid union korean charm on the soldierly artwork. conversely, ITF president of the united states Choi Hong Hi sought confirm for his style of Taekwondo from all quarters, including North Korea. In response, in 1972 South Korea withdrew its hold for the ITF. The ITF continued to function as an mugwump confederation, then headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Choi continued to develop the ITF-style, notably with the 1983 publication of his Encyclopedia of Taekwondo. After Choi ‘s retirement, the ITF separate in 2001 and then again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate nowadays under the same name. [ 10 ] In 1972 the KTA and the south korean politics ‘s Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for Taekwondo. Kukkiwon now serves many of the functions previously served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored incorporate style of Taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA and Kukkiwon supported the institution of the World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF, renamed to World Taekwondo in 2017 ascribable to confusion with the initialism [ 18 ] ) to promote the coltish side of Kukki-Taekwondo. WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo. [ 10 ] [ 19 ] For this rationality, Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo is often referred to as WT-style Taekwondo, sport-style Taekwondo, or Olympic-style Taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WT. Since 2021, Taekwondo has been one of three asian soldierly arts ( the others being judo and karate ), and one of six total ( the others being the previously mentioned, classical wrestling, freestyle wrestling, and boxing ) included in the Olympic Games. It started as a demonstration consequence at the 1988 games in Seoul, a class after becoming a decoration consequence at the Pan Am Games, and became an official decoration event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, Taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games frolic. [ 20 ]

Features [edit ]

Flying twin foot side kick back A jump reverse hook kick Taekwondo is characterized by its vehemence on head-height kicks, jump and spinning kicks, and flying kicking techniques. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award extra points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both. [ 21 ] To facilitate fast, turning kicks, Taekwondo broadly adopts stances that are narrower and taller than the broader, broad stances used by soldierly arts such as karate. The tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility, particularly in Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo .

hypothesis of power [edit ]

The stress on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of Taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi. The results of that analysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi ‘s Theory of Power. Choi based his understand of office on biomechanics and newtonian physics adenine well as chinese martial arts. For exercise, Choi observed that the kinetic energy of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the hit, but increases only linearly with the mass of the strike object. In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power. This principle was incorporated into the early design of Taekwondo and is hush used. [ 12 ] [ 22 ] Choi besides advocated a relax/strike principle for Taekwondo ; in other words, between blocks, kicks, and strikes the practitioner should relax the consistency, then tense the muscles entirely while performing the proficiency. It is believed that the relax/strike rationale increases the power of the proficiency, by conserving the body ‘s energy. He expanded on this principle with his advocacy of the sine wave proficiency. This involves raising one ‘s center of gravity between techniques, then lowering it as the technique is performed, producing the up-and-down apparent motion from which the term “ sine wave ” is derived. [ 22 ] The sine wave is broadly practiced, however, alone in schools that follow ITF-style Taekwondo. Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo, for example, does not employ the sine wave and advocates a more undifferentiated height during movements, drawing power chiefly from the rotation of the hip. The components of the Theory of Power include : [ 23 ]

  • Reaction Force: the principle that as the striking limb is brought forward, other parts of the body should be brought backwards in order to provide more power to the striking limb. As an example, if the right leg is brought forward in a roundhouse kick, the right arm is brought backwards to provide the reaction force.
  • Concentration: the principle of bringing as many muscles as possible to bear on a strike, concentrating the area of impact into as small an area as possible.
  • Equilibrium: maintaining a correct centre-of-balance throughout a technique.
  • Breath Control: the idea that during a strike one should exhale, with the exhalation concluding at the moment of impact.
  • Mass: the principle of bringing as much of the body to bear on a strike as possible; again using the turning kick as an example, the idea would be to rotate the hip as well as the leg during the kick in order to take advantage of the hip’s additional mass in terms of providing power to the kick.
  • Speed: as previously noted, the speed of execution of a technique in Taekwondo is deemed to be even more important than mass in terms of providing power.

typical course of study [edit ]

A young red/black-belt performs Koryo While organizations such as ITF or Kukkiwon define the general vogue of Taekwondo, individual clubs and schools tend to tailor their Taekwondo practices. Although each Taekwondo cabaret or educate is different, a scholar typically takes partially in most or all of the comply : [ 24 ]

  • Forms (pumsae / poomsae 품새, hyeong / hyung 형/型 or teul / tul 틀): these serve the same function as kata in the study of karate
  • Sparring (gyeorugi 겨루기 or matseogi 맞서기): sparring includes variations such as freestyle sparring (in which competitors spar without interruption for several minutes); seven-, three-, two-, and one-step sparring (in which students practice pre-arranged sparring combinations); and point sparring (in which sparring is interrupted and then resumed after each point is scored)
  • Breaking ( gyeokpa 격파/擊破 or weerok): the breaking of boards is used for testing, training, and martial arts demonstrations. Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, and blocks of ice or other materials. These techniques can be separated into three types:
    • Power breaking – using straightforward techniques to break as many boards as possible
    • Speed breaking – boards are held loosely by one edge, putting special focus on the speed required to perform the break
    • Special techniques – breaking fewer boards but by using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater height, distance, or to clear obstacles
  • Self-defense techniques ( hosinsul 호신술/護身術)
  • Learning the fundamental techniques of Taekwondo; these generally include kicks, blocks, punches, and strikes, with somewhat less emphasis on grappling and holds
  • Throwing and/or falling techniques ( deonjigi 던지기 or tteoreojigi 떨어지기)
  • Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
  • Relaxation and meditation exercises, as well as breathing control
  • A focus on mental and ethical discipline, etiquette, justice, respect, and self-confidence
  • Examinations to progress to the next rank
  • Development of personal success and leadership skills

Though weapons training is not a ball part of most Taekwondo federation course of study, person schools will often incorporate extra train with weapons such as staffs, knives, and sticks .

equipment and facilities [edit ]

A Taekwondo practitioner typically wears a uniform ( dobok 도복/道服 ), much white but sometimes black ( or other colors ), with a belt tied around the waist. White uniforms are considered the traditional color and are normally encouraged for use at formal ceremonies such as belt out tests and promotions. Colored uniforms are frequently reserved for limited teams ( such as demonstration teams or leadership teams ) or higher-level instructors. There are at least three major styles of dobok, with the most obvious differences being in the style of jacket :

  1. The cross-over front jacket (usually seen in ITF style), in which the opening of the jacket is vertical.
  2. The cross-over Y-neck jacket (usually seen in the Kukkiwon/WT style, especially for poomsae competitions), in which the opening of the jacket crosses the torso diagonally.
  3. The pull-over V-neck jacket (usually seen in Kukkiwon/WT style, especially for sparring competitions).

White uniforms in the Kukkiwon/WT custom will typically be white throughout the jacket ( black spare along the collars only for dan grades ), while ITF-style uniforms are normally trimmed with a total darkness boundary line along the collar and penetrate of the jacket ( for dan grades ). The swath color and any insignia thereon indicate the scholar ‘s rank and file. different clubs and schools use different color schemes for belts. In general, the dark the color, the higher the absolute. Taekwondo is traditionally performed in bare feet, although martial arts training shoes may sometimes be worn. When spar, cushioned equipment is normally wear. In the ITF custom, typically only the hands and feet are padded. For this reason, ITF sparring frequently employs only light-contact spar. In the Kukkiwon/WT custom, full-contact spar is facilitated by the employment of more across-the-board equipment : padded helmets called homyun are always wear, as are padded torso protectors called hogu ; feet, shins, groins, hands, and forearms protectors are besides worn. The school or locate where instruction is given is called a dojang ( 도장, 道場 ). specifically, dojang refers to the area within the school in which martial arts instruction takes place ; the parole dojang is sometimes translated as gymnasium. In common use, the term dojang is often used to refer to the educate as a unharmed. modern dojangs often incorporate slog floor, much incorporating red-and-blue patterns in the shock to reflect the colors of the taegeuk symbol. Some dojangs have wooden floor alternatively. The dojang is normally decorated with items such as flags, banners, belts, instructional materials, and traditional korean calligraphy .

Styles and organizations [edit ]

A “ family tree ” illustrating how the five original kwans gave rise to multiple styles of Taekwondo. There are a number of major Taekwondo styles a well as a few recess styles. Most styles are associated with a governing body or confederation that defines the style. [ 25 ] The major technical differences among Taekwondo styles and organizations broadly revolve around :

  • the patterns practiced by each style (called hyeong 형, pumsae 품새, or tul 틀, depending on the style); these are sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique
  • differences in the sparring rules for competition.
  • martial arts philosophy.

1946 : traditional tae kwon do [edit ]

The term traditional Taekwondo typically refers to warlike arts practised in Korea during the 1940s and 1950s by the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, after the conclusion of the japanese occupation of Korea at the end of World War II. The condition Taekwondo had not yet been coined, and in reality, each of the nine original kwans practised its own dash of martial art. The term traditional Taekwondo serves largely as an umbrella term for these respective styles, as they themselves used respective other names such as Tang Soo Do ( Chinese Hand Way ), [ barn ] Kong Soo Do ( Empty Hand Way ) [ speed of light ] and Tae Soo Do ( Foot Hand Way ). [ vitamin d ] Traditional Taekwondo is still practised today but broadly under other names, such as Tang Soo Do and Soo Bahk Do. [ 10 ] [ 12 ] In 1959, the name Taekwondo was agreed upon by the nine original kwans as a coarse term for their soldierly arts. As part of the fusion march, The Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ) was formed through a collaborative effort by representatives from all the kwans, and the knead began on a coarse course of study, which finally resulted in the Kukkiwon and the Kukki Style of Taekwondo. The original kwans that formed KTA continues to exist today, but as mugwump fraternal membership organizations that support the World Taekwondo and Kukkiwon. The kwans besides function as a channel for the publish of Kukkiwon dan and poom authentication ( black belt ranks ) for their members. The official course of study of those kwans that joined the union is that of the Kukkiwon, with the luminary exception of half the Oh Do Kwan which joined the ITF alternatively and consequently uses the Chan Hon course of study .

1966 : ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo [edit ]

International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) -style Taekwondo, more accurately known as Chang Hon-style Taekwondo, is defined by Choi Hong Hi ‘s Encyclopedia of Taekwon-Do published in 1983. [ 22 ] In 1990, the Global Taekwondo Federation ( GTF ) split from the ITF ascribable to the political controversies surrounding the ITF ; the GTF continues to practice ITF-style Taekwondo, however, with extra elements incorporated into the style. Likewise, the ITF itself split in 2001 and again in 2002 into three discriminate federations, headquartered in Austria, the United Kingdom, and Spain respectively. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The GTF and all three ITFs practice Choi ‘s ITF-style Taekwondo. In ITF-style Taekwondo, the word used for “ forms ” is tul ; the particular bent of tul used by the ITF is called Chang Hon. Choi defined 24 Chang Hon tul. The names and symbolism of the Chang Hon tul consult to elements of korean history, culture and religious philosophy. The GTF-variant of ITF practices an extra six tul. Within the ITF Taekwondo tradition there are two sub-styles :

  • The style of Taekwondo practised by the ITF before its 1973 split with the KTA is sometimes called by ITF practitioners “traditional Taekwondo”, though a more accurate term would be traditional ITF Taekwondo.
  • After the 1973 split, Choi Hong Hi continued to develop and refine the style, ultimately publishing his work in his 1983 Encyclopedia of Taekwondo. Among the refinements incorporated into this new sub-style is the “sine wave”; one of Choi Hong Hi’s later principles of Taekwondo is that the body’s centre of gravity should be raised-and-lowered throughout a movement.

Some ITF schools adopt the sine wave style, while others do not. basically all ITF schools do, however, use the patterns ( tul ) defined in the Encyclopedia, with some exceptions related to the forms Juche and Ko-Dang .

1969 : ATA/Songahm-style tae kwon do [edit ]

In 1969, Haeng Ung Lee, a former Taekwondo teacher in the south korean military, relocated to Omaha, Nebraska and established a chain of warlike arts schools in the United States under the streamer of the American Taekwondo Association ( ATA ). Like Jhoon Rhee Taekwondo, ATA Taekwondo has its roots in traditional Taekwondo. The style of Taekwondo practised by the ATA is called Songahm Taekwondo. The ATA went on to become one of the largest chains of Taekwondo schools in the United States. [ 29 ] The ATA established international spin-offs called the Songahm Taekwondo Federation ( STF ) and the World Traditional Taekwondo Union ( WTTU ) to promote the rehearse of Songahm Taekwondo internationally. In 2015, all the spin-offs were reunited under the umbrella of ATA International .

1970s : Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo [edit ]

not to be confused with Rhee Taekwon-Do In 1962 Jhoon Rhee, upon graduating from college in Texas, relocated to and established a chain of soldierly arts schools in the Washington, D.C. area that practiced traditional Taekwondo. [ einsteinium ] In the 1970s, at the goad of Choi Hong Hi, Rhee adopted ITF-style Taekwondo within his chain of schools, but like the GTF late departed from the ITF due to the political controversies surrounding Choi and the ITF. Rhee went on to develop his own style of Taekwondo called Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo, incorporating elements of both traditional and ITF-style Taekwondo deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as original elements. [ 30 ] Jhoon Rhee-style Taekwondo is still practised chiefly in the United States and eastern Europe .
relative popularity of Kukkiwon-style Taekwondo around the global In 1972 the Korea Taekwondo Association ( KTA ) Central Dojang opened in Seoul ; in 1973 the name was changed to Kukkiwon. Under the sponsorship of the south korean government ‘s Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism the Kukkiwon became the newfangled national academy for Taekwondo, thereby establishing a new “ unify ” style of Taekwondo. [ 19 ] In 1973 the KTA established the World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF, now called World Taekwondo, WT ) to promote the coltish side of Kukki-Taekwondo. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WT and Taekwondo spar in 1980. For this reason, the Kukkiwon-defined style of Taekwondo is sometimes referred to as Sport-style Taekwondo, Olympic-style Taekwondo, or WT-style Taekwondo, but the style itself is defined by the Kukkiwon, not by the WT, and the WT contest ruleset itself only allows the use of a identical small phone number of the total count of techniques included in the style. [ 31 ] Therefore, the right term for the south korean government sponsored vogue of Taekwondo associated with the Kukkiwon, is Kukki Taekwondo, meaning “ national Taekwondo ” in Korean. The color belts range from ashen to junior black belt ( one-half black, one-half red ) or plain red [ citation needed ]. The ordain and colours used may vary between schools, but a common [ according to whom? ] order is white, chicken, fleeceable, bluing, bolshevik, black [ citation needed ]. however, early variations with a higher number of discolor is besides normally seen. A common practice [ according to whom? ], when employing lone four coloured belts, is to stay at each belt semblance for the duration of two gup ranks, making a full of eight gup ranks between white knock and 1st. dan black belt. In order to make a ocular dispute between the first and second gup rank of given belt tinge, a stripe in the lapp color as the future belt color is added to the second cup rank in some schools. In Kukki-style Taekwondo, the son used for “ forms ” is poomsae. In 1967 the KTA established a new bent of forms called the Palgwae poomsae, named after the eight trigrams of the I Ching. In 1971 however ( after extra kwans had joined the KTA ), the KTA and Kukkiwon adopted a new set of color-belt forms alternatively, called the Taegeuk poomsae. Black belt forms are called yudanja poomsae. While ITF-style forms refer to key elements of korean history, Kukki-style forms refer alternatively to elements of sino-Korean philosophy such as the I Ching and the taegeuk. WT-sanctioned tournaments allow any person, careless of school affiliation or warlike arts manner, to compete in WT events ampere long as he or she is a member of the WT Member National Association in his or her state ; this allows basically anyone to compete in WT-sanctioned competitions .

early styles and hybrids [edit ]

As previously mentioned, in 1990 the Global Taekwondo Federation ( GTF ) disconnected from the International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) to form its own style of Taekwondo based on ITF-style. basically this can be considered a variation of ITF-style. besides in 1990, martial artist and actor Chuck Norris, an alumnus of Hwang Kee ‘s Moo Duk Kwan arrangement, established a hybrid soldierly art organization called Chun Kuk Do. Chun Kuk Do shares many techniques, forms and names with Tang Soo Do and Taekwondo, and then can be considered a variation of traditional Taekwondo. similarly, Lim Ching Sing ‘s Hup Kwon Do and Kwang-jo Choi ‘s Choi Kwang Do besides derive from Taekwondo. additionally, there are hybrid martial arts that combine Taekwondo with other styles. These include :

  • Extreme Taekwondo: a complex version of World Taekwondo Federation, which combines elements from all Taekwondo styles, Tricking (martial arts), similarities from other martial arts
  • Kun Gek Do[32] (also Gwon Gyokdo): combines Taekwondo and muay thai.
  • Han Moo Do: Scandinavian martial art that combines Taekwondo, hapkido, and hoi jeon moo sool.
  • Han Mu Do: Korean martial art that combines Taekwondo and hapkido.
  • Teukgong Moosool: Korean martial art that combines elements of Taekwondo, hapkido, judo, kyuk too ki, and Chinese martial arts.
  • Yongmudo: developed at Korea’s Yong-In University, combines Taekwondo, hapkido, judo, and ssireum.

Forms ( patterns ) [edit ]

Finland A demonstration at Kuopio-halli in Kuopio Three korean terms may be used with reference to Taekwondo forms or patterns. These forms are equivalent to kata in karate .

  • Hyeong (sometimes romanized as hyung) is the term usually used in traditional Taekwondo (i.e., 1950s–1960s styles of Korean martial arts).
  • Poomsae (sometimes romanized as pumsae or poomse) is the term officially used by Kukkiwon/WT-style and ATA-style Taekwondo.
  • Teul (officially romanized as tul) is the term usually used in ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo.

A hyeong is a taxonomic, prearranged sequence of soldierly techniques that is performed either with or without the use of a weapon. In dojangs ( Taekwondo training gymnasiums ) hyeong are used primarily as a form of time interval train that is useful in developing mushin, proper kinetics and mental and forcible fortitude. Hyeong may resemble battle, but are artistically non-combative and weave together so as to be an effective discipline instrument. One ‘s aptitude for a finical hyeong may be evaluated in contest. In such competitions, hyeong are evaluated by a panel of judges who base the score on many factors including energy, preciseness, speed, and master. In western competitions, there are two general classes of hyeong : creative and standard. creative hyeong are created by the performer and are by and large acrobatic in nature and do not necessarily reflect the energizing principles intrinsic in any martial system. Different Taekwondo styles and associations ( ATA, ITF, GTF, WT, etc. ) use different Taekwondo forms. even within a unmarried association, different schools in the affiliation may use slightly different variations on the forms or use different names for the lapp phase ( particularly in older styles of Taekwondo ). This is specially true for novice forms, which tend to be less standardized than mainstream forms .

Ranks, belts, and promotion [edit ]

Taekwondo ranks vary from dash to vogue and are not standardized. typically, these ranks are separated into “ junior ” and “ elder ” sections, colloquially referred to as “ color belts ” and “ black belt ” :

  • The junior section of ranks—the “color belt” ranks—are indicated by the Korean word geup

    급 (級)

    (also Romanized as gup or kup). Practitioners in these ranks generally wear belts ranging in color from white (the lowest rank) to red or brown (higher ranks, depending on the style of Taekwondo). Belt colors may be solid or may include a colored stripe on a solid background. The number of geup ranks varies depending on the style, typically ranging between 8 and 12 geup ranks. The numbering sequence for geup ranks usually begins at the larger number of white belts, and then counts down to “1st geup” as the highest color-belt rank.

  • The senior section of ranks—the “black belt” ranks—is typically made up of nine ranks. Each rank is called a dan

    단 (段)

    or “degree” (as in “third dan” or “third-degree black belt”). The numbering sequence for dan ranks is opposite that of geup ranks: numbering begins at 1st dan (the lowest black-belt rank) and counts upward for higher ranks. A practitioner’s degree is sometimes indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods.

Some styles incorporate an extra rank between the geup and dan levels, called the “ bo-dan ” rank—essentially, a campaigner rate for black belt out promotion. additionally, the Kukkiwon/WT-style of Taekwondo recognizes a “ poom ” social station for practitioners under the age of 15 : these practitioners have passed dan-level tests but will not receive dan-level rank until age 15. At senesce 15, their poom rank is considered to transition to equivalent dan membership automatically. In some schools, holders of the poom social station wear a half-red/half-black belt rather than a solid total darkness swath. To advance from one rank to the following, students typically complete promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the diverse aspects of the art before their teacher or a panel of judges. promotion tests vary from educate to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine assorted techniques in specific sequences ; the break of boards to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both might and control ; sparring and self-defense to demonstrate the hardheaded application and control of techniques ; physical fitness normally with push-ups and sit-ups ; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, and history to demonstrate cognition and understand of the artwork. For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or submit a research newspaper in addition to taking the virtual test. promotion from one geup to the next can proceed quickly in some schools since schools much allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of geup crying learn the most basic techniques first, and then move on to more advance techniques as they approach first dan. Many of the older and more traditional schools much take longer to allow students to test for higher ranks than newer, more contemporary schools, as they may not have the needed testing intervals. In contrast, forwarding from one dan to the adjacent can take years. In fact, some styles impose age or time-in-rank limits on dan promotions. For model, the number of years between one dan forwarding to the following may be limited to a minimum of the practitioner ‘s current dan-rank, so that ( for model ) a fifth dan practitioner must wait 5 years to test for 6th dan. Black belt ranks may have titles associated with them, such as “ master ” and “ teacher ”, but Taekwondo organizations vary widely in rules and standards when it comes to ranks and titles. What holds true in one constitution may not hold true in another, as is the lawsuit in many soldierly artwork systems. For model, achieving first dan ( black belt) rank with three years ‘ educate might be typical in one organization but considered besides quick in another organization, and besides for other ranks. similarly, the championship for a given dan rank in one constitution might not be the same as the claim for that dan rank in another arrangement. In the International Taekwon-Do Federation, instructors holding 1st to 3rd dan are called Boosabum ( adjunct teacher ), those holding 4th to 6th dan are called Sabum ( teacher ), those holding 7th to 8th dan are called Sahyun ( passkey ), and those holding 9th dan are called Saseong ( grandmaster ). [ 39 ] This system does not, however, necessarily apply to early Taekwondo organizations. In the American Taekwondo Association, teacher designations are separate from rate. Black belt may be designated as an teacher trainee ( crimson, white and blue collar ), specialization trainer ( loss and black collar ), certified flight simulator ( black-red-black collar ) and certified teacher ( black collar ). After a annual wait period, instructors who hold the one-sixth dan are eligible for the title of Master. Seventh dan black belts are eligible for the title Senior Master and one-eighth dan black belts are eligible for the title Chief Master.

In WT/Kukki-Taekwondo, instructors holding 1st. to 3rd. dan are considered assistant instructors ( kyosa-nim ), are not so far allowed to issue ranks, and are broadly thought of as hush having much to learn. Instructors who hold a fourth. to 6th. dan are considered master instructors ( sabum-nim ), and are allowed to grade students to color knock ranks from 4th. dan, and to black belt/dan-ranks from 6th. dan. Those who hold a 7th–9th dan are considered Grandmasters. These ranks besides hold an old age requirement of 40+. [ 40 ] In this style, a tenth dan rank is sometimes awarded posthumously for practitioners with a life of demonstrable contributions to the practice of Taekwondo .

historical influences [edit ]

The oldest korean martial arts were an amalgamation of disarm combat styles developed by the three rival korean Kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje, [ 41 ] where young men were trained in unarmed battle techniques to develop strength, accelerate, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques were ssireum, subak, and Taekkyon. The Northern Goguryeo kingdom was a dominant military unit in Northern Korea and North Eastern China anterior to the first century CE, and again from the third century to the sixth hundred. Before the fall of the Goguryeo Dynasty in the sixth century, the Silla Kingdom asked for avail in training its people for defense against plagiarist invasions. During this time a few choose Silla warriors were given training in Taekkyon by the early masters from Goguryeo. These Silla warriors then became known as Hwarang or “ bloom knights. ” The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do { 花郎徒 }, which means “ flower-youth corps. ” The Hwarang studied Taekkyon, history, confucian philosophy, ethics, Buddhist morality, social skills, and military tactics. The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were based on Won Gwang ‘s five codes of human conduct and included commitment, filial duty, trustworthiness, heroism, and justice. [ 42 ] In malice of Korea ‘s rich history of ancient and martial arts, korean soldierly arts faded during the recently Joseon Dynasty. korean company became highly centralized under korean Confucianism, and warlike arts were ailing regarded in a company whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings. [ 43 ] Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as subak and Taekkyon were reserved for sanction military uses. however, Taekkyon persisted into the nineteenth hundred as a family game during the May-Dano festival, and was still taught as the courtly military martial art throughout the Joseon Dynasty. [ 41 ] early progenitors of Taekwondo—the founders of the nine original kwans —who were able to study in Japan were exposed to japanese martial arts, including karate, judo, and kendo, [ 44 ] while others were exposed to the martial arts of China and Manchuria, angstrom well as to the autochthonal korean warlike artwork of Taekkyon. [ 9 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Hwang Kee founder of Moo Duk Kwan, promote incorporate elements of korean Gwonbeop from the Muye Dobo Tongji into the dash that finally became Tang Soo Do. The historical influences of Taekwondo is controversial with a rent between two schools of intend : traditionalism and revisionism. traditionalism holds that the origins of Taekwondo can be traced through korean martial arts while revisionism, which has become the prevailing theory, argues that Taekwondo is rooted in Karate. [ 48 ] Traditionalism has chiefly been supported by the korean politics as a concerted attempt to divorce korean soldierly arts from their japanese past to give Korean a “ legitimate cultural past ”. [ 49 ]

philosophy [edit ]

different styles of Taekwondo adopt different philosophic underpinnings. many of these underpinnings however refer back to the Five Commandments of the Hwarang as a historical referent. For model, Choi Hong Hi expressed his philosophical basis for Taekwondo as the Five Tenets of Taekwondo : [ 50 ]

  • Courtesy ( yeui / 예의, 禮儀)
  • Integrity ( yeomchi / 염치, 廉恥)
  • Perseverance ( innae / 인내, 忍耐)
  • Self-control ( geukgi / 극기, 克己)
  • Indomitable spirit ( baekjeolbulgul / 백절불굴, 百折不屈)

These tenets are further articulated in a Taekwondo oath, besides authored by Choi :

  • I shall observe the tenets of Taekwondo
  • I shall respect the instructor and seniors
  • I shall never misuse Taekwondo
  • I shall be a champion of freedom and justice
  • I shall build a more peaceful world

Modern ITF organizations have continued to update and expand upon this philosophy. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] The World Taekwondo Federation ( WTF ) besides refers to the commandments of the Hwarang in the joint of its Taekwondo philosophy. [ 53 ] Like the ITF philosophy, it centers on the development of a passive society as one of the overarch goals for the rehearse of Taekwondo. The WT ‘s declared philosophy is that this goal can be furthered by adoption of the Hwarang emotional state, by behaving rationally ( “ education in accordance with the reason of heaven ” ), and by recognition of the philosophies embodied in the taegeuk ( the yin and the yang, i.e., “ the integrity of opposites ” ) and the surface-to-air missile taegeuk ( understand change in the global as the interactions of the heavens, the Earth, and Man ). The philosophical position articulated by the Kukkiwon is besides based on the Hwarang custom. [ 54 ]

contest [edit ]

Sparring in a Taekwondo class Taekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, and patterns ; some tournaments besides include special events such as demonstration teams and self-defense ( hosinsul ). In Olympic Taekwondo contest, however, merely sparring ( using WT contest rules ) is performed. [ 55 ] There are two kinds of rival spar : point sparring, in which all strikes are idle contact and the clock is stopped when a luff is scored ; and Olympic spar, where all strikes are fully contact and the clock continues when points are scored. Sparring involves a Hogu, or a breast defender, which muffles any kick ‘s wrong to avoid serious injuries. Helmets and other gear are provided vitamin a well. Though early systems may vary, a common point system works like this : one point for a regular bang to the Hogu, two for a turn behind the kick, three for a back kick, and four for a spinning kick back to the head .

World Taekwondo ( WT ) competition [edit ]

hogu), forearm guards and shin guards official WT proboscis defender ( ), forearm guards and shin guards Under World Taekwondo ( WT, once WTF ) and Olympic rules, spar is a full-contact consequence, employing a continuous grade system where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring each proficiency, taking place between two competitors in either an area measuring 8 meters square or an octagon of exchangeable size. [ 56 ] Competitors are matched within gender and slant division—eight divisions for World Championships that are condensed to four for the Olympics. A succeed can occur by points, or if one rival is unable to continue ( knockout ). however, there are respective decisions that can lead to a win, american samoa well, including superiority, withdrawal, disqualification, or even a reviewer ‘s punitive contract. [ 57 ] Each equal consists of three two-minute rounds, with one infinitesimal rest between rounds, though these are frequently abbreviated or shortened for some junior and regional tournaments. [ 56 ] Competitors must wear a hogu, head defender, clamber pads, foot socks, forearm guards, hand gloves, a mouthpiece, and a breakwater cup. Tournaments sanctioned by home governing bodies or the WT, including the Olympics and World Championship, use electronic hogus, electronic foot socks, and electronic principal protectors to register and determine scoring techniques, with human judges used to assess and score technical ( spinning ) techniques and score punches. [ 56 ] Points are awarded for permit techniques delivered to the legal score areas as determined by an electronic score system, which assesses the strength and localization of the liaison. The only techniques allowed are kicks ( delivering a fall using an area of the foot below the ankle ), punches ( delivering a mint using the closed fist ), and pushes. In some smaller tournaments, and in the by, points were awarded by three corner judges using electronic seduce tallies. All major national and international tournaments have moved fully ( as of 2017 ) to electronic grade, including the use of electronic headgear. This limits corner judges to scoring only technical points and punches. Some believe that the newly electronic score system reduces controversy concerning judge decisions, [ 58 ] but this technology is even not universally accepted., [ 59 ] In particular, the move to electronic headdress has replaced controversy over judging with controversy over how the technology has changed the sport. Because the headgear is not able to determine if a bang was a compensate Taekwondo proficiency, and the pressure doorway for detector energizing for headgear is kept low for base hit reasons, athletes who improvised ways of placing their foot on their opponents head were able to score points, careless of how true to Taekwondo those techniques were. [ 60 ] Techniques are divided into three categories : scoring techniques ( such as a kick to the hogu ), permitted but non-scoring techniques ( such as a kick that strikes an arm ), and not-permitted techniques ( such as a kick below the shank ) .

  • A punch that makes strong contact with the opponent’s hogu scores 1 point. The punch must be a straight punch with arm extended; jabs, hooks, uppercuts, etc. are permitted but do not score. Punches to the head are not allowed.
  • A regular kick (no turning or spinning) to the hogu scores 2 points.
  • A regular kick (no turning or spinning) to the head scores 3 points
  • A technical kick (a kick that involves turning or spinning) to the hogu scores 4 points.
  • A technical kick to the head scores 5 points.
    • As of October 2010, 4 points were awarded if a turning kick was used to execute this attack. As of June 2018, this was changed to 5 points.[61]

The referee can give penalties at any time for rule-breaking, such as hitting an area not recognized as a prey, normally the legs or neck. Penalties, called “ Gam-jeom ” are counted as an addition of one point for the pit dissenter. Following 10 “ Gam-jeom ” a player is declared the loser by referee ‘s punitive declaration [ 56 ] At the end of three rounds, the rival with most points wins the match. In the event of a tie, a one-fourth “ sudden death ” overtime round, sometimes called a “ golden point ”, is held to determine the winner after a one-minute rest period. In this round, the beginning rival to score a target wins the pit. If there is no grade in the extra round, the winner is decided by superiority, as determined by the referee officials [ 61 ] or number of foul committed during that round. If a rival has a 20-point lead at the end of the second round off or achieves a 20-point jumper cable at any point in the third round, then the meet is over and that rival is declared the achiever. [ 56 ] In addition to sparring competition, World Taekwondo sanctions rival in poomsae or forms, although this is not an Olympic consequence. Single competitors perform a designate blueprint of movements, and are assessed by judges for accuracy ( accuracy of movements, proportion, preciseness of details ) and presentation ( focal ratio and power, rhythm, energy ), both of which get numeric scores, with deductions made for errors. [ 62 ] Pair and team rival is besides recognized, where two or more competitors perform the lapp form at the lapp fourth dimension. In summation to competition with the traditional forms, there is experiment with freestyle forms that allow more creativity. [ 62 ] The World Taekwondo Federation immediately sanctions the follow competitions : [ 63 ]

International Taekwon-Do Federation ( ITF ) rival [edit ]

coarse styles of ITF point sparring equipment The International Taekwon-Do Federation ‘s spar rules are exchangeable to the WT ‘s rules but differ in respective aspects .

  • Hand attacks to the head are allowed.[66]
  • The competition is not full contact, and excessive contact is not allowed.
  • Competitors are penalized with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can no longer continue (knockout).
  • The scoring system is:
    • 1 point for Punch to the body or head.
    • 2 points for Jumping kick to the body or kick to the head, or a jumping punch to the head
    • 3 points for Jumping kick to the head
  • The competition area is 9×9 meters for international events.

Competitors do not wear the hogu ( although they are required to wear approve foot and hand protection equipment, adenine well as optional head guards ). This scoring system varies between individual organisations within the ITF ; for case, in the TAGB, punches to the drumhead or body score 1 point, kicks to the body score 2 points, and kicks to the head score 3 points. A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a proficiency. excessive touch is generally not allowed according to the official ruleset, and judges penalize any rival with disqualification if they injure their opposition and he can no long continue ( although these rules vary between ITF organizations ). At the end of two minutes ( or some other intend clock ), the rival with more scoring techniques wins. Fouls in ITF sparring include : attacking a fallen opponent, branch brush, holding/grabbing, or intentional attack to a prey other than the opposition. [ 67 ] ITF competitions besides feature performances of patterns, breaking, and ‘special techniques ‘ ( where competitors perform prescribed dining table breaks at great heights ) .

Multi-discipline rival [edit ]

Some organizations deliver multi-discipline competitions, for model the british Student Taekwondo Federation ‘s inter-university competitions, which have included branch WT rules sparring, ITF rules sparring, Kukkiwon patterns and Chang-Hon patterns events run in parallel since 1992. [ 68 ]

early organizations [edit ]

American Amateur Athletic Union ( AAU ) competitions are very exchangeable, except that unlike styles of pads and gear are allowed. [ 69 ] apart from WT and ITF tournaments, major Taekwondo competitions ( all featuring WT Taekwondo alone ) include :
Taekwondo is besides an optional sport at the Commonwealth Games .

Weight divisions [edit ]

The stick to slant divisions are in effect due to the WT [ 70 ] and ITF [ 71 ] tournament rules and regulations :

Olympics
male female
−58 kg −49 kg
−68 kg −57 kg
−80 kg −67 kg
+80 kg +67 kg
WT Male
Championships
Juniors Adults
−45 kg −54 kg
−48 kg
−51 kg
−55 kg
−59 kg −58 kg
−63 kg −63 kg
−68 kg −68 kg
−73 kg −74 kg
−78 kg
+78 kg −80 kg
−87 kg
+87 kg
WT Female
Championships
Juniors Adults
−42 kg −46 kg
−44 kg
−46 kg −49 kg
−49 kg
−52 kg −53 kg
−55 kg
−59 kg −57 kg
−63 kg −62 kg
−68 kg −67 kg
+68 kg −73 kg
+73 kg
ITF Male Championships
Juniors Adults ( 18—39 year ) Veterans over 40 Veterans over 50
−45 kg −50 kg −64 kg −66 kg
−51 kg −57 kg
−57 kg −64 kg −73 kg
−63 kg −71 kg
−69 kg −78 kg −80 kg −80 kg
−75 kg −85 kg −90 kg
+75 kg +85 kg +90 kg +80 kg
ITF Female Championships
Juniors Adults ( 18—39 year ) Veterans over 40 Veterans over 50
−40 kg −45 kg −54 kg −60 kg
−46 kg −51 kg
−52 kg −57 kg −61 kg
−58 kg −63 kg
−64 kg −69 kg −68 kg −75 kg
−70 kg −75 kg −75 kg
+70 kg +75 kg +75 kg +75 kg

korean Taekwondo vocabulary [edit ]

Some common Taekwondo terminology and parts of the body In Taekwondo schools—even outside Korea— Korean speech commands and vocabulary are much used. korean numerals may be used as prompts for commands or for counting repetition exercises. Different schools and associations will use different vocabulary, however, and may even refer to wholly different techniques by the like name. As one exercise, in Kukkiwon/WT-style Taekwondo, the term ap seogi refers to an good walk position, while in ITF/Chang Hon-style Taekwondo ap seogi refers to a long, low, front stance. korean vocabulary normally used in Taekwondo schools includes :

Basic Commands
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Attention 차렷 Charyeot
Ready 준비 準備 Junbi
Begin 시작 始作 Sijak
Finish / Stop 그만 Geuman
Bow 경례 敬禮 Gyeonglye
Resume / Continue 계속 繼續 Gyesok
Return to ready 바로 Baro
Relax / At ease 쉬어 Swieo
Rest / Take a break 휴식 休息 Hyusik
Turn around / About face 뒤로돌아 Dwirodora
Yell 기합 氣合 Gihap
Look / Focus 시선 視線 Siseon
By the count 구령에 맞춰서 口令에 맞춰서 Guryeong-e majchwoseo
Without count 구령 없이 口令 없이 Guryeong eobs-i
Switch feet 발 바꿔 Bal bakkwo
Dismissed 해산 解散 Haesan
Hand Techniques
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Hand Techniques 수 기 手技 Su gi
Attack / Strike / Hit 공격 攻擊 Gong-gyeog
Strike 치기 Chigi
Block 막기 Magki
Punch/hit Gwon
Punch 지르기 Jireugi
Middle punch 중 권 中拳 Jung gwon
Middle Punch 몸통 지르기 Momtong jireugi
Back fist 갑 권 甲拳 / 角拳 Gab gwon
Back fist 등주먹 Deungjumeog
Knife hand (edge) 수도 手刀 Su Do
Knife hand (edge) 손날 Son Kal
Thrust / spear Gwan
Thrust / spear 찌르기 Jjileugi
Spear hand 관 수 貫手 Gwan su
Spear hand (lit. fingertip) 손끝 Sonkkeut
Ridge hand 역 수도 逆手刀 Yeog su do
Ridge hand (lit. reverse hand blade) 손날등 Sonnaldeung
Hammer fist 권도 拳刀 / 拳槌 Gweon do
Pliers hand 집게 손 Jibge son
Palm heel 장관 掌貫 Jang gwan
Palm heel 바탕손 Batangson
Elbow 팔꿈 Palkkum
Gooseneck 손목 등 Sonmog deung
Side punch 횡진 공격 橫進攻擊 Hoengjin gong gyeog
Side punch 옆 지르기 Yeop jileugi
Mountain block 산 막기 山막기 San maggi
One finger fist 일 지 권 一指拳 il ji gwon
1 finger spear hand 일 지관 수 一指貫手 il ji gwan su
2 finger spear hand 이지관수 二指貫手 i ji gwan su
Double back fist 장갑권 長甲拳 Jang gab gwon
Double hammer fist 장 권도 長拳刀 Jang gwon do
Foot Techniques
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Foot Techniques 족기 足技 Jog gi
Kick 차기 Chagi
Front snap kick 앞 차기 Ap chagi
…also Front snap kick 앞 차넣기 Ap chaneohgi
…also Front snap kick 앞 뻗어 차기 Ap ppeod-eo chagi
Inside-out heel kick 안에서 밖으로 차기 An-eseo bakk-eulo chagi
Outside-in heel kick 밖에서 안으로 차기 Baggeso aneuro chagi
Stretching front kick 앞 뻗어 올리 기 Ap ppeod-eo olli gi
Roundhouse kick 돌려 차기 Dollyeo chagi
…also Roundhouse kick Ap dollyeo chagi
Side kick 옆 차기 Yeop chagi
…also Snap Side kick 옆 뻗어 차기 Yeop ppeod-eo chagi
Hook kick 후려기 차기 Hulyeogi chagi
…also hook kick 후려 차기 Huryeo chagi
Back kick 뒤 차기 Dwi chagi
…also Spin Back kick 뒤 돌려 차기 Dwi dollyeo chagi
Spin hook kick 뒤 돌려 후려기 차기 Dwi dollyeo hulyeogi chagi
Knee strike 무릎 차기 Mu reup chagi
Reverse round kick 빗 차기 Bit chagi
Stances
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Stances 자세 姿勢 Seogi (stance) or Jase (posture)
Ready stance 준비 자세 準備 姿勢 Junbi seogi (or jase)
Front Stance 전굴 자세 前屈 姿勢 Jeongul seogi (or jase)
Back Stance 후굴 자세 後屈 姿勢 Hugul seogi (or jase)
Horse-riding Stance 기마 자세 騎馬 姿勢 Gima seogi (or jase)
…also Horse-riding Stance 기마립 자세 騎馬立 姿勢 Gimalip seogi (or jase)
…also Horse-riding Stance 주춤 서기 Juchum seogi
Side Stance 사고립 자세 四股立 姿勢 Sagolib seogi (or jase)
Cross legged stance 교차 립 자세 交(叉/差)立 姿勢 Gyocha lib seogi (or jase)
Technique Direction
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Moving forward 전진 推進 Jeonjin
Backing up / retreat 후진 後進 Hujin
Sideways/laterally 횡진 橫進 Hoengjin
Reverse (hand/foot) 역진 逆進 Yeogjin
Lower 하단 下段 Hadan
Middle 중단 中段 Jungdan
Upper 상단 上段 Sangdan
Two handed 쌍수 雙手 Ssangsu
Both hands 양수 兩手 Yangsu
Lowest 최 하단 最下段 Choe hadan
Right side 오른 쪽 Oleun jjog
Left side 왼 쪽 Oen jjog
Other side/Twist 틀어 Teul-eo
Inside-outside 안에서 밖으로 An-eseo bakk-eulo
Outside inside 밖에서 안으로 Bakk-eseo an-eulo
Jumping / 2nd level 이단 二段 Idan
Hopping / Skipping 뜀을 Ttwim-eul
Double kick 두 발 Du bal
Combo kick 연속 連續 Yeonsog
Same foot 같은 발 Gat-eun bal
Titles
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
Founder/President 관장 님 館長님 Gwanjang nim
Master instructor 사범 님 師範님 Sabeom nim
Teacher 교사 님 敎師님 Gyosa nim
Black Belt Dan
Student or Color Belt Geup
Master level 고단자 高段者 Godanja
Other/Miscellaneous
English Hangul (한글) Hanja (한자/漢字) Revised Romanization
School Gwan (kwan)
Country Flag 국기 國旗 Guggi
Salute the flag 국기 배례 國旗 拜禮 Guggi baerye
Pay respect / bow 경례 敬禮 Gyeongnye
Moment of silence 묵념 默念 Mugnyeom
Sit down! 앉아! Anj-a!
Thank you 감사합니다 感謝합니다 Gamsa habnida
Informal thank you 고맙습니다 Gomabseubnida
You’re welcome 천만에요 Cheonman-eyo
Uniform 도복 道服 Dobok
Belt Tti
Studio / School / Gym 도장 道場 Dojang
Test 심사 審査 Simsa
Self Defense 호신술 護身術 Hosinsul
Sparring (Kukkiwon/WT-style) 겨루기 Gyeorugi
…also Sparring (Chang Hon/ITF-style) 맞서기 Matseogi
…also Sparring 대련 對練 Daelyeon
Free sparring 자유 대련 自由 對練 Jayu daelyeon
Ground Sparring 좌 대련 座 對練 Jwa daelyeon
One step sparring 일 수식 대련 一數式 對練 il su sig daelyeon
Three step sparring 삼 수식 대련 三數式 對練 Sam su sig daelyeon
Board Breaking 격파 擊破 Gyeog pa

noteworthy practitioners [edit ]

For practitioners of Taekwondo, see class : tae kwon do practitioners

Olympic medalists [edit ]

Grandmasters [edit ]

Kickboxers and Mixed Martial Artists [edit ]

fame practitioners [edit ]

honorary Black belt [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

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