London School of Economics – Wikipedia

Public university in London, United Kingdom
The London School of Economics and Political Science ( LSE or the LSE ) is a populace research university located in London, England, and a part college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the university in 1901. [ 7 ] LSE began awarding its degrees in its own name in 2008, [ 8 ] anterior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located in the London Borough of Camden and Westminster, Central London, near the limit between Covent Garden and Holborn. The area is historically known as Clare Market. LSE has more than 11,000 students, just under seventy percentage of whom come from outside the UK, and 3,300 staff. [ 9 ] It had an income of £391.1 million in 2020/21, of which £32.8 million was from research grants. [ 1 ] One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst the LSE ‘s student body and the school had the second highest share of international students ( 70 % ) of the 800 institutions in the 2015–16 Times Higher Education World University Ranking. [ 10 ] Despite its mention, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teach and research across a range of pure and applied social sciences. [ 9 ]

LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is often considered a share of the “ Golden Triangle “ of universities in South East England. The LSE besides forms separate of CIVICA – The European University of Social Sciences, a network of eight european universities focused on inquiry in the social sciences. [ 11 ] In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the school had the highest proportion of world-leading inquiry among inquiry submitted of any british non-specialist university. [ 12 ] LSE Alumni and staff include 55 past or present heads of state or government and 18 Nobel laureates. As of 2017, 27 % ( or 13 out of 49 ) of all Nobel Memorial Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff, or erstwhile staff, who consequently comprise 16 % ( 13 out of 79 ) of all Nobel Memorial Prize laureates. LSE alumnus and faculty have besides won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires ( 11 ) according to a 2014 global census of US dollar billionaires. [ 15 ]

history [edit ]

Origins [edit ]

The London School of Economics was founded in 1895 [ 16 ] by Beatrice and Sidney Webb, [ 17 ] initially funded by a bequest of £20,000 [ 18 ] [ 19 ] from the estate of the realm of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer [ 18 ] and member of the fabian Society, [ 20 ] [ 21 ] left the money in faith, to be put “ towards advancing its [ The Fabian Society ‘s ] objects in any way they [ the trustees ] deem advisable ”. [ 21 ] The five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, W. S. de Mattos and William Clark. [ 18 ] LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw. [ 16 ] The proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 [ 21 ] and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, [ 22 ] in the City of Westminster .

twentieth hundred [edit ]

The school joined the federal University of London in 1900, and was recognised as a faculty of Economics of the university. The University of London degrees of BSc ( Econ ) and DSc ( Econ ) were established in 1901, the first gear university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. [ 22 ] Expanding quickly over the follow years, the educate moved initially to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace, then to Clare Market and Houghton Street. The foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920 ; [ 16 ] the construct was opened in 1922. [ 22 ] Friedrich Hayek, who taught at LSE during the 1930s and 1940s The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academician opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school ‘s roots when LSE ‘s Edwin Cannan ( 1861–1935 ), Professor of Economics, and Cambridge ‘s Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall ( 1842–1924 ), the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock topic of economics and whether the discipline should be considered as an organic hale. ( Marshall disapproved of LSE ‘s distinguish listing of pure theory and its imperativeness on economic history. ) [ 23 ] The quarrel besides concerned the interview of the economist ‘s role, and whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. [ 24 ] Despite the traditional position that the LSE and Cambridge were ferocious rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service. [ 25 ] however, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. [ 26 ] The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE ‘s Friedrich Hayek. The LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was besides heavily involved. Starting off as a discrepancy over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the clock time, it finally embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forth the theories now known as keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the express and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the austrian School, which emphasised free deal and oppose country involvement. [ 26 ] During World War II, the educate decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse. [ 27 ] The school ‘s arms, [ 28 ] including its motto and beaver mascot, were adopted in February 1922, [ 29 ] on the recommendation of a committee of twelve, including eight students, which was established to research the topic. [ 30 ] The Latin motto, rerum cognoscere causas, is taken from Virgil ‘s Georgics. Its english translation is “ to Know the Causes of Things ” [ 29 ] and it was suggested by Professor Edwin Cannan. [ 16 ] The beaver mascot was selected for its associations with “ foresight, constructiveness and hardworking behavior ”. [ 30 ]

twenty-first hundred [edit ]

stonework featuring the initials of LSE LSE continues to have a wide impact within british society, through its relationships and influence in politics, business and law. The Guardian described such charm in 2005 when it stated :

once again the political clout of the school, which seems to be closely wired into parliament, Whitehall and the Bank of England, is being felt by ministers …. The military capability of LSE is that it is conclude to the political procedure : Mervyn King, was a erstwhile LSE professor. The early chair of the House of Commons education committee, Barry Sheerman, sits on its board of governors, along with Labour peer Lord ( Frank ) Judd. besides on the board are Tory MPs Virginia Bottomley and Richard Shepherd, angstrom well as Lord Saatchi and Lady Howe. [ 31 ]

Commenting in 2001 on the rising status of the LSE, the british magazine The Economist stated that “ two decades ago the LSE was however the hapless relation of the University of London ‘s other colleges. now … it regularly follows Oxford and Cambridge in league tables of research output signal and teaching quality and is at least as long-familiar afield as Oxbridge ”. According to the magazine, the educate “ owes its success to the single-minded, American-style exploitation of its brand name and political connections by the holocene directors, peculiarly Mr Giddens and his harbinger, John Ashworth “ and raises money from extraneous students ‘ high fees, which are attracted by academic stars such as Richard Sennett. [ 32 ] As of 2006, the school was active in opposing british government proposals to introduce compulsory ID cards, [ 33 ] [ 34 ] researching into the consociate costs of the scheme, and shifting populace and government opinion on the return. [ 35 ] The institution is besides popular with politicians and MPs to launch new policy, legislation and manifesto pledges, prominently with the establish of the Liberal Democrats Manifesto Conference under Nick Clegg on 12 January 2008. [ 36 ] [ 37 ]

2010 to present [edit ]

In the early 2010s, its academics have been at the forefront of both national and international government consultations, reviews and policy, including representation on the UK Airports Commission, [ 39 ] Independent Police Commission, [ 40 ] Migration Advisory Committee, [ 41 ] UN Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation, [ 42 ] London Finance Commission, [ 43 ] HS2 Limited, [ 44 ] the UK politics ‘s Infrastructure Commission [ 45 ] and advising on Architecture and Urbanism for the London 2012 Olympics [ 46 ] Craig Calhoun took up the post of director in September 2012. Its previous director, Judith Rees, is besides electric chair of the school ‘s Grantham Institute on Climate Change, an adviser to the World Bank arsenic good as sitting on the UN Secretary General ‘s advisory board on water and sanitation and the International Scientific Advisory Council ( ISAC ). [ 47 ] She is besides a former convenor of the department of geography and environment and served as deputy director from 1998 to 2004. In February 2016, Calhoun announced his purpose to step down at the end of the academician year, in rate to become president of the Berggruen Institute. [ 48 ] In September 2016, Bank of England Deputy Governor Dame Nemat ( Minouche ) Shafik was announced to replace Professor Julia Black as the school ‘s film director. Shafik began to lead the LSE in September 2017. [ 49 ]

Controversies [edit ]

In February 2011, LSE had to face the consequences of matriculating one of Muammar Gaddafi ‘s sons while accepting a £1.5m contribution to the university from his class. [ 50 ] LSE film director Howard Davies resigned over allegations about the initiation ‘s links to the libyan government. [ 51 ] The LSE announced in a affirmation that it had accepted his resignation with “ capital regret ” and that it had set up an external question into the school ‘s kinship with the Libyan government and Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, to be conducted by the former godhead foreman justice Harry Woolf. [ 51 ] In 2013, the LSE was featured in a BBC Panorama documentary on North Korea, filmed inside the inhibitory regimen by clandestine journalists attached to a trip by the LSE ‘s Grimshaw Club, a scholar society of the international relations department. The trip had been sanctioned by high-level north korean officials. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The trip caused international media attention as a BBC journalist was posing as a part of LSE. [ 54 ] There was debate as to whether this put the student ‘s lives in hazard in the inhibitory government if a reporter had been exposed. [ 55 ] The North Korea politics made hostile threats towards the students and LSE after the publicity, which forced an apology from the BBC. [ 53 ] In August 2015, it was revealed that the university was paid approximately £40,000 for a “ glow composition ” for Camila Batmanghelidjh ‘s jacob’s ladder, Kids Company. [ 56 ] The survey was used by Batmanghelidjh to prove that the charity provided effective value for money and was well managed. The university did not disclose that the study was funded by the charity. In the summer of 2017, dozens of campus cleaners contracted via Noonan Services went on hebdomadally strikes, protesting external key buildings and causing significant break during end-of-year examinations. [ 57 ] The quarrel organised by the UVW union was originally over unfair dismissals of cleaners, but had escalated into a broad demand for adequate employment rights matching those of LSE ‘s in-house employees. [ 58 ] Owen Jones did not cross the picket line after arriving for a argument on grammar schools with Peter Hitchens. [ 59 ] It was announced in June 2018 that some 200 outsourced workers at the LSE would be offered in-house contracts. [ 60 ]

The World Turned Upside Down [edit ]

The World Turned Upside Down. The island of Taiwan is coloured differently from mainland China. The island of Taiwan is coloured differently from mainland China A sculpt by Mark Wallinger, The World Turned Upside Down, which features a globe resting on its north pole, was installed in Sheffield Street on the LSE campus on 26 March 2019. The artwork attracted controversy for showing the island of Taiwan as a sovereign entity quite than as function of Greater China, [ 61 ] [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Lhasa being denoted as a full capital, and depicting boundaries between India and China as recognised internationally. The sculpt besides failed to recognise the State of Palestine as a branch country from Israel. After protests and reactions from both sides, [ 64 ] [ 65 ] the educate made the decision to alter the influence of artwork over the objections of the min students. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] The university decided later that year that it would retain the original design which chromatically displayed the PRC and Taiwan as different entities consistent with the condition quo, but with the summation of an star beside the identify of Taiwan and a match placard that clarified the mental hospital ‘s position regarding the controversy. [ 68 ] [ 69 ]

Campus and estate of the realm [edit ]

Old build Centre Building, opened in 2019 Since 1902, LSE has been based at Clare Market and Houghton Street in Westminster. It is surrounded by a number of important institutions including the Royal Courts of Justice, all four Inns of Courts, Royal College of Surgeons, Sir John Soane ‘s Museum, and the West end is immediately across Kingsway from campus, which besides borders the City of London and is within walking distance to Trafalgar Square and the Houses of Parliament .
In 1920, King George V laid the foundation of the Old Building. The campus now occupies an about continuous group of around 30 buildings between Kingsway and the Aldwych. Alongside teach and academician distance, the institution besides owns 11 scholar halls of residency across London, a West end dramaturgy ( the Peacock ), early on years center, NHS aesculapian center and extensive sports footing in Berrylands, south London. LSE operates the George IV populace theater [ 70 ] and the students ‘ coupling operates the Three Tuns legal profession. [ 71 ] The school ‘s campus is noted for its numerous public art installations which include Richard Wilson ‘s Square the Block, [ 72 ] Michael Brown ‘s Blue Rain, [ 73 ] Christopher Le Brun ‘s Desert Window. [ 74 ] Since the early 2000s, the entire campus has undergone an extensive renovation project and a major fund-raise “ Campaign for LSE ” raised over £100 million in what was one of the largest university fund-raise exercises outside North America. This march was begun with the £35 million renovation of the Lionel Robbins Building by Sir Norman Foster to house the british Library of Political and Economic Science ( BLPES ), the earth ‘s largest sociable science library and the second largest single entity library in Britain, after the british Library at King ‘s Cross. [ 75 ] The New Academic Building houses the Departments of Management and Law In 2003, LSE purchased the former Public Trustee construction at 24 Kingsway, and engaged Sir Nicholas Grimshaw to redesign it into an ultra-modern educational facility at a sum cost of over £45 million – increasing the size of the campus by 120,000 square feet ( 11,000 m2 ). The New Academic Building opened for teaching in October 2008, with an official orifice by Her Majesty the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh on 5 November 2008. [ 76 ] In November 2009 the school purchased the adjacent Sardinia House to theater three academic departments and the nearby Old White Horse public house, before acquiring the freehold of the grade-II list Land Registry Building at 32 Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields in October 2010, which was reopened in March 2013 by The Princess Royal as the new home for the department of economics, International Growth Centre and its associate economic research centres .

Saw Swee Hock Student Centre [edit ]

The first new construct on the site for more than 40 years, the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre opened in January 2014 following an architectural design competition managed by RIBA Competitions. The construction provides new accommodation for the LSE Students ‘ Union, LSE accommodation office and LSE careers avail a well as a legal profession, events space, secondary school, rooftop terrace, learning café, dance studio apartment and media center. [ 77 ] The construction, designed as a collector’s item for the City of Westminster and Midtown, was recognised as having a low environmental impact, receiving an ‘Outstanding ‘ condition under BREEAM, and in 2012 was one of three winners of the New London Award in the Education class. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] In May 2014 the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre won the RIBA London Building of the Year Award. [ 80 ] The sixteenth hundred Old Curiosity Shop is now owned ( freehold ) and managed by the LSE

Centre Building [edit ]

The new Centre Building, situated opposite the british Library of Political and Economic Science, opened in June 2019. Designed as both a teaching and an academic space, the new 13-storey Centre Building includes 14 seminar rooms seating between 20 and 60, 234 learn spaces, a 200-seater auditorium, vitamin a well as three lecture theatres. [ 81 ] The build hosts the Department of Government on Levels 3 and 4, the International Inequalities Institute on Levels 4 and 5, and the department of international relations on Levels 7 through 10, and the Directorate on Level 1. The roof terraces on levels 2, 6 and 12 are besides accessible to the public. [ 82 ]

expansion [edit ]

LSE Campus as viewed from the terrace of the New Academic Building in January 2018, showing the Centre Buildings renovation and the demolition of 44 Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields It is presently embarking on renovation and expansion with the development of a £120 million new facility designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour & Partners following the completion of a ball-shaped design competition managed by RIBA Competitions. Completed in 2018, the Global Centre for the Social Sciences houses the Departments of Government, International Relations and the European Institute and feature a new squarely at the center of the campus. [ 83 ] In September 2013, LSE purchased the freehold of 44 Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields, previously the dwelling of the Francis Crick Institute ‘s laboratories until 2016. [ 84 ] The build will be demolished in 2017 to make way for the newly Paul Marshall Building which will family academic departments ( Management, Accounting and Finance ), sports facilities and the raw Marshall Institute for Philanthropy and Social Entrepreneurship. [ 85 ] In 2015, LSE brought its possession of buildings on Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields to six with the purchase of 5 Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields on the north side of the square, which has since been converted into staff accommodation. [ 86 ] On 15 November 2017, LSE announced that it has achieved narrow completion on the purchase to acquire the Nuffield Building, which is adjacent to the Lincoln ‘s Inn Fields, from the Royal College of Surgeons. According to the sign the build up will be transferred to LSE after renovations in 2020. [ 87 ] The George IV, a public house owned by LSE

sustainability [edit ]

As of the 2021–2 academic year, LSE offsets the emissions it measures by funding rain forest trees. [ 88 ] According to the university, it is the first in the UK to do this. The stolon is performed by the finnish Oy ( limited company ) Compensate [ 89 ] and does not include all emissions. While LSE measures and offsets its heat, electricity and staff plane change of location, it does not do this for structure, early travel-related emissions, or food served on campus, for example. The school plans to offset the remaining emissions ( setting 1 through 3 ) by 2050. [ 90 ]

organization and government [edit ]

government [edit ]

Although LSE is a component college of the federal University of London, it is in many ways comparable with free-standing, autonomous and independently fund universities, and it awards its own degrees. LSE is incorporated under the Companies Act as a company limited by guarantee and is an exempt jacob’s ladder within the mean of Schedule Two of the Charities Act 1993. [ 91 ] The star government bodies of the LSE are : the LSE Council ; the Court of Governors ; the academician circuit board ; and the director and director ‘s management team. [ 91 ] The LSE Council is creditworthy for strategy and its members are company directors of the school. It has specific responsibilities in relative to areas including : the monitor of institutional performance ; finance and fiscal sustainability ; audit arrangements ; estate strategy ; homo resource and use policy ; health and safety ; “ educational character and mission ”, and student experience. The council is supported in carrying out its character by a count of committees that report directly to it. [ 91 ] The Court of Governors deals with certain constitutional matters and has pre-decision discussions on key policy issues and the participation of person governors in the school ‘s activities. The court has the following dinner dress powers : the appointment of members of court, its subcommittees and of the council ; election of the moderate and vice chairs of the court and council and honorary fellows of the school ; the amendment of the memo and articles of association ; and the appointee of external auditors. [ 91 ] The academic board is LSE ‘s principal academic body, and considers all major issues of general policy affecting the academic life of the school and its development. It is chaired by the conductor, with staff and scholar membership, and is supported by its own structure of committees. The vice chair of the academic display panel serves as a non-director member of the council and makes a termly report to the council. [ 91 ]

director [edit ]

The conductor is the head of LSE and its head executive officer, responsible for executive management and leadership on academic issues. The director reports to and is accountable to the council. The director is besides the accountable officer for the purposes of the Higher education Funding Council for England Financial Memorandum. The LSE ‘s current director is Dame Nemat Shafik, who replaced interim film director, Professor Julia Black, on 1 September 2017. The director is supported by a deputy film director and provost who oversees the heads of academic departments and institutes, three pro-directors each with designated portfolios ( teaching and learning, research and plan and resources ) and the school secretary who acts as company secretary .
† Titled as film director and president [ 92 ]

academic departments and institutes [edit ]

LSE ‘s research and teach is organised into a network of autonomous academician departments established by the LSE Council, the school ‘s governing body, on the advice of the academic board, the school ‘s senior academic assurance. There are presently 27 academic departments or institutes .

  • Department of Accounting
  • Department of Anthropology
  • Department of Economic History
  • Department of Economics
  • Department of Finance
  • Department of Geography and Environment
  • Department of Gender Studies
  • Department of Health Policy
  • Department of Government
  • Department of International Development
  • Department of International History
  • Department of International Relations
  • Department of Law
  • Department of Management
  • Department of Mathematics
  • Department of Media and Communications
  • Department of Methodology
  • Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method
  • Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science
  • Department of Social Policy
  • Department of Sociology
  • Department of Statistics
  • European Institute
  • International Inequalities Institute
  • Institute of Public Affairs
  • Language Centre
  • Marshall Institute for Philanthropy and Social Entrepreneurship[93]
  • School of Public Policy

Finances [edit ]

The LSE group has an endowment ( as of 31 July 2016 ) of £119M and had a total income for 2015–16 ( excluding donations and endowments ) of £311M ( £293M in 2014–15 ) with consumption of £307M ( 2014–15 £302M ). key sources of income included £177M from tutelage fees and education contacts ( 2014–15 £167M ), £25M from funding council grants ( 2014–15 £22M ), £32M from research grants ( 2014–15 – £27M ) and £5.3M from investing income ( 2014–15 £4.7M ). [ 94 ] The Times Higher Education Pay Survey 2017 revealed that, among larger, non-specialist institutions, LSE professors and academics were the highest gainful in the UK, with average incomes of £103,886 and £65,177 respectively. [ 95 ]

endowment [edit ]

The London School of Economics ( LSE ) is aiming to increase the size of its endowment fund to more than £1bn, which would make it one of the best resourced institutions in the UK and the worldly concern. The feat was initiated in 2016 by Lord Myners, then president of the LSE ‘s Council and Court of Governors. The plan includes working with affluent alumni of LSE to make big contributions, increasing the annual budget excess, and launching a new, widescale alumni donor campaign. The plan to grow LSE ‘s endowment to more than £1bn has been continued by Lord Myners ‘ successors at the LSE. [ 96 ] The LSE has stated that presently “ limited endowment fund constrains our ability to offer ‘needs blind ‘ admission to students ”. [ 94 ]

academician year [edit ]

LSE continues to adopt a three-term structure and has not moved to semesters. Michaelmas Term runs from October to mid-December, Lent Term from mid-january to late March and Summer Term from late April to mid-june. Certain departments operate reading weeks in early November and mid-february. [ 97 ]

Logo, arms and mascot [edit ]

LSE ‘s “ red block ” logo The school ‘s historic coat of arms is used on official documentation including degree certificates and transcripts and includes the motto – rerum cognoscere causas, a production line taken from Virgil ’ s Georgics meaning “ to know the causes of things ”, together with the school ‘s mascot – a beaver. Both these symbols, adopted in February 1922, continue to be held in high respect to this day with the beaver chosen because of its representation as “ a hard exploit and hardworking yet sociable animal ”, attributes that the founders hoped LSE students to both possess and draw a bead on to. [ 98 ] The school ‘s hebdomadally newspaper is distillery entitled The Beaver, Rosebery residence hallway ‘s bar is called the Tipsy Beaver and LSE sports teams are known as the Beavers. [ 99 ] The institution has two sets of colours – brand and academician – red being the sword semblance used on signage, publications and in buildings across campus and purple, black and gold for academic purposes including presentation ceremonies and commencement dress. LSE ‘s present ‘red block ‘ logo was adopted as part of a rebrand in the early 2000s, before which the school ‘s coat of arms was used entirely to represent the mental hospital. As a trademarked trade name, it is carefully protected but can be produced in assorted forms to reflect different requirements. [ 100 ] In its full form it contains the broad name of the institution to the correct of the block with a far small empty red square at the end, but it is adapted for each academician department or master military service division to provide a cohesive brand across the institution .

Academic profile [edit ]

Admissions [edit ]

St Clement ‘s build The LSE received 20,000 applications for 1,600 undergraduate places in 2017, or 12.5 applicants per space. [ 105 ] All undergraduate applications, including international applications, are made through UCAS. [ 105 ] LSE had the fifteenth highest average entry reservation for undergraduates of any UK university in 2018–19, with new students averaging 168 UCAS points, [ 106 ] equivalent to A*A*A* or ABBB in A-level grades. The university gave offers of entrance fee to 37.0 % of its applicants in 2015, the 3rd lowest amongst the Russell Group. [ 107 ]

graduate students at the LSE are required to have a first or upper second gear Class UK honours academic degree, or its foreign equivalent, for dominate ‘s degrees, while lineal entry to the MPhil/PhD program requires a UK teach victor ‘s with deserve, or foreign equivalent. admission to the diploma requires a UK degree or equivalent plus relevant feel. [ 108 ] The intake to applications ratio for graduate student degree programmes is very competitive ; the MSc Financial Mathematics had a ratio of just over 4 % in 2016. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] 31.6 % of LSE ‘s undergraduates are privately educated, the ninth highest proportion amongst mainstream british universities. [ 111 ] In the 2016–17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 33:18:50 of united kingdom : europium : non-EU students respectively with a female-to-male proportion of 52:47. [ 112 ]

Programmes and degrees [edit ]

LSE is the only university in the United Kingdom dedicated entirely to the sketch and inquiry of social sciences. LSE awards a range of academician degrees spanning bachelors, masters and PhDs. The post-nominals awarded are the academic degree abbreviations used normally among british universities. The school offers over 140 MSc programmes, 5 MPA programmes, an LLM, 30 BSc programmes, an LLB, 4 BA programmes ( including International History and Geography ), and 35 PhD programmes. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Subjects pioneered in Britain by LSE include accountancy and sociology, and the school besides employed Britain ‘s first full-time lecturer in economic history. [ 115 ] Courses are split across more than thirty research centres and nineteen departments, plus a Language Centre. [ 116 ] John Watkins Plaza at the London School of Economics Since programmes are all within the sociable sciences, they closely resemble each other, and undergraduate students normally take at least one course faculty in a capable outside of their degree for their first and second years of study, promoting a broader education in the sociable sciences. [ citation needed ] At undergraduate level, some departments have deoxyadenosine monophosphate few as 90 students across the three years of study. [ citation needed ] Since September 2010, [ citation needed ] it has been compulsory for first year undergraduates to participate in LSE 100 : Understanding the Causes of Things alongside normal studies. [ 117 ] From 1902, following its absorption into the University of London, until 2007, all degrees were awarded by the union university in common with all other colleges of the university. This system was changed in 2007 to enable some colleges to award their own degrees. [ citation needed ] LSE was granted the might to begin awarding its own degrees from July 2008. [ 8 ] All students entering from the 2007–08 academic class onwards received an LSE degree, while students who started before this date were issued University of London degrees. [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ] In conjunction with NYU Stern and HEC Paris, LSE besides offers the TRIUM Executive MBA. This was globally rate third base among administrator MBAs by the Financial Times in 2016. [ 121 ]

research [edit ]

In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, LSE had the joint highest percentage of world-leading inquiry among research submitted of any institution that entered more than one unit of appraisal [ 122 ] and was ranked one-third by accumulative grade point average with a sexual conquest of 3.35, beating both Oxford and Cambridge. [ 123 ] It was ranked 23rd in the nation for inquiry power by Research Fortnight based on its REF2014 results, and 28th in research world power by the Times Higher Education. [ 122 ] [ 124 ] This followed the Research Assessment Exercise in 2008 where the school was placed second equal nationally on GPA, first base for fraction of world-leading ( 4* ) research and fourth for fraction of world-leading or internationally excellent ( 3* and 4* ) inquiry in LSE ‘s analysis of the results, [ 125 ] fourthly equal for GPA and 29th for research might in Times Higher Education ‘s analysis, [ 122 ] and 27th in inquiry exponent by Research Fortnight ‘s analysis. [ 124 ] According to psychoanalysis of the REF 2014 capable results by Times Higher Education, the school is the UK ‘s top research university in terms of GPA of research submitted in occupation and management ; area studies ; and communication, cultural and media studies, library and information management, and second in law ; politics and international studies ; economics and econometrics ; and social work and social policy. [ 126 ] Houghton Street is the center of the LSE campus

research centres [edit ]

The school houses a number of celebrated centres including the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, the Centre for Macroeconomics, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE Health and Social Care, the Financial Markets Group ( founded by early Bank of England governor Sir Mervyn King ), the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment ( chaired by Lord Stern ), LSE Cities, the UK Department for International Development funded International Growth Centre and one of the six the UK government-backed ‘What Works Centres ‘ – the What Works Centre for Local Economic Growth. The Greater London Group was influential research center within LSE from the late 1950s on, before being subsumed into the LSE London inquiry group. [ 127 ]

LSE Institute of Global Affairs [edit ]

In late 2014, LSE hired Erik Berglöf, erstwhile chief economist and special adviser to the EBRD to establish a new Institute of Global Affairs with seven regional research centres focusing on Africa, East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, South Asia, South East Asia and the United States. [ 128 ] [ 129 ] It is joined by the LSE IDEAS think tank car, which in a global survey conducted by the University of Pennsylvania in 2015 was jointly ranked as global ‘s second-best university think tank car for the one-third year running alongside the LSE Public Policy Group, after Harvard University ‘s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. [ 130 ] In February 2015, Angelina Jolie and William Hague launched the UK ‘s first academic Centre on Women, Peace and Security, based at the school. The center aims to contribute to ball-shaped women ‘s rights issues, including the pursuance of war rape and women ‘s betrothal in politics, through academic research, a post-graduate teach broadcast, public engagement, and collaboration with international organisations. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] Furthermore, in May 2016 it was announced that Jolie-Pitt and Hague would join Jane Connors and Madeleine Rees as visiting professors in practice from September 2016. [ 133 ]

Partnerships [edit ]

LSE has academic partnerships in teaching and research with six universities – with Columbia University in New York City and University of California, Berkeley, in Asia with Peking University in Beijing and the National University of Singapore, in Africa with the University of Cape Town and Europe with Sciences Po in Paris. [ 134 ] together they offer a crop of double or joint degree programmes including an MA in International and World History ( with Columbia ) and an MSc in international affairs with Peking University, with graduates earning degrees from both institutions. [ 135 ] The school besides offers joint degrees for specific departments with diverse other universities including Fudan University in Shanghai, USC in Los Angeles and a Global Studies plan which is offered with a consortium of four european universities – Leipzig, Vienna, Roskilde and Wroclaw. It offers the TRIUM Global Executive MBA programme [ 136 ] jointly with Stern School of Business of New York University and HEC School of Management, Paris. It is divided into six modules held in five international business locations over a 16-month period. LSE besides offers a dual master of Public Administration ( MPA ) with Global Public Policy Network schools such as Sciences Po Paris, [ 137 ] the Hertie School of Governance and National University of Singapore. The school besides runs exchange programmes with a number of international business schools through the Global Master ‘s in Management program and an undergraduate scholar exchange plan with the University of California, Berkeley in Political Science. LSE is the lone UK member school in the CEMS Alliance, and the LSE Global Master ‘s in Management is the only program in the UK to offer the CEMS Master ‘s in International Management ( CEMS MIM ) as a double degree option, allowing students to study at one of 30 CEMS partner universities. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] It besides participates in Key Action 1 of the European Union -wide Erasmus+ course of study, encouraging staff and student mobility for teaching, although not the other Key Actions in the program. [ 140 ] The educate is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, [ 141 ] the European University Association, [ 142 ] the G5, the Global Alliance in Management Education, the Russell Group and Universities UK, [ 143 ] and is sometimes considered separate of the ‘Golden Triangle ‘ of universities in southeast England, along with the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, and King ‘s College London. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ] [ 149 ] [ 150 ]

Libraries and archives [edit ]

The interior of the chief LSE library, designed by Norman Foster The school ‘s chief library, the british Library of Political and Economic Science is located in the Lionel Robbins Building and contains over 4 million mark volumes, 60,000 on-line journals and 29,000 electronic books. [ 151 ] The Digital Library contains digitised material from LSE Library collections and besides born-digital material that has been collected and preserved in digital formats. [ 152 ] Founded in 1896, it is the world ‘s largest social and political sciences library and the national social skill library of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Its collections are recognised for their outstanding home and international condition and hold ‘Designation ‘ condition by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council ( MLA ). BLPES responds to around 7,500 visits from students and staff each day. In addition, it provides a specialist international research collection, serving over 12,000 register external users each class. The Shaw Library, housed in LSE ‘s Founders Room in the Old Building contains the educate ‘s collection of fiction and general readings. It besides hosts a weekly series of lunchtime music concerts and crush launches and is the home of the Fabian Window, which was unveiled by Tony Blair in 2003. In 2014, the Women ‘s Library, Britain ‘s main library on women and the women ‘s movement reopened at LSE Library. [ 153 ] It had previously been based at London Metropolitan University. [ 154 ] The resources and artefacts were moved into a newly purpose-built facility within the Lionel Robbins Building accomplished with its own reading room and exhibition quad. several subject specific libraries besides exist including the Seligman Library for Anthropology, the Himmelweit Library for Social Psychology, the Leverhulme Library for Statistics, the Robert McKenzie library for Sociology, the Michael Wise Library for Geography and the Gender Institute Library. additionally, students are permitted to use the libraries of any other University of London college, and the across-the-board facilities at Senate House Library, off Russell Square .

LSE Summer School [edit ]

The master LSE Summer School was established in 1989 and has since expanded to offer over 70 three-week courses in account, finance, economics, English terminology, international relations, politics, law and management each July and August. [ 155 ] It is advertised as the largest and one of the most well-established university Summer Schools of its kind in Europe. [ 156 ] In holocene years, the school has expanded its summer schools both abroad and into administrator department of education with the LSE-PKU Summer School in Beijing ( run with Peking University ), the LSE-UCT July School in Cape Town ( run with the University of Cape Town ) and the Executive Summer School at its London campus. In 2011, it besides launched a Methods Summer Programme. Together these courses welcome over 5,000 participants from over 130 countries and some of the acme colleges and universities around the populace, adenine well as professionals from respective multinational institutions. Participants are housed in LSE halls of residence or their overseas equivalents, and the Summer School provides a full moon sociable program including guest lectures and receptions. [ 157 ]

public lectures [edit ]

Nelson Mandela arriving at LSE in 2000 to deliver a public lecture public lectures hosted by LSE Events function, are open to students, alumni and the general public. vitamin a well as leading academics and commentators, speakers frequently include big national and international figures such as ambassadors, CEOs, Members of Parliament, and heads of state. A number of these are broadcast live around the universe via the school ‘s web site. [ 158 ] LSE organises over 200 public events every year. [ 159 ] late [ when? ] outstanding speakers have included Kofi Annan, Ben Bernanke, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Noam Chomsky, Bill Clinton, Philip Craven, Niall Ferguson, Vicente Fox, Milton Friedman, Muammar Gaddafi, Julia Gillard, Alan Greenspan, Tenzin Gyatso, Lee Hsien Loong, Boris Johnson, David Harvey, Jean Tirole, Angelina Jolie, Paul Krugman, Dmitri Medvedev, Mario Monti, George Osborne, Robert Peston, Sebastián Piñera, Kevin Rudd, Jeffrey Sachs, Gerhard Schroeder, Carlos D. Mesa, Luiz Inácio Lula district attorney silva, Aung San Suu Kyi, Amartya Sen, George Soros and Rowan Williams. previously, the educate has hosted figures including Nelson Mandela and Margaret Thatcher. [ 160 ] There are besides a number of annual lecture series hosted by assorted departments. These include but are not limited to the Malinowski Memorial Lectures hosted by the department of anthropology, the Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures and the Ralph Miliband program. [ 161 ]

Publishing [edit ]

In 2018, the university launched LSE Press in partnership with Ubiquity Press. This is intended to publish open-access journals and books in the social sciences. The foremost daybook to be published by the press was the Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, edited by John Collins, executive film director of LSE ‘s International Drug Policy Unit. The urge is managed through the LSE Library. [ 162 ]

Rankings and reputation [edit ]

LSE is rank third in the UK in the Complete University Guide 2022, [ 171 ] fifth in the Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide 2022, [ 165 ] and fifth in The Guardian University Guide 2021. [ 164 ] The QS World University Rankings for 2022 rankings saw the LSE placed 49th among the populace ‘s universities. [ 168 ] The 2022 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked LSE 27th globally. [ 169 ] On the other hand, Academic Ranking of World Universities for 2021 ranked LSE in the 151–200 stove. [ 166 ] While the 2022 US News & World Report Best Global Universities 2022 ranked LSE ‘s social science and economics programs highly, overall, it ranked LSE 230th globally. [ 172 ] Conversely, the CWTS Leiden Ranking placed LSE 30th cosmopolitan in 2020. [ 167 ] In terms of particular submit areas, the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020 ranks the LSE second in the world in economics & social sciences and management and 20th for arts and humanities, while for individual subjects it is rank moment for geography, third for communication and media studies, social policy and government, and sociology, in the top ten for account and finance, anthropology, business and management studies, development studies, economics and econometrics, history, law and legal studies, philosophy, and politics, and in the top 50 for psychology, and statistics and functional inquiry. [ 173 ] Times Higher Education ‘s subject rankings for 2021 invest LSE 7th for business and economics, 8th for social sciences, 10th for police, 17th peer for psychology, 21st for arts and humanities, and in the 251–300 roll for physical sciences. [ 174 ] US News and World Report ranked LSE 7th globally for economics, 34th for social sciences, 57th for arts and humanities, 141st equal for psychiatry/psychology, and 212th equal for populace, environmental and occupational health. [ 172 ] According to data released by the Department for Education in 2018, LSE was rated as the best university for boosting graduate earnings, with male graduates seeing a 47.2 % increase in earnings and female graduates seeing a 38.2 % increase in earnings compared to the average graduate. [ 175 ] According to Wealth-X and UBS ‘s “ Billionaire Census ” in 2014, LSE ranked 10th in the list of 20 schools that have produced the most billionaire alumni. [ 176 ] The LSE was the only UK university to make the list. In the 2020 National Student Survey LSE came 64th out of 154 for overall scholar satisfaction. [ 177 ] The LSE had scored good below its benchmark on this measure in previous years, coming 145th out of 148 in 2017. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] The increase in student gratification in 2020 led to a climb of 14 places to fifth in the 2021 defender ranking. [ 180 ]

scholar life [edit ]

scholar body [edit ]

In the 2015–16 academician class there were 10,833 full-time students and around 700 half-time students at the university. Of these, approximately 7,500 came from outside the United Kingdom ( approximately 70 % of the total student body ), making LSE a highly international school with over 160 countries represented. [ 181 ] LSE had more countries represented by students than the UN. [ 182 ] 32 % of LSE ‘s students come from Asia, 10 % from North America, 2 % each from South America and Africa. Combined over 100 languages are spoken at LSE. [ 183 ] Over half of LSE ‘s students are postgraduates, [ 184 ] and there is approximately an peer split between genders with 51 % male and 49 % female students. [ 184 ] Alumni sum over 160,000, covering over 190 countries with more than 80 active alumni groups. [ 9 ]

Students ‘ Union [edit ]

The logo of LSE Students ‘ Union The LSE Students ‘ Union ( LSESU ) is affiliated to the National Union of Students and is creditworthy for campaign and lobbying the school on behalf of students as well providing scholar support and the administration and undertaking of entertainment events and scholar societies. It is frequently regarded as the most politically active in Britain – a reputation it has held since the good document LSE student riots in 1966–67 and 1968–69, [ 185 ] [ 186 ] which made international headlines. In 2015, the school was awarded the top spot for student nightlife by The Guardian newspaper [ 187 ] due in separate to its central placement and planning of over 200 societies, 40 sports clubs, a Raising and Giving ( RAG ) branch and a boom media group. In 2013, the union moved into a purpose-built new build up – the Saw Swee Hock Student Centre on the Aldwych campus. [ 188 ] A weekly student newspaper The Beaver, is published each Tuesday during term time and is amongst the oldest scholar newspapers in the state. It sits alongside a radio station, Pulse! which has existed since 1999 and a television post LooSE Television since 2005. The Clare Market Review one of Britain ‘s oldest student publications was revived in 2008. [ 189 ] Over £150,000 is raised for charity each year through the RAG ( Raising and Giving ), the fundraising arm of the Students ‘ Union, [ 190 ] which was started in 1980 by then Student Union Entertainments Officer and former New Zealand MP Tim Barnett. [ 191 ] Sporting bodily process is coordinated by the LSE Athletics Union, which is a component of British Universities & Colleges Sport ( BUCS ). [ 189 ]

student housing [edit ]

Northumberland House LSE owns or operates 10 halls of residence in and around central London and there are besides two halls owned by urban and five intercollegiate halls ( shared with early component colleges of the University of London ) within a 3-mile radius of the educate, for a total of over 4,000 places. [ 192 ] Most residences take both undergraduates and postgraduates, although Carr-Saunders Hall and Passfield Hall are undergraduate entirely, and Butler ‘s Wharf Residence, Grosvenor House and Lillian Knowles House are reserved for postgraduates. Sidney Webb House, managed by unite Students, takes postgraduates and continuing students. [ 193 ] There are besides flats available on Anson and Carleton roads, which are reserved for students with children. [ 194 ] The school guarantees adjustment for all freshman undergraduate students and many of the school ‘s larger graduate population are besides catered for, with some particular residences available for graduate support. [ 195 ] Whilst none of the residences are located at the Aldwych campus, the closest, Grosvenor House is within a five-minute walk from the school in Covent Garden, whilst the farthest residences ( Nutford and Butler ‘s Wharf ) are approximately forty-five minutes by Tube or Bus. Each residence accommodates a assortment of students both home and external, male and female, and, normally, undergraduate and graduate student. New undergraduate students ( including General Course students ) occupy approximately 55 % of all spaces, with postgraduates taking approximately 40 % and continue students about 5 % of places. [ 195 ] Grosvenor House Studios The largest LSE scholar residency, Bankside House, a refurbished early 1950s function block and former headquarters of the Central Electricity Generating Board, [ 196 ] opened to students in 1996 and is in full catered, accommodating 617 students across eight floors overlooking the River Thames. It is located behind the Tate Modern art gallery on the south deposit of the river. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] The second-largest residence, the High Holborn Residence in High Holborn, was opened in 1995 and is approximately 10 minutes walk from the main campus. It is self-catering, accommodating 447 students in flats of four our five bedrooms with shared facilities. [ 199 ]

noteworthy people [edit ]

LSE has a long list of celebrated alumni and staff, spanning the fields of eruditeness provided by the school. [ 200 ] The school has over 50 fellows of the british Academy on its staff, while other celebrated former staff members include Brian Barry, Maurice Cranston, Anthony Giddens, Harold Laski, Ralph Miliband, Michael Oakeshott, A. W. Philips, Karl Popper, Lionel Robbins, Susan Strange, Bob Ward and Charles Webster. Mervyn King, the former Governor of the Bank of England, is besides a former professor of economics. Of the current 9 members of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee the following 5 take affiliation to the LSE : Jonathan Haskel ( alumni ), Michael Saunders ( alumni ), Gertjan Vlieghe ( alumni ), Silvana Tenereyro ( current professor of economics ) and Governor Andrew Bailey ( former Research Officer ). In the political arena luminary alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of submit, 20 members of the stream british House of Commons and 46 members of the current House of Lords. Former British Prime Minister Clement Attlee taught at the school from 1912 to 1923. In holocene british politics, former LSE students include Virginia Bottomley, Yvette Cooper, Edwina Currie, Frank Dobson, Margaret Hodge, Robert Kilroy-Silk, early UK Labour Party leader Ed Miliband and former UK Liberal Democrats drawing card Jo Swinson. Internationally, the current and first female president of the united states of the european Commission Ursula von five hundred Leyen, brazilian defense minister Celso Amorim, Costa Rican President Óscar Arias, japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, architect of the amerind Constitution and eminent economist B. R. Ambedkar, President of India K. R. Narayanan, President of the Republic of China ( Taiwan ) Tsai Ing-wen, italian prime minister and president of the european Commission, Romano Prodi, French Foreign Minister and president of the united states of the Constitutional Council Roland Dumas [ 201 ] adenine well as Singapore ‘s deputy prime minister and chair of the International Monetary and Financial Committee at the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ), Tharman Shanmugaratnam all studied at LSE. A celebrated number of LSE students have besides played a function in the Barack Obama presidency, including Pete Rouse, Peter R. Orszag, Mona Sutphen, Paul Volcker and Jason Furman. [ 202 ] Physician Vanessa Kerry and American journalist Susan Rasky are besides alumnus of the LSE. noteworthy american english Monica Lewinsky pursued her MSc in Social Psychology at the LSE. business people who studied at LSE include the CEO of AirAsia Tony Fernandes, early CEO of General Motors Daniel Akerson, film director of Louis Vuitton Delphine Arnault, fall through of easyJet Stelios Haji-Ioannou, CEO of Abercrombie & Fitch Michael S. Jeffries, Greek business baron Spiros Latsis, American banker David Rockefeller, CEO of Newsmax Media Christopher Ruddy, founder of ad agency Saatchi and Saatchi Maurice Saatchi, hedge investment company managers George Soros and Michael Platt and Andreas Utermann, early CEO of Allianz Global Investors. A review by use specialists found that it on average took LSE graduates 11.6 years in the work force to begin earning al-qaeda salaries in overindulgence of £500,000 ; the shortest timespan of any university in the United Kingdom. [ 203 ] Convicted british terrorist, Omar Saeed Sheikh, studied statistics at LSE, but did not graduate. He served five years in an amerind prison for kidnapping british tourists in 1994. In 2002, he was arrested and convicted in the kidnapping and murder of Daniel Pearl. The Guardian reported that Sheikh came into liaison with extremist Islamists at the LSE. [ 204 ]

Nobel laureates [edit ]

As of 2019, 18 Nobel Prizes in economics, peace and literature are officially recognised as having been awarded to LSE alumni and staff. [ 200 ]

LSE in literature and other media [edit ]

The LSE has been mentioned and formed the basis of setting for numerous works of fabrication and in popular acculturation. The first celebrated note of the LSE was in literature was in the epilogue to Bernard Shaw ‘s 1912 play ‘ ‘Pygmalion ‘, Eliza Dolittle is sent to the LSE. In around a twelve other novels, the LSE was mentioned as short-hand for a character being witty and cagey but outside the establishment. This is well exhibited by Ian Fleming ‘s CV of James Bond that included the detail that his father, Andrew, is an LSE graduate. These occurrences have continued into contemporaneous fabrication : Lenny is the new ‘ hep ’ LSE alumnus and criminologist in Jake Arnott ’ s tour of the London underworld in The Long Firm. Robert Harris ’ Enigma includes Baxter, a code circuit breaker with leftist views, who has been an LSE lector before the war and My Revolutions by Hari Kunzru traces the career of Chris Carver aka Michael Frame who travels from LSE student radical to terrorist and on to middle England. Former LSE alumnus Hilary Mantel in The Experience of Love never mentions LSE by name but Houghton Street, the corridors of the LSE Old Building and Wright ‘s Bar are immediately recognizable references to the campus of the school. A.S Byatt ’ s The Children’s Book returns to LSE ’ sulfur Fabian roots with a plot inspired in part by the biography of children ’ s writer E Nesbitt and Fabian Hubert Bland, and characters that choose LSE over older educational establishments ( namely Oxford and Cambridge ). On the small screen, the popular 1980s british sitcom Yes Minister and Yes Prime Minister make a regular references to the LSE with Minister Jim Hacker ( late Prime Minister ) and Sir Mark Spencer ( extra adviser to the Prime Minister ) regularly being subtly ridiculed for having attended the LSE. A slightly earlier fictional LSE graduate appears in season three episode six of the US series, Mad Men. The popular american serial The West Wing following the democratic administration of Josiah ( Jed ) Barltet makes respective references to Josiah Bartlet being an alumnus of the LSE. other fabricated LSE alumnus are give in Spooks, at least one episode of The Professionals and The Blacklist series. In movies and motion pictures, in the 2014 natural process spy thriller Shadow Recruit, the young Jack Ryan, based on a Tom Clancy character, proves his academic credentials by walking out of the Old Building as he graduates from the London School of Economics before injuring his spine being shot down in Afghanistan. The LSE is acknowledged in The Social Network naming the mental hospital along with Oxford and Cambridge Universities in a reference book to the rapid growth Facebook enjoyed both within and outside the United States in its early years .

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ Attended ; did not calibrate .

References [edit ]

farther interpretation [edit ]

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