Surakarta – Wikipedia

City in Central Java, Indonesia
Surakarta ( javanese : ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ ), known colloquially as Solo, is a city in Central Java, Indonesia. The 44 km2 ( 16.2 sq myocardial infarction ) city [ 4 ] adjoins Karanganyar Regency and Boyolali Regency to the north, Karanganyar Regency and Sukoharjo Regency to the east and west, and Sukoharjo Regency to the south. [ 5 ] On the easterly slope of Solo lies Solo River ( Bengawan Solo ). Its built-up area, consisting of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread over seven regencies, was home to 3,649,254 inhabitants as of 2010 census. [ 6 ] Surakarta is the birthplace of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo. He served as Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012.

history [edit ]

Hominid dwelling in the region of Surakarta is evidenced from roughly one million years ago, the long time of the “ Java Man “ skeleton found 80 kilometers upriver. The Surakarta sphere was share of the Medang Kingdom and in this clock time a village called Wulayu seems to have already existed in or around the contemporary city of Surakarta, as evidenced by a ferry charter issued by Balitung in A.D. 904. The Majapahit empire renewed this ferry charter in 1358. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] By the eighteenth hundred, the village had acquired the name of Sala. As “ Sala ” was considered difficult to pronounce by the Dutch, the name subsequently became “ Solo ”. [ 9 ] In 1745, on the basis of astrological calculations and Dutch commercial interest, Solo was chosen to be the new capital of the Mataram Sultanate which was on the brink of becoming a vassal country of the Dutch East India Company. Sultan Pakubuwono II gave Solo the extra name Sarakarta or Surakarta, which thereafter became the legal name of the city. [ 7 ] The dinner dress name is derived from the former capital Kartasura. The official court history claims that Surakarta originally stood on a lake, which was drained by the favor of the fabulous queen of the southern ocean, Nyai Roro Kidul. In the ensuing colonial era, the city was divided into the Surakarta Sultanate ( northern court, besides called Kartasura Sultanate ) and the Yogyakarta Sultanate ( southern court ). Surakarta ruled by a sequence of sultans, who were given the unique javanese cultural title Susuhunan. Since both Surakarta and Yogyakarta had become vassal states of the Dutch, traditional court arts, notably gamelan, were developed to demonstrate cultural ability rather of having military skirmishes .

Pakubuwono x [edit ]

possibly the most significant ruler of the twentieth hundred was Pakubuwono X. His kinship with the dutch, his big family, and his popularity contributed to possibly the largest funeral procession that ever occurred in Solo. He had spent a boastfully measure of money on the Royal Graveyard at Imogiri, both the main sections of the cemetery and the new section that he was buried in. In the earned run average merely prior to independence Surakarta had European, Chinese, and Arab quarters .

conflict for independence [edit ]

After hearing the announcement of indonesian Independence, Pakubuwono XII declared Surakarta a part of the Republic of Indonesia ( RI ). Because of this digest, President Sukarno declared Surakarta the Daerah Istimewa Surakarta ( DIS ) / ” Surakarta Special Region ” with the Pakubuwono XII continuing as governor. In October 1945, a republican movement was established in Surakarta led by Tan Malaka, a member of the Indonesian Communist Party. On October 17, the vizier of Surakarta, KRMH Sosrodiningrat V ( a member of the BPUPK ), was kidnapped. The new vizier, KRMT Yudonagoro, and 9 other woo officials were besides kidnapped by the lapp motion in March 1946. The following in the agate line of succession, KRMTH Wuryaningrat, was besides kidnapped but was let go. [ 10 ] In response to this general lawlessness, Prime Minister of Indonesia Sutan Syahrir met with Wuryaningrat and other Surakarta leaders in May and agreed to abolish the established government wholly. [ 11 ] On June 16, 1946, the Surakarta “ special region ” was abolished and replaced with a regency ( kabupaten ). This event is commemorated as the birthday of the city of Surakarta. On June 26, Sutan Syahrir was kidnapped in Surakarta by a maverick drift led by Major General Soedarsono, the commander of the 3rd part. President Sukarno was angry at this kidnap and on July 1, 1946, 14 communist leaders including Tan Malaka were arrested by indonesian patrol on Sukarno ‘s instructions. however, Soedarsono freed the maverick leaders immediately. Sukarno asked the local military commander in Surakarta, Lieutenant Colonel Suharto to arrest Major General Soedarsono and the rebel group. Suharto refused to follow this command unless it was given directly by the Military Chief of Staff, General Soedirman. Sukarno was angry at this rejection of his commanding agency, and called Suharto a stubborn ( koppig ) military officer. [ citation needed ] Suharto pretended that he supported the rebellion and persuaded Soedarsono and his group to stay at his headquarters at Wiyoro, Surakarta for their own guard. late that night he persuaded Soedarsono to meet President Sukarno at his palace the adjacent good morning. Suharto secretly informed the presidential guard troops about Soedarsono ‘s design on the future dawn. On July 3, 1946, Soedarsono and his group were arrested by the presidential guard duty near the palace. Prime Minister Syahrir was released unharmed. several months former, Maj. Gen. Soedarsono and his group were pardoned and released from prison. [ 12 ] A statue of Slamet Riyadi in Surakarta. however, this did not halt the dominance of the Communist Party in Surakarta. In November 1946, the communists kidnapped the regent and vice-regent and impound power for themselves, a coup cursorily legitimated after the fact by Sukarno. In 1947, Amir Sjarifuddin appointed Wikana, a communist, as Surakarta ‘s military governor. [ 13 ] In December 1948, the Dutch attacked and occupied the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta as character of Operation Kraai. The indonesian united states army led by General Soedirman started a guerrilla war from surrounding areas. The Dutch said that the Republic was destroyed and no long existed. To disprove this claim, the indonesian army conducted large-scale raids into the cities of Yogyakarta and Surakarta, called Serangan Oemoem. On August 7, 1949, indonesian troops led by Slamet Riyadi managed to beat the dutch troops and occupy the city for respective hours. To commemorate this event, the main street of the city of Surakarta was renamed “ Brigadier General Slamet Riyadi Street ”. Surakarta remained under communist control until October 1965. local politics was ill-defined about how to proceed after the 30 September Movement and went about commercial enterprise as usual. As a leave, Suharto ‘s forces entered Surakarta without resistance, mobilized local youth paramilitaries, and promiscuously slaughtered the integral local anesthetic government. [ 14 ]

administrative division [edit ]

Surakarta City Hall. After Surakarta became a city, it was divided into five districts ( kecamatan ), each led by a camat, and subdivided into 51 kelurahan, each led by a lurah. The districts of Surakarta City are tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census, [ 15 ] together with the latest official estimates ( for mid 2019 ). [ 2 ] The table besides includes the number of administrative villages ( urban kelurahan ) in each zone and its administrative center : [ 16 ]

  • Kecamatan Pasar Kliwon (Postal code: 57110): 9 kelurahan
  • Kecamatan Jebres (Postal code: 57120): 11 kelurahan
  • Kecamatan Banjarsari (Postal code: 57130): 13 kelurahan
  • Kecamatan Laweyan (also spelled Lawiyan, Postal code: 57140): 11 kelurahan
  • Kecamatan Serengan (Postal code: 57150): 7 kelurahan
Name Area
Laweyan 8.64 86,057 88,524 11 Penumping
Serengan 3.19 43,653 47,778 7 Serengan
Pasar Kliwon 4.82 74,269 78,517 9 Joyosuran
Jebres 12.58 138,049 138,775 11 Jebres
Banjarsari 14.81 157,309 168,770 13 Banyuaryar
Totals 44.04 499,337 522,364 51

Greater Surakarta [edit ]

Surakarta as a dense core city in Central Java, and its second city, spills well into neighboring regencies. Surakarta City and its wall regencies, Karanganyar, Sragen, Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Klaten, and Boyolali, are jointly called the ex- Surakarta Residency ( dutch : Residentie Soerakarta ). Though a traffic study quotes the population ampere 1,158,000 as of 2008, [ 17 ] this reflects only the very core, as the city affects stallion neighboring regencies by significantly driving up overall population densities in Sukoharjo Regency and Klaten Regency over the already dense countryside. furthermore, the politics of Indonesia formally defines a broader region as Surakarta ‘s strain metropolitan zone, with the acronym Subosukawonosraten as the city and 6 surrounding regencies, [ 18 ] [ 19 ] which reflects a broader planning region, though not a core metropolitan area as some of its regencies are not particularly suburbanized. Both the metropolitan area and extended areas border Yogyakarta ‘s metropolitan sphere, while only the extensive metropolitan sphere borders Kedungsapur or Greater Semarang .

Hydrogeology [edit ]

The water sources for Surakarta are in the valley of Merapi, a sum of 19 locations, with a capacity of 3,404 L/second ( 899.2 U.S. gal/sec ). The average generator water altitude is 800–1,200 megabyte ( 2624.7 foot to 3937 foot ) above sea degree. In 1890–1927 there were alone 12 wells in Surakarta. today, belowground water system wells in 23 locations produce about 45 L/second ( 11.9 U.S. gal/sec ). [ 20 ] In March 2006, Surakarta ‘s state water system company ( PDAM ) had a production capacity of 865.02 L/second ( 228.5 U.S. gal/sec ) : from Cokrotulung, Klaten, 27 kilometer ( 16.8 michigan ) from Solo, 387 L/s ( 102.2 U.S. gal/sec ) ; and from 26 bass wells, with a total capacity of 478.02 L/second ( 126.3 U.S. gal/sec ). The total reservoir capability is 9,140 m3 ( ,414,533 U.S. gala ) north dakota can serve 55,22 % of the population. [ 21 ]

climate [edit ]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Surakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city has a drawn-out wet season spanning from October through May, and a relatively light dry temper covering the remaining four months ( June through September ). On average Surakarta receives just under 2200 millimeter ( 86.6 in ) of rain per annum, with its wettest months being December, January, and February. As is coarse in areas featuring a tropical monsoon climate, temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year. Surakarta ‘s average temperature is roughly 30 °C every month ( 86 °F ) .

Climate data for Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.2
Average low °C (°F) 22.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 324

demography [edit ]

One of the earliest censuses held in Surakarta Residency ( Residentie Soerakarta ) was in 1885. At that time, with an sphere of about 5,677 km2 ( 2191.9 sq nautical mile ), there were 1,053,985 people in Surakarta Residency, including 2,694 Europeans and 7,543 Indonesian-Chinese. The area, 130 times the current area of Surakarta, had a population concentration of 186 people/km2 ( 480/sq nautical mile ). The capital of the residency itself ( approximately the size of the City of Solo proper ) in 1880 had 124,041 people living in it. [ 23 ] According to the 2009 calculate, there were 245,043 males and 283,159 females ( a sex ratio of 86.54 ) in Surakarta. [ 24 ] 119,951 of the population were 14 years or younger, 376,180 were between 15 and 64, and 32,071 were above 65. [ 25 ] The number of households was 142,627 and the average number of family members was 3.7. [ 26 ] The population growth in the last 10 years was about 0.565 % per year. [ 27 ] The undertaking military unit of Solo in 2009 was 275,546, of whom 246,768 were working, while 28,778 were seeking work. Another 148,254 people aged 15 and above were not in the labor movement impel. [ 28 ] Based on employment numbers, the most common exercise in Solo was worker/paid employee ( 112,336 ), followed by self-employee ( 56,112 ), self-employee assisted by irregular employee ( 32,769 ), unpaid employee ( 20,193 ), self-employee assisted by permanent employee ( 14,880 ), freelancer employee in non-agricultural cultivate ( 10,241 ), and freelancer employee in agricultural exploit ( 237 ). [ 29 ] Based on the industry, most people in Solo worked in deal ( 106,426 ), services ( 59,780 ), manufacturing ( 42,065 ), communication ( 16,815 ), structure ( 9,217 ), financing ( 9,157 ), or agriculture ( 2,608 ), and the rest in mining, electricity, gas, and body of water companies ( 700 ). [ 30 ] The mean working week in Solo was 47.04 hours ( 47.74 for men and 46.13 for women ), [ 31 ] and 212,262 people worked more than 35 hours per week compared to 34,506 who worked less than that. [ 32 ]

department of education [edit ]

According to 2009 statistics, 242,070 people above 15 in the city had finished high school, while 86,890 had only finished junior high school, and 94,840 were still in school or had alone finished elementary school. The share of high-school graduates was the highest of the cities and regencies in Central Java. [ 33 ] According to the statistics of Data Pokok Pendidikan ( Dapodik ), in the 2010/2011 school year, there were 68,153 students and 853 schools in Surakarta. [ 34 ] There are two large universities possessing more than 20.000 students : Sebelas Maret University ( UNS ) and Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta ( UMS ), both are recognised as among Indonesia ‘s 50 best universities according to the Directorate of Higher Education, Ministry of Education RI. There is besides arts concentrated university Art Institute of Surakarta ( ISI ), religious studies State Islamic Institute ( IAIN Surakarta ). There are around 52 secret universities and colleges such as STIKES Muhammadiyah, Universitas Tunas Pembangunan, Universitas Slamet Riyadi, Universitas Surakarta, Universitas Setia Budi, etc. [ 35 ]

economy [edit ]

Pasar Klewer and Gapura Keraton ( Klewer Textile Market and Keraton Gate ). The per caput GDP of Surakarta in 2009 was 16,813,058.62 IDR, the one-fourth highest in Central Java after Kudus, Cilacap, and Semarang. [ 36 ] The living standard in 2009 was 723,000 IDR. [ 37 ] The Consumer monetary value index in January 2011 was 119.44. [ 38 ]

religion [edit ]

Sports [edit ]

Surakarta has a long mutant history and tradition. In 1923 Solo already had a football club, one of the earliest clubs in Indonesia ( at that time even the Dutch Indies ), called Persis Solo. Persis Solo was a giant baseball club in the dutch Indies and hush exists, but is past its flower. During the Perserikatan tournament, Persis became seven-time ace. Currently it plays in the Liga 2 Indonesia. early than Persis, respective clubs have existed in alone : Arseto, Pelita Solo, Persijatim Solo FC, and last Solo FC played in the indonesian Premier League in 2011. Both clubs that still exist, Persis and Solo FC, have made Manahan Stadium their family background. Manahan Stadium is one of the best sports stadiums in Central Java, with more than 25,000 seats, and has several times hosted national and international matches. It was recently the venue for the AFC Champions Cup 2007, the final venue of the indonesian Cup 2010, and the opening venue for the Indonesian Premiere League on January 15, 2011. [ 40 ] Surakarta is besides home to the West Bandits Solo of the Indonesian Basketball League. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] They play their family games in the Sritex Arena .

disabled sports [edit ]

Surakarta is the first to host National Paralympic Week in 1957 and hosted several of the subsequent games. As a result, Surakarta has sport facilities sufficient for holding international disable sports games. [ 43 ] In 1986, Surakarta hosted the 4th FESPIC Games, making the games the first in indonesian para-sport history in which international disable sports games were held. [ 44 ] The city is besides the host city of the 2011 ASEAN Para Games, rather of Jakarta and Palembang, where the main games were held. [ 45 ]

transportation [edit ]

Air [edit ]

Adi Sumarmo International Airport. Adisumarmo International Airport ( IATA code : SOC ) has direct flights to Kuala Lumpur by Malaysia Airlines and during the hajj temper, Saudi Arabia, equally well as regular flights to Jakarta by Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, Lion Air and Citilink. The airport is located 14 km ( 8.7 mile ) north of the city. [ 46 ] In 2009 Adisumarmo had 2,060 outbound domestic flights and 616 outbound international flights. [ 47 ]

rail [edit ]

Surakarta has four train stations : Solo Balapan, Purwosari, Solo Jebres, and Solo Kota ( Sangkrah ). Solo Balapan is the largest station in Surakarta, and is the junction between Yogyakarta ( westbound ), Semarang ( north ), and Surabaya ( east ), while Purwosari is the junction located west of Solo Balapan, and has a connection to Wonogiri ( southbound ). There are several direct lines to early cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Semarang, Madiun, and Malang. For regional dealings, a commuter gearing KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo connects Surakarta and Yogyakarta. On 26 July 2011 the Bathara Kresna Rail Bus has been launched to serve Purwosari – Wonogiri route, but for the moment merely Purwosari-Sukoharjo trackage was ready due to there are 99 bridges should be strengthen between Sukoharjo-Wonogiri. [ 48 ] Until April 2012, Surakarta-Wonogiri railbus is silent in a large motion cross off due to the 12 tons railbuses are considered besides heavy for existing railroad track track that only has the capacity of accommodating 10-ton vehicles, furthermore PT KAI have proposed a menu between Rp30,000 ( $ 3.27 ) and Rp40,000 ( $ 4.36 ) per passenger, while Surakarta presidency wants tickets to be priced much lower between Rp5,000 ( $ 0.54 ) and Rp7,000 ( $ 0,76 ). [ 49 ] In 2019, Adisumarmo Airport Rail Link began operation, linking Solo Balapan Station to a place inside Adisumarmo International Airport complex .

road [edit ]

Batik Solo Trans. Tirtonadi Terminal is the largest bus topology terminal in Surakarta. Surakarta is situated on indonesian National Route 15, which connects it to Yogyakarta and Waru ( Sidoarjo ). Semarang–Solo Toll Road connects the city with provincial capital Semarang. In 2009 the sum extent of roadways in the city was 705.34 kilometer : 13.15 kilometer state road, 16.33 kilometer province road, and 675.86 km local road. [ 50 ] The number of busbar companies was 23, and the total number of buses operating was 1,115 intra-provincial buses and 1,107 inter-provincial. [ 51 ] In 2010, the government of Surakarta launched a new bus serve named Batik Solo Trans ( BST ), which resembles TransJakarta bus rapid transit overhaul. As of 2017, it has only three routes. A individual tripper costs Rp.3000, Rp.1500 for students. A especial tag for the slip from or to the airport costs Rp.7000. [ 52 ]

tourism [edit ]

The National Press Monument One main tourist drawing card of Surakarta is the Keraton Surakarta, the palace of Susuhunan Pakubuwono, besides the Princely Javanese motor hotel of Mangkunegaran. Pasar Gede market is much visited by tourists, by and large for its unique architecture and fame as the biggest traditional market in the Solo area. The Pasar Klewer is celebrated for its batik in all prices and qualities, while the Pasar Triwindhu located near Mangkunegaran palace specialises in antiques. Taman Sriwedari is a popular local entertainment park featuring a children ‘s resort area, dangdut music performance and Wayang Wong traditional javanese dance performance about every night. Near the park is Radyapustaka Museum, one of the oldest museums in Indonesia, with a solicitation of javanese cultural artefacts. The traditional batik village of Laweyan and Kampung Batik Kauman, located in the southwest part of the city and the city center respectively, are celebrated for producing fine timbre Javanese batik. Within Surakarta tourists can besides use the Jaladara honest-to-god steam train which was launched on in September 2009 for 5.6 km connecting Purwosari Station and Solo Kota Station. In 2011 there were 60 trips and in 2012 will be 80 trips. [ 53 ]

People from Surakarta [edit ]

sister cities [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far reading [edit ]

  • Majeed, Rushda. “The City With a Short Fuse.” Foreign Policy. September 2012.
  • Majeed, Rushda. “Defusing a Volatile City, Igniting Reforms: Joko Widodo and Surakarta, Indonesia, 2005-2011.” Innovations for Successful Societies. Princeton University. Published July 2012.
  • Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: ‘By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII’. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
  • Soeharto, G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. “Ucapan, Pikiran dan Tindakan Saya”. 1988. PT Citra Lamtoro Gung.
  • Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: ‘By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII’. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
  • Soeharto, G. Dwipayana dan Ramadhan K.H. “Ucapan, Pikiran dan Tindakan Saya”. 1988. PT Citra Lamtoro Gung.
  • Paku Buwono XII (Sunan of Surakarta), A. Mutholi’in, “Karaton Surakarta”, Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004
  • Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta manuscripts / Vol. 1 Introduction and manuscripts of the Karaton Surakarta, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Southeast Asia Program (SEAP), 1993.
  • Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta manuscripts / Vol. 2 Manuscripts of the Mangkunagaran Palace, Cornell University Ithaca, NY : Southeast Asia Program (SEAP), 2000.
  • Nancy K. Florida, “Writing the past, inscribing the future: history as prophesy in colonial Java”, Duke University Press, 1995
  • Richard Anderson Sutton, “Traditions of gamelan music in Java: musical pluralism and regional identity”, CUP Archive, 1991
  • Clara Brakel-Papenhuijzen, “Classical Javanese dance: the Surakarta tradition and its terminology”, KITLV Press, 1995
  • The domestication of desire: Women, wealth, and modernity in Java (1998) Brenner, Suzanne April. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Keraton and Kumpeni: Surakarta and Yogyakarta, 1830–1870 (1994) Houben, V. J. H.. Leiden: KITLV Press.
  • Prelude to revolution: Palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912–1942 (1987) Larson, George D.. Dordrecht, Holland and Providence, R.I., U.S.A.: Foris Publications.
  • Solo in the new order: Language and hierarchy in an Indonesian city (1986) Siegel, James T.. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Pakubuwono’s keraton of Surakarta: Short guide to Surakarta’s grandeur : the palace of the Susuhunans Pakubuwono (1980) No contributors listed. Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Sarana Wisata Budaya Jakarta.
  • Miftah Sanaji, “Wisata Kuliner Makanan Daerah Khas Solo”, Gramedia 2009, ISBN 978-979-22-5209-5
  • “Ekspedisi Bengawan Solo”, Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas, Kompas 2009, ISBN 978-979-709-390-7
  • Linda Carolina Brotodjojo, “Jajanan Kaki Lima Khas Solo”, Gramedia 2008, ISBN 978-979-22-4143-3
  • Izharry Agusjaya Moenzir, “Gesang”, Gramedia 2010, ISBN 978-979-22-5911-7

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