Gender pay gap in U.S. held steady in 2020

The gender gap in pay has remained relatively static in the United States over the past 15 years or so. In 2020, women earned 84 % of what men earned, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of medial hourly earnings of both full- and half-time workers. Based on this estimate, it would take an extra 42 days of work for women to earn what men did in 2020 .
As has been the casing in late decades, the 2020 wage gap was smaller for workers ages 25 to 34 than for all workers 16 and older. Women ages 25 to 34 earn 93 cents for every dollar a man in the like long time group earned on average. In 1980, women ages 25 to 34 earned 33 cents less than their male counterparts, compared with 7 cents in 2020. The estimate 16-cent gender pay break among all workers in 2020 was gloomy from 36 cents in 1980 .

The sex pay break measures the dispute in median hourly earnings between men and women who work full- or part-time in the U.S. Historically, men have earned more on average than women, but the break has lento closed over time. The most recent data is from 2020 Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group ( MORG ) files. To understand how we calculate the sex pay gap, see our 2013 station, “ How Pew Research Center measured the gender pay gap. ”

The U.S. Census Bureau has besides analyzed the gender give gap, though its analysis looks only at full-time workers ( as opposed to full- and half-time workers ). In 2019, full-time, year-round working women earned 82 % of what their male counterparts earned, according to the Census Bureau ’ s most recent analysis .

Why does a gender pay gap still persist?  

much of this col has been explained by measurable factors such as educational attainment, occupational segregation and cultivate experience. The specialize of the col is attributable in boastfully separate to gains women have made in each of these dimensions .
even though women have increased their presence in higher-paying jobs traditionally dominated by men, such as master and managerial positions, women as a whole stay to be overrepresented in lower-paying occupations relative to their contribution of the work force. This may contribute to gender differences in pay.

other factors that are unmanageable to measure, including gender discrimination, may besides contribute to the ongoing wage discrepancy. In a 2017 Pew Research Center survey, about four-in-ten work women ( 42 % ) said they had experienced sex discrimination at work, compared with about two-in-ten men ( 22 % ). One of the most normally reported forms of discrimination focused on earnings inequality. One-in-four use women said they had earned less than a world who was doing the same job ; equitable 5 % of men said they had earned less than a woman doing the same job .
motherhood can besides lead to interruptions in women ’ south career paths and have an impact on long-run earnings. Our 2016 survey of workers who had taken parental, family or medical leave in the two years anterior to the survey found that mothers typically take more time off than fathers after give birth or adoption. The median distance of leave among mothers after the parentage or adoption of their child was 11 weeks, compared with one week for fathers. About half ( 47 % ) of mothers who took time off from bring in the two years after birth or adoption took off 12 weeks or more .
Mothers were besides closely doubly american samoa likely as fathers to say taking time off had a negative impact on their job or career. Among those who took leave from exploit in the two years following the parentage or adoption of their child, 25 % of women said this had a negative impact at study, compared with 13 % of men.

once women become mothers, juggling kin caregiving responsibilities and work can be a challenge. Mothers, even those who are married and work full time, tend to carry a larger load at home than fathers when it comes to these tasks. In a 2019 sketch, mothers with children younger than 18 were more likely than fathers to say they needed to reduce their work hours, felt like they couldn ’ triiodothyronine give broad attempt at exercise and turned down a forwarding because they were balancing knead and parenting responsibilities. roughly one-in-five mothers said they had been passed over for an crucial assignment or a forwarding at shape, while 27 % said they had been treated as if they weren ’ thyroxine committed to their work .
overall, Americans see adequate pay as central to gender equality. In a 2020 survey, 45 % of those who said it ’ s important for women to have equal rights with men volunteered equal pay as a specific exemplar of what a club with sex equality might look like. This reaction trumped early items such as women not being discriminated against for their gender or women being evenly represented in leadership positions .
note : This is an update of a position primitively published on March 22, 2019. Former Pew Research Center staff Nikki Graf and Eileen Patten contributed to this analysis .
Amanda Barroso  is a former writer/editor focusing on social trends at Pew Research Center. POSTS BIO EMAIL
Anna Brown  is a research associate focusing on social and demographic trends research at Pew Research Center. POSTS BIO TWITTER EMAIL

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