Newfoundland (island) – Wikipedia

Island helping of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Newfoundland (, ; [ 5 ] french : Terre-Neuve ; Miꞌkmaq : Taqamkuk ) [ 6 ] is a big island off the east coast of the north american mainland and the most populous part of the canadian state of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percentage of the state ‘s land sphere. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the universe ‘s largest estuary. Newfoundland ‘s nearest neighbor is the french overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. With an area of 108,860 squarely kilometres ( 42,031 sq nautical mile ), [ 7 ] Newfoundland is the worldly concern ‘s 16th-largest island, Canada ‘s fourth-largest island, and the largest canadian island outside the North. The provincial capital, St. John ‘s, is located on the southeast slide of the island ; Cape Spear, barely south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland. It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be ‘part of Newfoundland ‘ ( i.e., distinct from Labrador ). By that classification, Newfoundland and its associated minor islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres ( 43,008 sq mi ). [ 8 ]

According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57 % of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim british or irish ancestry, with 43.2 % claiming at least one english parent, 21.5 % at least one irish rear, and 7 % at least one parent of scots origin. additionally 6.1 % claimed at least one parent of french lineage. [ 9 ] The island ‘s entire population as of the 2006 census was 479,105 .

history [edit ]

long settled by autochthonal peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic internet explorer Leif Eriksson in the eleventh century, who called the newfangled land “ Vinland “. [ 10 ] The next european visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, French, and English migratory fishermen and whalers. The island was visited by the venetian navigator John Cabot ( Giovanni Caboto ), working under contract to Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a fail try to find the Northwest passage. After european settlement, colonists inaugural called the island Terra Nova, from “ New Land ” in Portuguese and Latin. The name Newfoundland in popular converse came from people discussing the “ New founde domain ” in the new world .
Plaque commemorating Gilbert ‘s establish of the british empire On 5 August 1583, Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland as England ‘s first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I, frankincense officially establishing a harbinger to the much later british Empire. [ 11 ] Newfoundland is considered Britain ‘s oldest colony. [ 12 ] At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. L’Anse aux Meadows was a norwegian colonization near the northernmost tap of Newfoundland ( Cape Norman ), which has been dated to be approximately 1000 years erstwhile. The web site is considered the alone undisputed tell of pre-columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse- Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. Point Rosee, in southwest Newfoundland, was thought to be a second Norse web site until excavations in 2015 and 2016 found no testify of any Norse bearing. [ 13 ] The island is a likely placement of Vinland, mentioned in the Vinland sagas, although this has been disputed. The autochthonal people on the island at the time of european settlement were the Beothuk, who spoke an amerindian lyric Beothuk terminology. late immigrants developed a variety show of dialects associated with colonization on the island : Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. [ 14 ] In the nineteenth hundred, it besides had a dialect of irish known as Newfoundland Irish. [ 14 ] The closely related Scottish Gaelic was besides spoken on the island during the 19th and early twentieth centuries, particularly in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. [ 15 ] The Gaelic name reflected the association with fishing : in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a’ Trosg, literally ‘Island of the Cod ‘ ; [ 16 ] similarly, the Irish appoint Talamh an Éisc means ‘Land of the Fish ‘ .

first inhabitants [edit ]

The foremost inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no known yoke to other groups in Newfoundland history. Little is known about them beyond archaeological tell of early settlements. testify of consecutive cultures have been found. The late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset polish, settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia via the Bering land bridge. The Dorset died off or abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse. [ 17 ] After this period, the Beothuk settled Newfoundland, migrating from Labrador on the mainland. There is no attest that the Beothuk inhabited the island prior to Norse settlement. Scholars believe that the Beothuk are related closely to the Innu of Labrador. [ 18 ] The kin late was declared “ extinct ” although people of overtone Beothuk descent have been documented. [ 19 ] The name Beothuk meant ‘people ‘ in the Beothuk language, which is frequently considered to be a member of the algonquian lyric family although the miss of sufficient records means that it is not potential to confidently demonstrate such a connection. [ 20 ] The tribe is nowadays typically said to be extinct, but attest of its culture is preserved in museum, historical and archaeological records. Shanawdithit, a woman who is much regarded as the last full-blooded Beothuk, died in St. John ‘s in 1829 of tuberculosis. however, Santu Toney, who was born around 1835 and died in 1910, was a charwoman of mix Mi’kmaq and Beothuk descent, which means that some Beothuk must have lived on beyond 1829. She described her father as Beothuk and mother as Mi’kmaq, both from Newfoundland. The Beothuk may have intermingled and assimilated with Innu in Labrador and Mi’kmaq in Newfoundland. european histories besides suggest likely historical competition and hostility between the Beothuk and Mi’kmaq, though this is refuted by autochthonal oral history. [ 21 ] The Mi’kmaq, Innu and Inuit all hunted and fished around Newfoundland but no testify indicates that they lived on the island for long periods of time and would only travel to Newfoundland temporarily. Inuit have been documented on the Great Northern Peninsula arsenic belated as the 18th-Century. Newfoundland was historically the southernmost part of the Inuit ‘s territorial scope. [ citation needed ] When Europeans arrived from 1497 and belated, starting with John Cabot, they established contact with the Beothuk. Estimates of the number of Beothuk on the island at this fourth dimension change, typically around 700. [ 22 ] late both the English and French settled the island. They were followed by the Mi’kmaq, an algonquian -speaking autochthonal people from easterly Canada and contemporary Nova Scotia. As european and Mi’kmaq settlement became year-round and expanded to new areas of the seashore, the area available to the Beothuk to harvest the marine resources they relied upon was diminished. By the begin of the nineteenth hundred, few Beothuk remained. Most die due to infectious diseases carried by Europeans, to which they had no immunity, and starvation. [ citation needed ] Government attempts to engage with the Beothuk and aid them came excessively late. [ citation needed ] The Beothuk did not have friendly relations with foreigners, unlike the Mi’kmaq. The latter promptly traded with Europeans and became established in settlements in Newfoundland .
Newfoundland is the site of the only authenticated Norse liquidation in North America. [ 23 ] An archaeological locate was discovered in 1960 at L’Anse aux Meadows by norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife, archeologist Anne Stine Ingstad. This web site was the subject of archaeological studies throughout the 1960s and 1970s. This research has revealed that the settlement dates to about the year 1000, and the site contains the earliest-known european structures in North America. Designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, it is believed to be the Vinland liquidation of explorer Leif Erikson. ( The Icelandic Skálholt map of 1570 refers to the area as “ Promontorium Winlandiæ ” and correctly shows it on a 51°N twin with Bristol, England ). Before and after the departure of the Norse, the island was inhabited by autochthonal populations. [ 24 ]

exploration by Cabot [edit ]

About 500 years late, in 1497, the italian navigator John Cabot ( Zuan/Giovanni Caboto ) became the foremost european since the Norse settlers to set foot on Newfoundland, working under commission of King Henry VII of England. His landing web site is obscure but popularly believed to be Cape Bonavista, along the island ‘s East seashore. [ 25 ] Another locate claimed is Cape Bauld, at the tip off of the Great Northern Peninsula. A document found in the spanish National Archives, written by a Bristol merchant, reports that Cabot ‘s crew landed 1,800 miles or 2,900 kilometres west of Dursey Head, Ireland ( latitude 51°35′N ), which would put Cabot within sight of Cape Bauld. This document mentions an island that Cabot sailed by to go ashore on the mainland. This description fits with the Cape Bauld theory, as Belle Isle is not far offshore. [ 25 ]

early european explorers [edit ]

After Cabot, the inaugural european visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish, Basque, French and English migratory fishermen. In 1501, portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a fail undertake to find the Northwest Passage. Late in the seventeenth century came Irish fishermen, who found indeed many fisheries that they named the island Talamh an Éisc, meaning ‘Land of the Fish ‘, more loosely ‘the fishing grounds ‘ in Irish .

colonization [edit ]

Map of Newfoundland by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1 January 1692 In 1583, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland as a colony of England, he found numerous English, French and Portuguese vessels at St. John ‘s. There was no permanent european population. Gilbert was lost at sea during his return ocean trip, and plans of liquidation were postponed. In July 1596 the scottish vessel the “ William ” left Aberdeen for “ modern investment company domain ” ( Newfoundland ) and returned in 1600. [ 26 ] On 5 July 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol, England with 39 other colonists for Cuper ‘s Cove. This, and other early attempts at permanent wave colony failed to make a profit for the English investors, but some settlers remained, forming the very earliest modern european population on the island. By 1620, the fishermen of England ‘s West Country dominated the east slide of Newfoundland. french fishermen dominated the island ‘s south coast and Northern Peninsula. The worsen of the fisheries, the cachexia of the shoreline forests, and an overstock of liquor by local merchants influenced the whitehall government in 1675 to decline to set up a colonial governor on the island. [ 27 ] After 1713, with the Treaty of Utrecht, the french ceded control of confederacy and north shores of the island to the british. They kept merely the nearby islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, located in the fish-rich Grand Banks off the south coast. Despite some early settlements by the English, the Crown discouraged permanent wave, year-round village of Newfoundland by migratory fishery workers. Thomas Nash was an irish Catholic fisherman who permanently settled in Newfoundland. He established the fishing town of Branch. [ 28 ] He and his cousin Father Patrick Power of Callan, County Kilkenny, spread Catholicism in Newfoundland. This settlement attracted a major migration of Irish Catholic immigrants to Newfoundland in the early eighteenth hundred. [ 29 ] By the late eighteenth hundred, permanent wave settlement increased, peaking in the early years of the nineteenth century. [ 30 ] The french list for the island is Terre-Neuve. The name Newfoundland is one of the oldest european put names in Canada in continuous geographic and cartographic use, dating from a 1502 letter. It was stated in the stick to 1628 poem : [ 31 ] A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land

Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire
With England, New-found-land cannot compare:
Did some know what contentment I found there,
Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare,
With little paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care,
Exempt from taxings, ill newes, Lawing, feare,
If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare,
Healthy, and wealthy, if men careful are,
With much-much more, then I will now declare,
(I say) if some wise men knew what this were
(I doe beleeue) they’d live no other where.
From ‘The First Booke of Qvodlibets
Composed and done at Harbor-Grace in
Britaniola, anciently called Newfound-Land
by Governor Robert Hayman – 1628.

A new company [edit ]

The european immigrants, by and large English, Scots, Irish and French, built a club in the New World unlike the ones they had left. It was besides unlike from those that other immigrants would build on the north american mainland. As a fish-exporting club, Newfoundland was in contact with many ports and societies around the Atlantic rim. But its geographic localization and political disparateness isolated it from its closest neighbours, Canada and the United States. internally, most of its population was spread widely around a rugged coastline in little outport settlements. many were distant from larger centres of population and isolated for farseeing periods by winter ice or bad upwind. These conditions had an effect on the cultures of the immigrants. They generated newly ways of think and acting. Newfoundland and Labrador developed a wide diverseness of classifiable customs, beliefs, stories, songs and dialects. [ 32 ] [ 33 ]

Effects of World Wars [edit ]

The First World War had a brawny and lasting effect on the club. From a population of about a quarter of a million, 5,482 men went overseas. closely 1,500 were killed and 2,300 wounded. On July 1, 1916, at Beaumont-Hamel, France, 753 men of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment went over the lead of a impinge. The next dawn, alone 68 men answered the roll-call. even now, when the rest of Canada celebrates the establish of the country on July 1, many Newfoundlanders take part in earnest ceremonies of remembrance [ citation needed ]. The second World War besides had a last effect on Newfoundland. In particular, the United States assigned forces to the military bases at Argentia, Gander, Stephenville, Goose Bay, and St. John ‘s [ citation needed ] .
Newfoundland and Labrador is the youngest province in Canada. Newfoundland was organised as a colony in 1825, was self-governing from 1855 to 1934, and held district condition from 1907 to 1949 ( see Dominion of Newfoundland ). On June 22 and July 3, 1948, the population of the colony voted in referendum 52.3 % to 47.7 % in favor [ 34 ] of joining Canada as a province. confrontation was concentrated among residents of the capital St. John ‘s, and on the Avalon Peninsula .

Union with Canada [edit ]

Newfoundland joined Canada at one infinitesimal before midnight on March 31, 1949. Union with Canada has done fiddling to reduce Newfoundlanders ‘ self-image as a distinctive group. In 2003, 72 % of residents responding identified first as Newfoundlanders, secondarily as Canadians. [ 35 ] Separatist opinion is depleted, though, less than 12 % in the same 2003 study. The referendum political campaign of 1948 was bitterly fought, and interests in both Canada and Britain favoured and supported confederation with Canada. Jack Pickersgill, a western canadian native and politician, worked with the confederation camp during the crusade. The Catholic Church, whose members were a minority on the island, lobbied for continue independence. Canada offered fiscal incentives, including a “ baby bonus ” for each child in a family.

The Confederates were led by the charismatic Joseph Smallwood, a early radio broadcaster, who had developed socialist political inclinations while working for a socialist newspaper in New York City. Following alliance, Smallwood led Newfoundland for decades as the elected premier. His policies as chancellor were closer to liberalism than socialism. He was said [ by whom? ] to have a “ cult of personality “ among his many supporters. Some residents featured photograph of “ Joey ” in their living rooms in a place of prominence .

Flags of Newfoundland [edit ]

The Newfoundland Blue Ensign, Newfoundland ‘s colonial politics sag from 1870 to 1904 The “ update ” Newfoundland Blue Ensign, government ensign from 1904 to 1965 The Newfoundland Red Ensign, Newfoundland ‘s civil ensign from 1904 to 1965 The first ease up to specifically represent Newfoundland is thought to have been an image of a green fir corner on a pink background that was in use in the early nineteenth hundred. [ 36 ] The foremost official flag identifying Newfoundland, flown by vessels in service of the colonial government, was the Newfoundland Blue Ensign, adopted in 1870 and used until 1904, when it was modified slenderly. In 1904, the pate of the Blue Ensign was replaced with the Great Seal of Newfoundland ( having been given royal approval in 1827 ) and the british Parliament designated Newfoundland Red and Blue ensigns as official flags specifically for Newfoundland. The Red and Blue ensigns with the Great Seal of Newfoundland in the flee were used formally from 1904 until 1965, with the Red Ensign being flown as civil ensign by merchant ship, and the Blue being flown by governmental ships ( after the british tradition of having different flags for merchant/naval and politics vessel designation ). On September 26, 1907, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom declared the Colony of Newfoundland, as an independent dominion within the british Empire, [ 37 ] and from that point until 1965, the Newfoundland Red Ensign was used as the civil national flag of the Dominion of Newfoundland with the Blue Ensign, again, reserved for government shipping identification. In 1931 the Newfoundland National Assembly adopted the Union Jack as the official national sag, with the Red and Blue Ensigns retained as ensigns for shipping recognition. [ 38 ] The Union Flag, official flag of both the Dominion and state of Newfoundland from 1931 to 1980 On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became a state of Canada but retained the Union Jack in legislature, hush designating it as the “ national ” flag. This was later reaffirmed by the Revised Statutes Act of 1952, and the Union Jack remained the official iris of Newfoundland until 1980, when it was replaced by the current provincial flag. ( watch Province of Newfoundland and Labrador for continue discussion of provincial flags. )

Points of concern and major settlements [edit ]

Cod, the traditional mainstay of Newfoundland fisheries Newfoundland has the most Dorset culture archaeological sites [ citation needed ]. The Beothuk and Mi’kmaq did not leave a a lot evidence of their cultures [ citation needed ]. As one of the beginning places in the New World where Europeans settled, Newfoundland besides has a history of european colonization. St. John ‘s is the oldest city in Canada and the oldest endlessly settled location in English-speaking North America. The St. John ‘s census metropolitan area includes 12 suburban communities, the largest of which are the city of Mount Pearl and the towns of Conception Bay South and Paradise. The state ‘s third-largest city is Corner Brook, which is situated on the Bay of Islands on the west seashore of the island. The bay was named by Captain James Cook who surveyed the coast in 1767. [ 39 ] The island of Newfoundland has numerous provincial parks such as Barachois Pond Provincial Park, considered to be a model forest, a well as two national parks .
The island has many tourism opportunities, ranging from sea kayak, camping, fishing and hunt, to hiking. The International Appalachian Trail ( IAT ) is being extended along the island ‘s mountainous west coast. On the east slide, the East Coast Trail extends through the Avalon Peninsula for 220 km ( 140 mile ), beginning near Fort Amherst in St. John ‘s and ending in Cappahayden, with an extra 320 kilometer ( 200 security service ) of lead under construction. The Marble Mountain Ski Resort near Corner Brook is a major drawing card in the winter for skiers in easterly Canada. other major communities include the watch towns :
Island of Newfoundland educational institutions include the provincial university, Memorial University of Newfoundland whose independent campus is situated in St. John ‘s, along with the Grenfell Campus in Corner Brook, in addition to the College of the North Atlantic based in Stephenville and other communities. Bonavista, Placentia and Ferryland are all historic locations for diverse early european colony or discovery activities. Tilting Harbour on Fogo Island is a provincial Registered Heritage District, ampere well as a National Cultural Landscape District of Canada. This is one of entirely two national historic sites in Canada so recognized for their irish inheritance. entertainment opportunities abound in the island ‘s three cities and numerous towns, peculiarly during summer festivals. For nightlife, George Street, located in downtown St. John ‘s, is closed to traffic 20 hours per day. The Mile One stadium in St. John ‘s is the venue for big frolic and concert events in the state. In March, the annual seal search ( of the harp sealing wax ) takes place. Largest Municipalities ( 2016 population )

geography [edit ]

topography of Newfoundland Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 500 kilometres ( 310 nautical mile ), and having an area of 108,860 square kilometres ( 42,030 sq nautical mile ). Newfoundland and its associated little islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres ( 43,010 sq nautical mile ). Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36’N and 51°38’N .

climate [edit ]

Newfoundland is chiefly characterized by having a subarctic ( Köppen Dfc ) or a humid continental climate ( Köppen Dfb ). Locations on the extreme southeast of the island receive sufficient nautical influence to qualify as having a subpolar oceanic climate ( Köppen Cfc ) .

geology [edit ]

The Terreneuvian Epoch that begins the welsh Period of geological meter is named for Terre Neuve ( the french term for Newfoundland ). [ 40 ]

Fauna and flora [edit ]

Newfoundlanders [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

further reading [edit ]

modern histories [edit ]

vintage accounts [edit ]

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