Geography of North Macedonia – Wikipedia

North Macedonia is a area situated in southeastern Europe with geographic coordinates, bordering Kosovo and Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south and Albania to the west. The nation is separate of the wide region of Macedonia and makes up most of Vardar Macedonia. The country is a major transportation system corridor from westerly and Central Europe to Southern Europe and the Aegean Sea. North Macedonia is a landlocked country but has three major natural lakes : Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Lake Dojran. It has a water area of 857 km2, while its land area is 24,856 km2. Phytogeographically, Macedonia belongs to the illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, North Macedonia ‘s territory can be subdivided into four ecoregions : the Pindus Mountains interracial forests, Balkan assorted forests, Rhodopes assorted forests and Aegean sclerophyllous and desegregate forests .

climate [edit ]

Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for North Macedonia North Macedonia has a unique climate explained by its localization and topography. The climate of the plains is a mediterranean climate combined with the determine of the Black Sea. [ 1 ] The country besides holds continental characteristics, which are accentuated by the mountains in the south which prevent hot air from the south from moving to the north. conversely, the Šar Mountains, which are located in the northwestern function, block cold northern winds. In whole, the northern and westerly parts of the area are relatively close to a continental climate and the southerly and easterly to a Mediterranean climate. [ 2 ]

North Macedonia has four seasons, but the lengths of the seasons varies based on geography. The spring is frequently very short. [ 2 ] Summers are subtropical and it is not uncommon to see temperatures of above 40 °C ( 104 °F ) during this season, specially in the plains along the valley of the Vardar river. [ 1 ] Winters, although moderate, can be quite cold. Snowfalls during winter are park and occasionally heavy. The average annual temperature of the publicize is 11.5 °C ( 53 °F ), but the plains experience higher temperatures, 15 °C ( 59 °F ). [ 2 ] The warmest calendar month is July, which has an average temperature of 22.2 °C ( 72 °F ) and the cold is January, with a temperature of 0.3 °C ( 33 °F ). The maximum and minimal temperatures recorded in North Macedonia to date are 45.7 °C ( 114 °F ) and −31.5 °C ( −25 °F ), respectively. [ 3 ] The rain is abundant in the westerly and eastern parts of the nation, but the temperature decreases significantly in the Vardar region. [ 2 ] This region sees heater winters through the Vardarec wind. This wind instrument comes up from the talk of the Vardar river and brings warm atmosphere. [ 1 ] Skopje, considered a low-lying city, has an average of 64 showery days per class. The calendar month of October is the wettest with 61 mm ; the dry is August with 28 mm. Rains are most coarse in the spring and fall. [ 4 ]

Place Region Latitude Longitude Altitude (m) Rainfall (mm) Temperature
(°C)
Skopje North of the valley of the Vardar 42° 00’ 21° 26’ 245 940 13,5
Kočani Eastern North Macedonia 41° 50’ 22° 00’ 400 538 12,9
Lake Ohrid Southwest North Macedonia 41° 03’ 20° 42’ 693 759 11,4

Climatic data for Skopje :[8]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Maximum temperature (°C) 5 10 14 19 24 29 32 32 27 21 11 7
Minimum temperature (°C) -5 2 5 9 14 18 20 20 16 11 5 -2
Rainfall (average height in mm) 100 103 113 175 201 123 132 33 30 66 124 141

physical geography [edit ]

Boundaries [edit ]

The area has some 766 km of boundaries, shared with Kosovo ( 159 kilometer or 99 secret intelligence service ) to the northwest, Serbia ( 62 kilometer or 39 mile ) to the North, Bulgaria ( 148 kilometer ) to the east, Greece ( 246 kilometer ) to the south, and Albania ( 151 kilometer ) to the west. The union border with Serbia and Kosovo is 221 kilometers in length. The frame was made after World War II, between SR Macedonia and SR Serbia. [ 9 ] But in 2008 when Kosovo declared independence the margin with it was remarked again. rather more than one-half of the limit separates North Macedonia from Kosovo. From the tripoint with Albania, the boundary trends north-eastwards along the landmark of Šar Mountain. It describes a bend to the south across the River Lepenec and then turns to northeast to traverse Mount Crna before taking a course slightly to the north of east across the landscape features to the tripoint with Bulgaria .
Photo of a cloud-covered Macedonia taken from space Satellite image of North Macedonia in December The east molding with Bulgaria has length of approximately 148 km. The finalize boundary from Yugoslavia and the People ‘s Republic of Bulgaria was accepted after the independence in 1992. [ 9 ] The limit starts from the tripoint with Greece, the limit runs north, crossing the river of Strumica and then rising to the watershed which it follows northwards and then north-westwards to the tripoint with Serbia. The south border that splits North Macedonia from Greece is 228 kilometer farseeing and it is the longest frame. It was marked with the Treaty of Bucharest on 10 August 1913. [ 9 ] The border starts from the tripoint with Albania, in Lake Prespa, the limit runs in a straight lineage eastwards across the lake and then continues in the north of east tendency across the respite to the Voras Oros ( Nidže ), where it turns north-eastwards. It traverses the watershed of the Voras Oros and then continues eastwards along the watershed before dropping to the valley of Vardar river. The boundary continues eastwards and then turns north across the Dojran lake, before, on the latitude of Valandovo, turning east to the tripoint with Bulgaria on Mount Tumba. The limit with Albania was marked first in 1926 and then remarked with the Treaty of Paris in 1947. [ 9 ] The boundary starts from the tripoint with Kosovo and follows a river basin before traverse, and for a abruptly distance, following the Black Drin river and continuing along a cap argumentation to Ohrid Lake. It crosses the lake, leaving approximately one-third in Albania, traverses a high ridge and meets the tripoint with Greece in Lake Prespa .

topography [edit ]

Mount Korab rising above clouds landscape of Mount Korab – the highest mountain in the country North Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically distinctly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by batch ranges. The terrain is by and large rugged, located between the Šar Mountains and Osogovo, which frame the valley of the Vardar river. Three big lakes — Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Dojran Lake — lie down on the southerly borders, bisected by the frontiers with Albania and Greece. Ohrid is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world. [ 10 ] The region is seismically active and has been the locate of destructive earthquakes in the past, most recently in 1963 when Skopje was heavily damaged by a major earthquake, killing over 1,000. North Macedonia besides has scenic mountains. They belong to two different batch ranges : the first is the Šar Mountains [ 11 ] [ 12 ] that continues to the West Vardar/Pelagonia group of mountains ( Baba Mountain, Nidže, Kozuf and Jakupica ), besides known as the Dinaric stove. The moment image is the Osogovo – Belasica batch chain, besides known as the Rhodope range. The mountains belonging to the Šar Mountains and the West Vardar/Pelagonia range are younger and higher than the older mountains that are part of the Osogovo-Belasica batch group. The ten highest mountains in North Macedonia are :

hydrography [edit ]

Golemo Ezero surrounded by land scattered with snow Golemo Ezero, arctic lake located at 2218 thousand elevation in the Pelister mountains In North Macedonia there are 1,100 big sources of water. The rivers flow into three different basins : the Aegean, the Adriatic and that Black Sea washbasin. [ 13 ] The Aegean washbasin is the largest. It covers 87 % of the area ‘s territory, which is 22,075 km2. Vardar, the largest river in this basin, drains 80 % of the district or 20,459 km2. Its valley plays an important separate in the economy and the communication system of the nation. The project named The Vardar Valley is considered to be crucial for the strategic development of the country. The river Black Drim forms the Adriatic river basin, which covers an sphere of about 3,320 km2, i. e. 13 % of the territory. It issues from Lakes Prespa and Ohrid. The Black Sea basin is the smallest with only 37 km2 It covers the northerly side of Mount Skopska Crna Gora. hera is the source of the river Binačka Morava which joins the South Morava and late the Danube, which finally flows into the Black Sea. Despite being a landlocked country, North Macedonia has three bombastic lakes ( Ohrid, Prespa, and Dojran ), three artificial lakes and approximately 50 ponds. There are nine resort hotel resorts in North Macedonia : Banište, Banja Bansko, Istibanja, Katlanovo, Kežovica, Kosovrasti, Banja Kočani, Kumanovski Banji and Negorci .

River Vardar [edit ]

The Vardar is the longest and most crucial river in North Macedonia. It is 388 kilometer ( 241 michigan ) hanker, and drains an area of around 25,000 km2 ( 9,700 sq security service ). The river rises at Vrutok, a few kilometers north of Gostivar in the Republic of North Macedonia. It passes through Gostivar, Skopje and into Veles, crosses the greek boundary line near Gevgelija, Polykastro and Axioupoli, before emptying into the Aegean Sea in Central Macedonia west of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The Vardar basin includes two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of North Macedonia. For that the area is called “ Vardar Macedonia ” after the river, to distinguish it from “ Aegean Macedonia ” ( in Greece ) and “ Pirin Macedonia “ ( in Bulgaria ). The valley comprises fertile lands in Polog, Gevgelija and other parts. The river is surrounded by mountains elsewhere. The M1 / E75, connecting with Greek National Road 1, runs through the valley along the river ‘s entire length to near Skopje. The river is depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city ‘s flag. [ 14 ]

Lake Ohrid [edit ]

clouds above Lake Ohrid opinion of Ohrid Lake Lake Ohrid ( macedonian : Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero ) straddles the mountainous boundary line between southwestern North Macedonia and eastern Albania. Lake Ohrid is the deepest lake of the Balkans, with a maximum depth of 288 megabyte ( 940 foot ) and a base depth of 155 megabyte ( 508 foot ). It covers an area of 358 km2 ( 138 sq mi ), containing an estimated 55.4 km³ of water. It is 30.4 kilometer long by 14.8 km wide at its utmost extent with a shoreline duration of 87.53 km, shared between North Macedonia ( 56.02 kilometer ) and Albania ( 31.51 kilometer ). The lake drains an area of around 2600 km2 and is fed chiefly by underground springs on the eastern land ( about 50 % of entire inflow ), with roughly 25 % shares from rivers and aim haste. Over 20 % of the lake ‘s body of water comes from nearby Lake Prespa, about 10 km ( 6.2 mile ) to the southeast and at 150 m higher elevation than Lake Ohrid .
map showing Lakes Ohrid and Prespa and the surrounding rivers, mountains, etc. Topographic map of Lakes Ohrid and Prespa like to Lake Baikal and Lake Tanganyika, Lake Ohrid harbors endemic species covering the whole food-chain, from phytoplankton and sestile alga ( 20 species ; e.g., Cyclotella fottii ), over plant species ( 2 species ; e.g., Chara ohridana ), zooplankton ( 5 species ; e.g., Cyclops ochridanus ), cyprinid pisces ( 8 species ; e.g., Pachychilon pictus ), to predatory fish ( 2 trout species ; Ohrid trout Salmo letnica and “ Belvica ” Acantholingua ohridana ) and finally its diverse endemic bottom fauna ( 176 species ; e.g. Ochridagammarus solidus ), with particularly large indigenousness among crustaceans, mollusk, sponges and planarians. There are three cities on the lake ‘s shores : Ohrid and Struga on North Macedonia ‘s side ; Pogradec in Albania. There are besides respective fish villages, although tourism is now a more significant separate of their income. The catchment sphere of the lake has a population of around 170,000 people, with 131,000 people living directly at the lake land ( 43,000 in Albania and 88,000 in North Macedonia ) .

Lake Prespa [edit ]

The island of Golem Grad in Lake Prespa view of the island of Golem Grad in Lake Prespa The Great Prespa Lake ( macedonian : Преспанско Езеро, Prespansko Ezero ) is divided between Albania, Greece and North Macedonia. The biggest island in the Great Prespa Lake, on North Macedonia ‘s side, is called Golem Grad ( “ Large Fortress ” ), or Snake Island ( Змиски Остров ). The other island Mal Grad ( “ Small Fortress ”, in Albania ) is the site of a destroy fourteenth century monastery dedicated to St. Peter. nowadays, both islands are uninhabited. ( See besides : list of islands of the Republic of North Macedonia ). Because Great Prespa Lake sits about 150m above Lake Ohrid, which lies only about 10 km ( 6.2 michigan ) to the west, its waters run through belowground channels in the karst and come forth from springs which feed streams running into Lake Ohrid .

Dojran Lake

[edit ]

Dojran Lake, located in southeast North Macedonia, is the smallest of the three major lakes with an area of 42.7 km2. It is shared between North Macedonia ( 27.1 km2 ) and Greece ( 15.6 km2 ). [ 15 ] The town of Dojran is situated on the west slide of the lake, while the greek village of Mouries lies to the east. To the north is the mountain Belasica and to the south is the greek town of Doirani. The lake is round in determine, has a maximum depth of 10 metres, has a north-to-south distance of 8.9 km, and is 7.1 kilometer at its widest. [ 16 ]

Flora and fauna [edit ]

a tall green tree Pinus peuce, the Macedonian pine or molika, one of North Macedonia’s most recognizable trees, the macedonian ache or molika, one of North Macedonia ‘s most recognizable trees The vegetation of North Macedonia is represented with around 210 families, 920 genus, and around 3,700 plant species. The most abundant group are the flowering plants with around 3,200 species, which is followed by mosses ( 350 species ) and ferns ( 42 ). Phytogeographically, North Macedonia belongs to the illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of the Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions : the Pindus Mountains desegregate forests, Balkan mix forests, Rhodopes mix forests and Aegean sclerophyllous and shuffle forests .

Minerals and ores [edit ]

North Macedonia is rich in low-grade iron ore, bull, go, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, amber, silver, asbestos, and gypsum. besides it is one of possibly two places in the global where the lorandite mineral is found .

Land use [edit ]

  • 16.1% of the country’s territory is arable land.
  • 1.36% of permanent crops
  • 82.54% – other. (2011).

According to 2004 estimates, there are 1278 km2 of water land, and 6.4 km3 of total renewable water resources .

Degradation and protection of the environment [edit ]

Photo of the Balkans taken from space showing wildfires The Balkans in July 2007, fires were particularly visible in Greece, Albania and North Macedonia In July 2007, fires were particularly visible in Greece, Albania and North Macedonia. The environment is preserved in areas impractical and sparsely populate. In summation, the nation has three major national parks, created under the Yugoslav regimen of 1948–1958. The park of Pelister, Mavrovo and Galičica cover an area of 43,810 hectares ( 108,250 acres ) and allow for the protective covering of natural areas by their exceptional geological fix, their fauna and flora. The ornithological reservation of Ezerani, north of Lake Prespa, is 2,000 hectares boastfully and is home to sixty animals protected by the Bern Convention. however, if it is protected where man has little access, nature is threatened the outskirts of towns and villages. indeed, in holy order to make North Macedonia, once rural and hapless, a modern and golden country, the Yugoslav communist government established many factories, frequently highly polluting. These factories, located chiefly in the regions of Veles and Skopje are still functioning. The emissions of lay waste to pollutants have decreased after 1991, after independence, because many companies have gone bankrupt or have reduced their activeness after the transition to a market economy. The early danger of degradation of nature lies in waste. indeed, only the city of Skopje has a process center for family waste in the rest of the country, so they are left in exposed dumps. The lack of resources and political will behind these fatal neglect for the environment. North Macedonia is besides experiencing serious problems in urine management. The country, however should be able to secure its urine through its dams and its sources. In summer, water restrictions are common. [ 17 ] The summer period is besides marked by the devastation of forests by wildfire. [ 18 ] In 2008, six million trees were planted in North Macedonia to regenerate damage forests. [ 19 ] The environmental abasement however mobilizes local groups and North Macedonia is a signer to external treaties like the Kyoto Protocol. [ 20 ] The three national parks :

Human geography [edit ]

Differences in population and urbanization [edit ]

the red-roofed buildings of Prilep and surrounding mountains and vallies Panorama of Prilep and the plain of Pelagonia The Republic of North Macedonia consists chiefly of rural area towns, with only 45 % of the population concentrated in the larger towns and cities. Skopje, with more than 500,000 inhabitants, is by far the largest city in the country. The surrounding region, one of the few plains of the state, includes several other cities, like Tetovo and Gostivar. Bitola, Prilep and other significant cities, are located in the homely of Pelagonia in the south. The stay of the population is concentrated in the valley of the Vardar and the few other basins and plains of the state. urbanization, which is developing very debauched since the communist era of Yugoslavia, has led to uncontrolled and illegal constructions. other cities have not grown a firm as the capital, which has gained more than 300,000 inhabitants between 1948 and 1981. Bitola, Prilep and Kumanovo, the three early major cities, did not exceed 30,000 inhabitants in 1948 and have barely reached 100,000 people since. Kumanovo, which is the second largest city of North Macedonia, had alone 105,000 inhabitants in 2002, which is significant dispute comparing it with the population of the das kapital Skopje – 506,000 inhabitants. This makes Skopje a primate city. Population of the most populous municipalities [ 21 ]

cultural distribution [edit ]

A map of Macedonia showing the most prominent ethnicity by municipality. Municipalities in the northwest frequently have Albanian majorities, and a couple with Turkish majorities. Almost all of the rest have Macedonian majorities The municipalities of North Macedonia according to the cultural majority ( in yellow, the Macedonians, in orange the Albanians, in green Turks, in gloomy municipalities with assorted ethnic groups ) The Macedonians are the largest ethnic group in the country, accounting for 64.2 % of the total population, according to the 2002 census. They speak the macedonian lyric and most are easterly Orthodox Christians. ethnic Albanians are the nation ‘s largest minority, making up one-fourth of the sum population. They live chiefly in the west and northwest. The Turks, who comprise about 4 % of the population, are largely scattered, though they form a majority in two municipalities ( Plasnica and Centar Župa ). The Romani make up 2.7 % of the population and are besides concentrated throughout North Macedonia, while the Serbs, who form equitable under 2 % of the entire population, live by and large in the north of the country. [ 20 ]

administrative divisions [edit ]

Map of Macedonia showing which municipalities are rural and which are urban Map of the municipalities ( urban municipalities in blue, are distinguished from rural municipalities which are in green ) North Macedonia is divided into eight statistical regions : Skopje, Pelagonia, Polog, Vardar, Eastern, Southeastern, Northeastern and Southwestern. [ 22 ] The state is further divided into 84 municipalities. Until 1996, there were 123 municipalities, but several laws aimed at increasing the rights of minorities decreased the number of municipalities and modified their overall role. Skopje, the nation ‘s capital, is itself divided into ten municipalities. [ 23 ]

Economic geography [edit ]

North Macedonia, like most countries in Eastern Europe, has a developing economy. [ 24 ] Under Yugoslavia, North Macedonia saw the establishment of many factories and the significant modernization of the state, particularly after the devastating Skopje earthquake of 1963. Since independence in 1991, it has suffered the conversion to market economy. [ 25 ] Greece, which believed that the republic was monopolising the cultural and historic inheritance of Macedonia, imposed a impermanent embargo in 1993 and had prevented the state ‘s accession to organisations like the European Union and NATO, until the implementation of the Prespa agreement in 2019. [ 26 ] In 1995, the Greek embargo was lifted and Macedonia was able to access the IMF and World Bank. The nation calm suffers, however, from its isolation and miss of extraneous investment, to which Greece is one of the largest contributors. In 2007, the unemployment rate was estimated at 32 % and the black market provided about 20 % of the Gross Domestic Product. [ 20 ]

Characteristics and advantages [edit ]

North Macedonia ‘s geographic aligning provides it with many advantages. One advantage is the geographic position of the nation. It is the center of the Balkans, between Belgrade and Athens, Tirana and Sofia, between the Adriatic and Black Sea. The Vardar valley forms a lifelike corridor, which connects Greece to the perch of Europe. This corridor is crossed by the highway E75, which crosses in Europe and connects Scandinavia with Attica. This highway has besides been renovated in North Macedonia with the European Agency for Reconstruction, and the communication channels that connect the Adriatic to the Black Sea, called the Corridor VIII, were besides upgrade and maintained through international aid including the italian one. [ 27 ] North Macedonia is besides rich people with minerals. The area in fact has solid deposits of chromium and other nonferrous metals like copper, zinc, manganese and nickel. [ 20 ] The nation besides has gypsum mines, [ 20 ] marble and granite, located in Pelagonia. Lignite, provides 80 % of the electricity in North Macedonia. In summation to mines and quarries, the nation has large cement plants and boastfully complexes of alloy, created by the communist government. agribusiness is encouraged by the significant water resources, managed by dams and canals. The presence of hot springs of volcanic origin can heat the greenhouses in winter, peculiarly in the Strumica region, whose products include tomatoes and cucumbers in the month of February. Different climates provide opportunities for assorted productions in the geographic area, so the vine and tobacco are operated in the south, the rice in the region of Kočani which is largely irrigated, and the forest diligence is concentrated around Štip. [ 28 ] Agriculture contributes a meaning share of exports, particularly with the wine and tobacco. The low cost of tug besides helps the textile diligence .
North Macedonia receives about 1,000,000 tourists per annum [ 29 ] and experiences a constant increase of visitors. The number of domestic tourists in the period from January to March 2008 compared to the like period of the previous class, increased 23.5 %. While the phone number of foreign tourists in March 2008 compared to March 2007 increased 44.7 %. [ 30 ] In 2007, Lake Ohrid had received about 250,000 domestic and foreign tourists. [ 31 ] In February 2009, about 28,000 tourists, or 3.2 % more than the lapp calendar month last class, visited North Macedonia. There was besides an 8 % increase in the number of alien visitors to the nation. [ 32 ] The summer of 2009 was the city of Dojran ‘s best tourist temper with 135,000 overnight visitors, an increase of 12.5 % compared to the previous class. [ 33 ] The tourist capital of North Macedonia, Ohrid, [ 34 ] has been listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. [ 35 ]

See besides [edit ]

References and notes [edit ]

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