This article is about the mountain crop in South America. For other uses, see Andes ( disambiguation ) The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( spanish : Cordillera de los Andes ) are the longest continental batch range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. The range is 6,999 kilometer ( 4,349 secret intelligence service ) long, 200 to 700 km ( 124 to 435 mi ) wide ( widest between 18°S – 20°S latitude ), and has an average stature of about 4,000 m ( 13,123 foot ). The Andes extend from north to south through seven south american countries : Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Along their duration, the Andes are split into respective ranges, separated by intercede depressions. The Andes are the location of several high tableland —some of which server major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Cali, Arequipa, Medellín, Bucaramanga, Sucre, Mérida, El Alto and La Paz. The Altiplano tableland is the universe ‘s second-highest after the Tibetan tableland. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate : the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes.
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The Andes Mountains are the highest batch image outside Asia. The highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina ‘s Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m ( 22,838 foot ) above sea floor. The top out of Chimborazo in the ecuadorian Andes is far from the Earth ‘s plaza than any other localization on the Earth ‘s coat, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth ‘s rotation. The populace ‘s highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina bound, which rises to 6,893 thousand ( 22,615 foot ). The Andes are besides function of the American Cordillera, a chain of batch ranges ( cordillera ) that consists of an about continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the westerly “ spine ” of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica .
etymology [edit ]
The etymology of the son Andes has been debated. The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means “ east ” [ 1 ] as in Antisuyu ( Quechua for “ east area ” ), [ 1 ] one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The condition cordillera comes from the spanish password cordel, meaning “ rope ”, [ 2 ] and is used as a descriptive list for respective contiguous sections of the Andes, a well as the stallion Andean roll, and the unite mountain chain along the western function of the North and South american continents .
geography [edit ]
aerial scene of Valle Carbajal in the Fuegian The Andes stove is about 200 km ( 124 michigan ) wide throughout its length, except in the bolivian fold where it is about 640 kilometres ( 398 nautical mile ) wide-eyed. The Andes can be divided into three sections :
- The Southern Andes
- in Argentina and Chile, south of Llullaillaco.
- The Central Andes
- in Peru and Bolivia.
- The Northern Andes
- in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. In the northern part of the Andes, the separate Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often treated as part of the Northern Andes.
The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were once thought to represent the submerge peaks of the extreme northerly edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do department of justice to the complex tectonic limit between the South American and Caribbean plates. [ 4 ]
geology [edit ]
The Andes are a Mesozoic – Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activeness that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas a well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the south american Plate. It is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the confederacy american Plate. The chief cause of the lift of the Andes is the compaction of the western rim of the south american Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate. To the east, the Andes range is bounded by respective aqueous basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in easterly South America. In the south, the Andes partake a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile impinge can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographic approach, the Andes are considered to have their westerly boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography. The Andes Mountains besides contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the roll. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines. The bolivian Orocline is a offshore concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina. [ 6 ] The Andean segment north and south of the Orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° buffet clockwise and clockwise respectively. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks ( 1988 ) the Orocline is related to crustal shorten. [ 5 ] The specific indicate at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the “ Arica Elbow ”. [ 8 ] Further south lies the Maipo Orocline a more elusive Orocline between 30° S and 38°S with a seaward-concave break in course at 33° S. [ 9 ] Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian Orocline. [ 10 ]
orogeny [edit ]
The western rim of the south american Plate has been the invest of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when respective terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by then the south american english part of Gondwana. The constitution of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts. The development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the cretaceous menstruation that the Andes began to take their present mannequin, by the uplifting, faulting and protein folding of aqueous and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east. The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress, elate, and erosion. tectonic forces above the subduction zone along the entire west coast of South America where the Nazca Plate and a contribution of the Antarctic Plate are sliding beneath the south american Plate continue to produce an ongoing orogenic event resulting in minor to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to this day. In the extreme point south, a major transform fault separates Tierra del Fuego from the modest Scotia Plate. Across the 1,000 kilometer ( 620 security service ) wide-eyed Drake Passage lie the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula confederacy of the Scotia Plate which appear to be a continuance of the Andes chain. The regions immediately east of the Andes know a series of changes resulting from the Andean orogeny. Parts of the Sunsás Orogen in Amazonian craton disappeared from the come on of worldly concern being overridden by the Andes. [ 11 ] The Sierras de Córdoba, where the effects of the ancient Pampean orogeny can be observed, owe their modern uplift and relief to the Andean orogeny in the Tertiary. [ 12 ] Further south in southerly Patagonia the attack of the Andean orogeny caused the Magallanes Basin to evolve from being an extensional back-arc basin in the Mesozoic to being a compressional promontory washbasin in the Cenozoic. [ 13 ]
volcanism [edit ]
This photograph from the ISS shows the gamey plains of the Andes Mountains in the foreground, with a cable of young volcanoes facing the much lower Atacama Desert The Andes range has many active volcanoes distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inaction. The andean volcanism is a resultant role of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the south american english Plate. The belt out is subdivided into four chief volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of natural process style, products and morphology. [ 14 ] While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a vent belongs to, there are significant differences inside volcanic zones and even between neighbouring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a big stove of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range of crustal thicknesses and magma rise paths, and unlike amount of crustal assimilations .
Ore deposits and evaporates [edit ]
The Andes Mountains host large ore and salt deposits and some of their easterly fold and thrust knock acts as traps for commercially exploitable amounts of hydrocarbons. In the forelands of the Atacama Desert some of the largest porphyry copper mineralizations occur making Chile and Peru the first- and second-largest exporters of bull in the universe. Porphyry copper in the westerly slopes of the Andes has been generated by hydrothermal fluids ( largely water ) during the cooling of plutons or volcanic systems. The porphyry mineralization further benefited from the dry climate that let them largely out of the agitate actions of meteoric body of water. The dry climate in the central western Andes has besides led to the creation of across-the-board potassium nitrate deposits which were extensively mined until the invention of man-made nitrates. Yet another consequence of the dry climate are the salars of Atacama and Uyuni, the beginning one being the largest reference of lithium nowadays and the moment the global ‘s largest allow of the element. early Mesozoic and Neogene plutonism in Bolivia ‘s Cordillera Central created the Bolivian tin belt a well as the celebrated, now depleted, deposits of Cerro Rico de Potosí .
history [edit ]
Climate and hydrology [edit ]
Central Andes bolivian Andes The climate in the Andes varies greatly depending on latitude, altitude, and proximity to the ocean. temperature, atmospheric coerce and humidity decrease in higher elevations. The southerly section is showery and cool, the cardinal section is dry. The northern Andes are typically showery and warmly, with an average temperature of 18 °C ( 64 °F ) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically in quite short-change distances. Rainforests exist fair kilometres aside from the snow-clad vertex Cotopaxi. The mountains have a boastfully effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The bamboozle telephone line depends on the placement. It is at between 4,500 and 4,800 thousand ( 14,764 and 15,748 foot ) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 megabyte ( 15,748–17,060 foot ) in the dry mountains of southerly Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S before descending to 4,500 molarity ( 14,760 foot ) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 meter ( 6,600 foot ) at 40°S, 500 thousand ( 1,640 foot ) at 50°S, and only 300 m ( 980 foot ) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S ; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level. [ 15 ] The Andes of Chile and Argentina can be divided into two climatic and glaciological zones : the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Since the Dry Andes extend from the latitudes of Atacama Desert to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadic and there are hard temperature oscillations. The line of balance may shift drastically over short periods of time, leaving a hale glacier in the ablation area or in the accretion sphere. In the high Andes of Central Chile and Mendoza Province, rock ‘n’ roll glaciers are larger and more common than glaciers ; this is due to the high exposure to solar radiotherapy. [ 16 ] In these regions glaciers occur typically at higher altitudes than rock glaciers. [ 17 ] The lowest active rock glacier occur at 900 thousand a.s.l. in Aconcagua. [ 17 ] Though precipitation increases with the acme, there are semiarid conditions in the closely 7,000-metre ( 22,966 foot ) highest mountains of the Andes. This dry steppe climate is considered to be typical of the subtropical side at 32–34° S. The valley bottoms have no woods, fair gnome cancel. The largest glaciers, for model the Plomo glacier and the Horcones glaciers, do not even reach 10 kilometer ( 6.2 mi ) in length and have an only insignificant ice thickness. At glacial times, however, c. 20,000 years ago, the glaciers were all over ten-spot times long. On the east english of this section of the Mendozina Andes, they flowed down to 2,060 thousand ( 6,759 foot ) and on the west side to about 1,220 m ( 4,003 foot ) above sea level. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] The massif of Cerro Aconcagua ( 6,961 m ( 22,838 foot ) ), Cerro Tupungato ( 6,550 m ( 21,490 foot ) ) and Nevado Juncal ( 6,110 thousand ( 20,046 foot ) ) are tens of kilometres off from each other and were connected by a joint ice stream network. The Andes ‘ dendritic glacier arms, i.e. components of valley glaciers, were up to 112.5 km ( 69.9 nautical mile ) long, over 1,250 m ( 4,101 foot ) midst and overspanned a erect distance of 5,150 meter ( 16,896 foot ). The climatic glacier snowline ( ELA ) was lowered from 4,600 m ( 15,092 foot ) to 3,200 meter ( 10,499 foot ) at arctic times. [ 18 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ]
Flora [edit ]
The Andean region cuts across several natural and floristic regions, due to its extension, from Caribbean Venezuela to cold, blowy and wet Cape Horn passing through the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Rainforests and tropical dry forests [ 28 ] used to encircle a lot of the northerly Andes but are now greatly diminished, particularly in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. Opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the relatively dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile and Argentina. Along with several Interandean Valles, they are typically dominated by deciduous forest, shrub and xeric vegetation, reaching the extreme in the slopes near the virtually lifeless Atacama Desert. About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes, with roughly one-half being endemic to the region, surpassing the diverseness of any other hot spot. [ 29 ] The little tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found wide in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. other significant crops that originated from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. The high-level Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. These trees, by locals referred to as Queñua, Yagual and early names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 thousand ( 14,760 foot ) above sea grade. It remains indecipherable if the patchy distribution of these forests and woodlands is lifelike, or the result of clearing which began during the inca time period. Regardless, in modern times the headroom has accelerated, and the trees are now considered to be highly endangered, with some believing that arsenic small as 10 % of the original forest remains. [ 30 ]
Fauna [edit ]
The Andes are rich in fauna : With about 1,000 species, of which approximately 2/3 are autochthonal to the region, the Andes are the most significant region in the worldly concern for amphibians. [ 29 ] The diverseness of animals in the Andes is eminent, with about 600 species of mammals ( 13 % endemic ), more than 1,700 species of birds ( about 1/3 endemic ), more than 600 species of reptile ( about 45 % endemic ), and about 400 species of pisces ( about 1/3 endemic ). [ 29 ] The vicuña and guanaco can be found be in the Altiplano, while the close related domesticated llama and alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The crepuscular ( active during dawn and dusk ) chinchilla, two threatened members of the rodent club, inhabit the Andes ‘ alpine regions. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] The Andean condor, the largest boo of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Andes but generally in identical broken densities. [ 33 ] other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the senior high school Andes include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex, [ 31 ] [ 32 ] and, for birds, certain species of tinamou ( notably members of the genus Nothoprocta ), Andean goose, giant coot, flamingo ( chiefly associated with hypersaline lakes ), lesser rhea, Andean flicker, diademed sandpiper-plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches. [ 33 ] Lake Titicaca hosts several endemics, among them the highly endangered Titicaca flightless grebe [ 33 ] and Titicaca water frog. [ 34 ] A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 megabyte ( 13,100 foot ), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, specially in the humid andean forests ( “ overcast forests “ ) growing on slopes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and far northwestern Argentina. [ 33 ] These forest-types, which includes the Yungas and parts of the Chocó, are very rich in flora and fauna, although few big mammals exist, exceptions being the threatened mountain tapir, spectacled have a bun in the oven and yellow-tailed addled monkey. [ 31 ]
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Birds of humid andean forests include mountain-toucans, quetzals and the Andean cock-of-the-rock, while blend species flocks dominated by tanagers and furnariids normally are seen – in contrast to several vocal but typically cabalistic species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas. [ 33 ] A number of species such as the royal cinclodes and white-browed tit-spinetail are associated with Polylepis, and consequently besides threatened. [ 33 ]
human activity [edit ]
The Andes Mountains form a north–south axis of cultural influences. A long series of cultural development culminated in the expansion of the Inca civilization and Inca Empire in the central Andes during the fifteenth century. The Incas formed this culture through imperialistic militarism arsenic well as careful and meticulous governmental management. [ 35 ] The politics sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads in addition to preexisting installations. Some of these constructions are still in being today. Devastated by european diseases and by civil war, the Incas were defeated in 1532 by an alliance composed of tens of thousands of allies from nations they had subjugated ( e.g. Huancas, Chachapoyas, Cañaris ) and a humble united states army of 180 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro. One of the few Inca sites the spanish never found in their seduction was Machu Picchu, which lay hidden on a point on the easterly edge of the Andes where they descend to the Amazon. The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara linguistic process families. Woodbine Parish and Joseph Barclay Pentland surveyed a boastfully character of the Bolivian Andes from 1826 to 1827 .
Cities [edit ]
In mod times, the largest cities in the Andes are Bogotá, with a population of about eight million, Santiago, Medellín, Cali, and Quito. Lima is a coastal city adjacent to the Andes and is the largest city of all Andean countries. It is the seat of the Andean Community of Nations. La Paz, Bolivia ‘s seat of government, is the highest capital city in the global, at an aggrandizement of approximately 3,650 m ( 11,975 foot ). Parts of the La Paz conurbation, including the city of El Alto, extend up to 4,200 megabyte ( 13,780 foot ). other cities in or near the Andes include Bariloche, Catamarca, Jujuy, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, and Tucumán in Argentina ; Calama and Rancagua in Chile ; Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Sucre, Sacaba, Tarija, and Yacuiba in Bolivia ; Arequipa, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancayo, Huánuco, Huaraz, Juliaca, and Puno in Peru ; Ambato, Cuenca, Ibarra, Latacunga, Loja, Riobamba and Tulcán in Ecuador ; Armenia, Cúcuta, Bucaramanga, Duitama, Ibagué, Ipiales, Manizales, Palmira, Pasto, Pereira, Popayán, Sogamoso, Tunja, and Villavicencio in Colombia ; and Barquisimeto, La Grita, Mérida, San Cristóbal, Tovar, Trujillo, and Valera in Venezuela. The cities of Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay are in the Venezuelan Coastal Range, which is a debatable extension of the Andes at the northerly extremity of South America .
department of transportation [edit ]
Cities and bombastic towns are connected with asphalt -paved roads, while smaller towns are frequently connected by scandal roads, which may require a four-wheel-drive vehicle. [ 36 ] The rough terrain has historically put the costs of building highways and railroads that cross the Andes out of reach of most neighbor countries, even with modern civil engineering practices. For example, the independent crossover voter of the Andes between Argentina and Chile is still accomplished through the Paso Internacional Los Libertadores. entirely recently the ends of some highways that came rather finale to one another from the east and the west have been connected. [ 37 ] Much of the department of transportation of passengers is done via aircraft. however, there is one railroad that connects Chile with Peru via the Andes, and there are others that make the like connection via southern Bolivia. See railroad maps of that region. There are multiple highways in Bolivia that cross the Andes. Some of these were built during a period of war between Bolivia and Paraguay, in order to transport bolivian troops and their supplies to the war front in the lowlands of southeastern Bolivia and western Paraguay. For decades, Chile claimed possession of kingdom on the eastern side of the Andes. however, these claims were given up in about 1870 during the War of the Pacific between Chile, the allied Bolivia and Peru, in a diplomatic deal to keep Peru out of the war. The chilean Army and Chilean Navy defeated the unite forces of Bolivia and Peru, and Chile took over Bolivia ‘s entirely state on the Pacific Coast, some land from Peru that was returned to Peru decades later. Bolivia has been a wholly landlocked area ever since. It by and large uses seaports in eastern Argentina and Uruguay for international trade because its diplomatic relations with Chile have been suspended since 1978. Because of the tortuous terrain in places, villages and towns in the mountains—to which travel via mechanized vehicles is of little use—are calm located in the gamey Andes of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. Locally, the relatives of the camel, the llama, and the alpaca continue to carry out authoritative uses as backpack animals, but this consumption has by and large diminished in modern times. Donkeys, mules, and horses are besides utilitarian .
department of agriculture [edit ]
peruvian farmers sowing corn and beans The ancient peoples of the Andes such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. Because of the batch slopes, terrace has been a coarse practice. Terracing, however, was entirely extensively employed after Incan imperial expansions to fuel their expanding region. The potato holds a very crucial role as an internally consume basic crop. Maize was besides an authoritative crop for these people, and was used for the production of hookah, important to Andean native people. presently, tobacco, cotton and coffee are the chief export crops. Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an significant crop for legal local anesthetic use in a mildly stimulating herb tea tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine .
irrigation [edit ]
Irrigating land in the peruvian Andes In unirrigated land, crop is the most common type of land manipulation. In the showery season ( summer ), separate of the rangeland is used for cropping ( chiefly potatoes, barley, broad beans and pale yellow ). irrigation is helpful in advancing the sowing data of the summer crops which guarantees an early give in the period of food dearth. besides, by early sow, maize can be cultivated higher up in the mountains ( up to 3,800 thousand ( 12,500 foot ) ). In accession, it makes cropping in the dry temper ( winter ) potential and allows the cultivation of frost-resistant vegetable crops like onion and carrot. [ 38 ]
mine [edit ]
The Andes rose to fame for their mineral wealth during the spanish conquest of South America. Although andean amerindian peoples crafted ceremony jewelry of gold and other metals, the mineralizations of the Andes were foremost mined on a big scale after the spanish arrival. Potosí in contemporary Bolivia and Cerro de Pasco in Peru was one of the principal mines of the spanish empire in the New World. Río de la Plata and Argentina [ 39 ] derive their names from the silver of Potosí. presently, mining in the Andes of Chile and Peru places these countries as the first and second major producers of copper in the world. Peru besides contains the 4th largest goldmine in the world : the Yanacocha. The bolivian Andes produce chiefly tin although historically silver mining had a huge impact on the economy of seventeenth century Europe. There is a long history of mining in the Andes, from the spanish silver mines in Potosí in the sixteenth hundred to the huge current porphyry copper deposits of Chuquicamata and Escondida in Chile and Toquepala in Peru. other metals including iron, amber, and tin in addition to non-metallic resources are crucial .
Peaks [edit ]
This list contains some of the major peaks in the Andes mountain range. The highest peak is Aconcagua of Argentina ( see below ) .
Argentina [edit ]
- Aconcagua, 6,961 m (22,838 ft)
- Cerro Bonete, 6,759 m (22,175 ft)
- Galán, 5,912 m (19,396 ft)
- Mercedario, 6,720 m (22,047 ft)
- Pissis, 6,795 m (22,293 ft)
bound between Argentina and Chile [edit ]
bolivia [edit ]
border between Bolivia and Chile [edit ]
- Acotango, 6,052 m (19,856 ft)
- Michincha, 5,305 m (17,405 ft)
- Iru Phutunqu, 5,163 m (16,939 ft)
- Licancabur, 5,920 m (19,423 ft)
- Olca, 5,407 m (17,740 ft)
- Parinacota, 6,348 m (20,827 ft)
- Paruma, 5,420 m (17,782 ft)
- Pomerape, 6,282 m (20,610 ft)
chile [edit ]
Colombia [edit ]
ecuador [edit ]
- Antisana, 5,752 m (18,871 ft)
- Cayambe, 5,790 m (18,996 ft)
- Chiles, 4,723 m (15,495 ft)
- Chimborazo, 6,268 m (20,564 ft)
- Corazón, 4,790 m (15,715 ft)
- Cotopaxi, 5,897 m (19,347 ft)
- El Altar, 5,320 m (17,454 ft)
- Illiniza, 5,248 m (17,218 ft)
- Pichincha, 4,784 m (15,696 ft)
- Quilotoa, 3,914 m (12,841 ft)
- Reventador, 3,562 m (11,686 ft)
- Sangay, 5,230 m (17,159 ft)
- Tungurahua, 5,023 m (16,480 ft)
peru [edit ]
Venezuela [edit ]
Mount Humboldt at sunset
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Oncken, Onno; et al. (2006). The Andes. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-48684-8. ISBN 978-3-540-24329-8.
- Biggar, J. (2005). The Andes: A Guide For Climbers. 3rd. edition. Andes: Kirkcudbrightshire. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7
- de Roy, T. (2005). The Andes: As the Condor Flies. Firefly books: Richmond Hill. ISBN 1-55407-070-8
- Fjeldså, J. & N. Krabbe (1990). The Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen: ISBN 87-88757-16-1
- Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler (1996). Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highlands on Peru and Bolivia, a contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO: Copenhagen. ISBN 978-87-986168-0-1
bibliography [edit ]
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