Otium – Wikipedia

leisure time in which a person can enjoy eating, dally, resting, contemplation and academic endeavors
Getty Villa representing life at otium (leisure) of an ancient Roman villa Otium, a Latin abstract term, has a variety of meanings, including leisure clock time in which a person can enjoy eating, playing, relaxing, contemplation and academician endeavors. It sometimes, but not constantly, relates to a time in a person ‘s retirement after former avail to the public or private sector, opposing “ active public life ”. Otium can be a temp time of leisure, that is sporadic. It can have intellectual, pure or immoral implications. It originally had the estimate of withdrawing from one ‘s day by day business ( neg-otium ) or affairs to engage in activities that were considered to be artistically valuable or enlightening ( i.e. speak, writing, doctrine ). It had particular mean to businessmen, diplomats, philosophers and poets. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]

etymology and origin [edit ]

representation of ancient Roman soldiers at rest

In ancient roman culture otium was a military concept as its first latin usage. This was in Ennius ‘ Iphigenia. [ 3 ]

Otio qui nescit uti
plus negotii habet quam cum est negotium in negotio;
nam cui quod agat institutum est non ullo negotio
id agit, id studet, ibi mentem atque animum delectat suum:
otioso in otio animus nescit quid velit
Hoc idem est ; em neque domi nunc nos nec militiae sumus;
imus huc, hinc illuc; cum illuc ventum est, ire illinc lubet.
Incerte errat animus, praeterpropter vitam vivitur. [ 4 ]

He who does not know how to use leisure
has more of bring than when there is exercise in work.
For to whom a job has been set, he does the work,
desires it, and delights his own take care and intellectual :
in leisure, a mind does not know what it wants.
The same is genuine ( of us ) ; we are neither at home nor in the battlefield ;
we go hera and there, and wherever there is a motion, we are there excessively.
The mind wanders unsure, except in that life is lived. [ 5 ] — Iphigenia, 241–248

According to historian Carl Deroux in his exercise Studies in Latin literature and Roman history, the password otium appears for the first time in a chorus of Ennius ‘ Iphigenia. [ 6 ] Ennius ‘ inaugural consumption of the term otium around 190 BC showed the fidget and boredom during a reprieve from war and was termed otium negotiosum ( free time to do what one wanted ) and otium otiosum ( idle wasteless free time ). [ 7 ] Aulus Gellius, while discussing the give voice praeterpropter ( “ more or less ” ) quotes a fragment of Ennius ‘s Iphigenia, which contrasts otium with negotium repeatedly. [ A ] Ennius imagined the emotions of Agamemnon ‘s soldiers at Aulus, that while in the discipline and not at war and not allowed to go dwelling, as “ more or less ” living. [ 8 ] The earliest extant appearance of the password in Latin literature occurs in a break up from the soldiers ‘ chorus in the Iphigenia of Ennius, where it is contrasted to negotium. [ B ] Researchers have determined the etymological and semantic use of otium was never a direct translation of the Greek password “ schole ”, but derived from specifically Roman context. Otium is an exercise of the usage of the term “ praeterpropter ”, meaning more or less of leisure. It was first used in military terms related to inaction during war. [ 9 ] In ancient Roman times soldiers were many times unoccupied, resting and bored to death when not at war ( i.e., winter months, upwind not permitting war ). [ 9 ] This was associated with otium otiosum ( unoccupied and pointless leisure – idle leisure ). The reverse of this was otium negotiosum ( interfering leisure ) – leisure with a satisfying hobby or being able to take care of one ‘s personal affairs or one ‘s own estate. This was otium privatum ( individual leisure ), equal to negotium ( a type of commercial enterprise ). [ C ] The oldest citation for otium is this chorus of soldiers, singing about faineance on campaign, in an differently lost Latin calamity by Ennius. [ 10 ] Andre shows in these lines that Ennius is showing the soldiers in the field would rather go dwelling tending to their own affairs ( otium ) than to be dead doing nothing. [ 11 ] Its military origin meant to stop fight in battle and lay down weapons [ 12 ] – a clock for peace. [ 13 ] even though originally otium was a military concept in early roman culture of laying down one ‘s weapons, [ 13 ] it late became an elect prestigious time for caring for oneself. [ 14 ] The ancient Romans had a sense of obligatory work ethics in their culture and considered the idle-leisure definition of otium as a pine away of clock time. [ 15 ] Historians of ancient Roman considered otium a time of arduous leisure of much personal duties rather of public duties. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Author Almasi shows that historians Jean-Marie Andre and Brian Vickers luff out the merely legitimate shape of otium was transpired with cerebral activity. [ 18 ] Otium was thought of by the wise elect as being free from work and other obligations ( negotium ) and leisure clock spent on productive activities, however a meter that should not be wasted as was thought the non-elite did with their leisure time. [ 19 ]

greek philosophers [edit ]

The golden sense of otium in Ciceronian Latin reflects the greek terminus σχολή ( skholē, “ leisure ”, a mean retained in Modern Greek as σχόλη, schólē ) ; “ leisure ” having a complex history in Greek philosophy before being used in Latin ( through Latin the word became the root of many education-related english terms, such as school, scholar and pedant ). In Athens, leisure was one of the marks of the athenian gentleman : the time to do things good, unhurried time, time to discuss in. From there it became “ discussion ”, and from there, philosophic and educational schools, which were both conducted by discussion. Four major Greek philosophic schools influenced the Roman gentlemen of Cicero ‘s time. Plato ( and his contemporaries, if the Greater Hippias be not authentic ) brought schole into philosophy ; as often, Plato can be quoted on both sides of the motion whether leisure is better than the commercial enterprise of a citizen. In the Greater Hippias, it is one weakness of the title character that, although he has the education and manners of a valet, he has no leisure ; but Socrates, in the Apology, has no leisure either ; he is besides busy as a gad-fly, keeping his colleague Athenians awake to virtue. [ 20 ] however, by the meter the Romans encountered Plato ‘s school, the Academy, they had largely ceased to discuss anything so virtual as the good life ; the New Academy of Carneades practiced verbal agility and boundless incredulity. [ 21 ] Theophrastus and Dicaearchus, students of Aristotle, debated much on the contemplative life and the active animation. [ 22 ] Roman Epicureans used otium for the quiet bliss promised by Epicurus. [ 23 ] An hedonic proverb

It is better to lie on the naked crunch and be at relief, than to have a aureate bus and a rich table and be worried. [ 24 ]

The phrase “ to be at still ” can have the intend “ to be of good cheer ” or “ to be without fear ” – these being interdependent. The epicure idea of otium favors contemplation, [ 25 ] compassion, gratitude and friendship. The epicurean watch is that wisdom has arsenic much to contribute to the benefit of the populace as does that of contributions of politicians and laborers ( i.e. sailors ). The bumpkinly otium concept incorporates area living into Epicureanism. The active city public life sentence of negotium and an otium of reserved country life of reflection have been much written about by Cicero and Seneca the Younger. Epicurus ‘s philosophy was contrary to hellenic Stoicism. Epicurus promised enjoyment in retirement as a concept of otium. [ 23 ] The concept of the Epicurean otium ( private universe of leisure ) and the brooding life were represented in Epicurus ‘ school of philosophy and his garden. The portraits of the Garden of Epicurus near Athens represented political and cultural heroes of the time. Twenty-first–century historians Gregory Warden and David Romano have argued that the layout of the sculptures in “ The Garden ” were designed to give the viewer contrasting viewpoints of the Epicurean otium and the Hellenistic Stoic vantage point of otium ( i.e. private or public ; contemplation or “ use ” ; otium or negotium ). [ 26 ]

Roman Republic [edit ]

In early and colloquial Latin, despite the etymological line, otium is often used pejoratively, in contrast preferably to officium, “ office, duty ” than to negotium ( ‘business ” ). There was a remainder established in ancient Roman times ( second hundred BCE and forward ) developing the idea elite social status was when one fulfilled one ‘s duties in business and then otium meant “ leisure ” while negotium intend “ non-leisure ” ( exploit duties still needed to be done ). This modern prison term of otium was filled by greek scholarly pursuits and greek pleasures. The time environment within which a person existed had sides to it that were filled with greek customs such as pastimes, hobbies, interchanges of thoughts and ideas, and secret bathe. Otium and negotium was then a newly social concept which has perpetuated to our own time. [ 27 ] historian J. M. Andre concludes that the master sense of otium was related to military servicing and the faineance that happened in the winter, [ 28 ] as opposed to the business ( negotium ) of the remainder of the year. The most ancient Roman calendar divided the year into ten-spot months devoted to war and farming, leaving the winter months of January and February vacant for person otium. [ 29 ] Andre shows that the beauty of the individual otium poses rest. [ 30 ] Titus Maccius Plautus in his play Mercator says that while you are young is the time to save up for your retirement otium so you can enjoy it subsequently, in his claim tum in otium te conloces, dum potes, ames ( then you may set yourself at your facilitate, drink and be amatory ). [ 31 ] Cicero busy at bring Cicero speaks of himself, with the formulation otium cum dignitate, that time spent in activities one prefers is desirable for a Roman citizen who has retired from public life. [ 22 ] [ 32 ] When he was ousted from each function, this forced an passive menstruation, which he used for “ worthy leisure ”. During this time he composed Tusculanae Disputationes, a serial of books on Stoic philosophy. [ 1 ] Cicero saw free time as a time to devote to writing. [ 33 ] Cicero defines otium as leisure, avoiding active engagement in politics. He further defines it as a state of security and peace ( pax ) – a type of “ public health ”. [ 33 ] It is often associated with tranquillity. Cicero advises in his third book On Duties that when the city biography becomes besides much, one should retreat to the nation for leisure. [ 34 ] The term otium cum dignitate in Cicero ‘s Pro Sestio was to mean peace ( pax ) for all and eminence for some. [ 35 ] Cicero says in Pro Sestio, XLV., 98

Id quod est praestantissimum, maximeque optabile omnibus sanis et bonis et beatis, cum dignitate otium.
That which stands first, and is most to be desired by all happy, honest and healthy-minded men, is ease with dignity. [ 36 ]

Cicero explains that, while not necessarily his cup of tea, he recognized many different ways to spend leisure fourth dimension and otium. In one passage of De Oratore he explains that Philistus spent his retirement writing history as his otium. [ 37 ] He goes on to say in De Oratore Book three that other men passed their otium of leisure ascribable to bad weather that prevented them from doing their day by day chores to playing ball, knucklebones, die games or precisely games they made up. Others that were “ retired ” from public life for whatever cause devoted their otium cum seritio ( leisure with servicing ) to poetry, mathematics, music and teaching children. [ 38 ] german historian Klaus Bringmann shows in Cicero ‘s works that one can not characterize him as a hypocrite while in otium because of his feel of duty to serve the state. [ 39 ] Cicero ‘s concept of otium does not mean selfish pastime of joy. It means the well-earned leisure which is a completion of a long career of action and accomplishment. It ‘s a reward. Idleness ( desidia ) had derogative implications and incompetent otium was a problem for Cicero ‘s elect group of followers. Its break away from civil affairs contrasted with negotia publica, engagement in civic affairs of the republican gentry. [ 40 ] To distinguish between plain “ groundlessness ” and aristocratic otium homestum, otium liberale or otium cum dignitate, writers of the day said that literary and philosophical pursuits were worthwhile activities and that they had benefit to res publica ( the general public ). These pursuits were a character of ’employment ‘ and consequently not bare sloth. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] Cicero praises Cato the Elder for his respectful consumption of otium in his expression non-minus otii quam negotii ( “ no less for doing nothing than business ” ). [ 43 ] Cicero was associating otium with writing and think when he admires Cato for pointing out that Scipio Africanus claimed he was “ never less dead than when he was at leisure, and never less alone than when he was entirely. ” [ 44 ] Cicero in his De Officiis ( reserve III, 1–4 ) further says of Scipio Africanus “ Leisure and solitude, which serve to make others idle, in Scipio ‘s case acted as a goad. ” Cicero ‘s idea of otium cum dignitate ( “ leisure with dignity ” ) is well unlike from today ‘s translation of the concept. In his meter, this kind of “ free time ” was merely for the few privilege elect and was largely made possible by the labor of slaves. It was associated with an conceited and arrogant life style, compared to those who had to earn their own populate with no slaves. Today engineering and educational systems enter into the equation on making leisure time ( otium ) available to about everyone, not barely the privileged elect, which enables the pursuit of hobbies. [ 45 ] Cicero has a number of different concept versions for otium. In one concept he feels that a life of commitment attending one ‘s duty ( maximos labores ) should be rewarded with some human body of retirement. This then promotes great sacrifices which promotes civil peace with honor within the state. He points out that the repose one delight is due to the efforts of the majority. This concept of retirement through a life of make was enjoyed only by the rule class and the elect. The coarse people could alone hope to enjoy a easy retirement with dignity as an inheritance. [ 46 ] Catullus, a late Roman Republic poet, in his poem shows that the significance of otium of the center Republican time of autonomy into the concept of how, why, and when a extremity of the patronal class might exchange political activity for literary leisure. He tended to mark otium with erotic influence. [ 33 ]

otium, Catulle, tibi molestum est;
otio exsultas nimiumque gestis;
otium et reges prius et beatas
perdidit urbes.

Leisure, Catullus, is arch to you :
You revel in and desire leisure excessively a lot :
leisure has previously destroyed kings and
big cities .
51.13–16[47]

imperial Rome [edit ]

The imperial dictatorship by Augustus during the fall of the Roman Republic put the Roman opinion classes into a state of change as their traditional role as always being in town was no long needed. They were given much leisure clock time ( otium ) because of their wealth. The wives of affluent men were known to write poetry in particular rooms devoted to education of the entire syndicate ( except the master of the house as it would have been below his dignity ). [ 48 ] The home of choice ( domus ) then became the countryside villa as the rise of the Roman Empire made them flush wealthier. They could afford about anything they could dream up in the way of a mansion, particularly among the large and middle class Roman landowners. [ 49 ] Greek-style architecture became their newly villa otium outside of township. [ 50 ] In ancient Roman times the “ otium villa ” was a dionysian exalted rural home place setting that evoked peace, leisure, ease and peace. Often in ancient writings is found the note of recuperative powers due its natural mise en scene ( otium ) in the rural country home, contrasted to the busy city life sentence with all the businesses ( negotium ). [ 51 ] The “ villa with a garden ” and “ villa by the ocean ” was associated with otium. [ 52 ] The life at the Roman villa was associated with greek culture in rooms which had Greek themes indicating a “ superior global ” of survive. [ 53 ] The Imperial Roman poet Statius writes of a “ otium villa ” that he planned to retire to in Naples in his knead Silvae : “ It has secure peace, an idle liveliness of leisure, non-troubled respite and sleep. There is no fury in the market-place, no stern laws in challenge … ” [ 54 ] Pliny the Younger exemplified the philosophy of the Roman elite in otium of the time by the life he lived from his “ otium villa ”. He would dictate letters to his repository, learn Greek and Latin speeches, go on walks on the villa ‘s grounds, dine and socialize with friends, chew over, drill, bathe, take naps and occasionally hunt. [ 55 ] Tibullus was an Augustan elegiac poet who offered an alternative life style to the Roman ideal of the military world or the man of military action. He preferred the area life style. In his existing first two books of poetry he compares the life style of his chief friend and patron Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus as a air force officer and soldier to that of a farmer. [ 56 ] Tibullus in his poem 1.3 rejects the work style of the rich man, adsiduus labor, and military service ( militia ). He shows in his poetry that originally otium was a military concept, the neglect of one ‘s weapons. [ 13 ] Tibullus prefers the rustic agricultural landscape and a simple life. He indicates that while he would do agrarian study, he would only be interested in doing it sometimes ( interdum ) and therefore inserts otium ( peace and leisure meter ) into agricultural life. [ 57 ] He expresses in his position of his poetry that the qualities of the Epicurean resolution to quietism ( occultism – religious mysticism ) and pacifism ( abstinence from violence ) as the pursuits of ignobile otium ( mean leisure ) – peace of mind ( peace with one ‘s self ) and detachment from blase ambitions. [ 58 ]

Seneca compares the difference in the Epicurean and Stoic choice of otium. He confesses that classical Stoicism urges active populace life while Epicurus has a leaning not to advance public life unless forced to. Seneca views Stoicism and Epicureanism as legitimate to inaction in the proper situations. He defends the Stoic doctrine as leaning toward otium. The main responsibility for the Stoic is to benefit the public in some manner. This could be done by the cultivation of virtue or the research of nature in retirement. This would mean a life of meditation and contemplation preferably than an active political life. Seneca shows that otium is not in truth “ loose time ”, but a analyze of other matters ( i.e., reading, writing ) other than political and career gains. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] The increase of retirees retreating to rural villas became more attractive as writers of the sidereal day wrote that Stoic ways included pursuits of interpretation, writing and philosophy. This mean that the sour of public duties was replaced by otium liberale ( liberal leisure ) and was sanctified if the retiree did pursuits of interpretation, writing and philosophy. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] The benefits of the simplicity of rustic nation life was reinforced in the intellectual legitimacy of otium ruris ( rural leisure ) because it drew out the religious implications of Horatian and Vergilian images of this type of life. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Seneca ‘s doctrine of De Otio describes retirement from public life. [ 66 ] The brooding life that Seneca revised was a roman debate on otium ( a productive passive time ) and at some charge in the development of the term was late contrasted to negotium. [ 12 ] These are some of the elements in Seneca ‘s doctrine of De Otio :

  1. virtue, freedom and happiness by reasoning.
  2. the military metaphor.
  3. that the virtuous person chooses statio, a specific place for doing one’s ’employment’.
  4. otium (leisure) is still negotium (business) even if withdrawal from public activity.
  5. that the virtuous person’s otium, as a citizen of the universe, is the field for the performance of his duty.[67]

belated writers [edit ]

Augustine studying While Seneca ‘s doctrine appears to be close to the doctrine of Athenodorus ‘s De Tranquillitate it is basically unlike. In De Otio 3.5 Seneca points out the benefits towards valet in cosmopolitan, while in De Tranquillitate the theme is peace of mind. [ 68 ] Saint Augustine of Hippo reminded Romans of otium philosophandi, a positive element, that life was happiest when one had clock time to philosophize. Augustine points out that otium was the prerequisite for contemplation. [ 69 ] It was because of otium that Alypius of Thagaste steered Augustine away from marriage. He said that they could not live a liveliness together in the beloved of wisdom of solomon if he married. Augustine described Christianae vita otium as the Christian life sentence of leisure. [ 70 ] many christian writers of the time interpreted the Roman idea of otium as the deadly sin of sloth ( sloth ). Some christian writers formulated otium as mean to serve God through deep think. [ 1 ] Christian writers encouraged biblical studies to justify otium. [ 71 ] These same Christian writers besides showed otium ruris ( secluded rural leisure ) as a needed step to cloistered propositum. [ 72 ] Augustine describes the cloistered life as otium sanctum ( purify leisure or approved leisure ). [ 73 ] In Augustine ‘s fourth dimension the mind of doctrine had two poles of ambitions – one to be a worthy Christian ( vacation – negotium ) and the other to be a worthy supporter of God ( devotion – otium ). [ 74 ] petrarch Petrarch, 14th-century poet and Renaissance humanist, discusses otium in his De vita solitaria as it relates to a human life of simpleton habits and self-restraint. Like his front-runner Roman authors Cicero, Horace, Seneca, Ovid and Livy, he sees otium not as leisure time devoted to idleness, passion, entertainment or mischievous wrongdoing ; but time ideally spent on nature appreciation, dangerous inquiry, meditation, contemplation, writing and friendship. [ 1 ] petrarch considered solitude ( i, rural set, “ villa otium ”, his Vaucluse dwelling ) and its relationship to otium as a great possession for a probability at cerebral activity, the lapp doctrine as Cicero and Seneca. [ 75 ] He would partake such a cherished commodity with his best friends in the liveliness of Seneca when he said “ no good thing is pleasant to possess without friends to plowshare it ”. [ 76 ] historian Julia Bondanella translates Petrarch ‘s Latin words of his own personal definition of otium :

… ought it not to be my first draw a bead on to have my leisure as distant from faineance as my life is from active affairs ? [ 1 ]

petrarch stressed the idea of an active mind even in otium ( leisure ). He refers back to Augustine ‘s Vetus Itala in De otio religioso where in Christianity it was associated with contemplation and vacatio ( vacate – be still ). He points out that this is associated with videre ( to see ), which in Christianity is physical and mental activeness aimed at moral perfection. He relates this concept of otium as vacate et videte ( be still and see – a form of meditation, contemplation ). Petrarch points out that one should not take leisure as thus relax as to weaken the mind, but to be active in leisure to build up strength in the see of a alone character and religion. [ 77 ] Andrew Marvell ‘s seventeenth-century poem The Garden is a lyric of nine stanza in which he rejects all forms of activeness in the global in prefer of solitude of the retiree in a garden. It is a type of retirement poem expressing the love of retirement – an ancient Roman concept related to otium. The poem shows the high degree of pleasure of rural retirement. Some critics see that he shows otium to mean peace, quiet and leisure – a goal for retirement from politics and clientele. Others see a Christianized otium with Marvell showing a representation of the progress of a soul from the pursuit for the hedonist promised estate of the peaceful countryside and contemplation to the search for the lost eden on worldly concern. [ 78 ] separate of Marvell ‘s poem “ The Garden ” below :

What fantastic life in this I lead !
Ripe apples cliff about my head ;
The delectable clusters of the vine
Upon my mouth do crush their wine ;
The nectarine and curious yellowish pink
Into my hands themselves do compass ;
Stumbling on melons as I pass,
Insnared with flowers, I fall on grass.

meanwhile, judgment, from pleasure less,
Withdraws into its happiness :
The take care, that ocean where each kind
Does straight its own resemblance find ;
Yet it creates, transcending these,
Far other worlds, and early seas ;
Annihilating all that ‘s made
To a k think in a green shade.

here at the fountain ‘s slither foot,
Or at some fruit-tree ‘s fogyish root,
Casting the body ‘s vest aside,
My soul into the bough does glide :
There like a bird it sits and sings,
then whets and combs its silver wings ;
And, public treasury prepared for longer fledge,
Waves in its plumes the versatile light.

Such was that happy garden-state,
While man there walked without a mate :
After a place indeed pure and sweet,
What other help could so far be meet !
But ‘t was beyond a deadly ‘s parcel
To wander nongregarious there :
Two paradises ’twere in one
To live in Paradise alone. [ 79 ]

Brian Vickers, a 20th-century british literary learner, points out an expression made by Friedrich Nietzsche, a 19th-century german philosopher, on scholars ‘ opinion of otium in his 1878 issue Menschliches, Allzumenschliches :

Scholars are ashamed of otium. But there is something noble about leisure and idleness.—If faineance in truth is the beginning of all frailty, then it is at any rate in the closest proximity to all virtue ; the idle man is always a better man than the active.—But when I speak of leisure and groundlessness, you do not think I am alluding to you, do you, you sluggards ? [ 80 ] [ D ] [ E ]

private liveliness and public life meanings [edit ]

secret animation mean of otium intend personal retirement – the opposite of business. It meant leisure merely for one ‘s own pleasure with no profit to the express or public. Examples here is where one attends lone his own grow or estate. Another is hunting. It was the opposite of “ active public life ”. One would not be a historian in this font. [ 81 ] In public life otium meant populace peace and stand-in after war. [ 81 ] It meant freedom from the enemy with no hostilities. It was not only freedom from external assault ( the enemy ), it was besides freedom from inner disorder ( civil war ). [ 81 ] This then had the meaning of leisure, peace and guard at the fatherland. This finally became the status quo : acceptance of existing political and social conditions of the local laws, the customs of the ancestors, the powers of magistrates, authority of the senate, religions, the military, the treasury, and the praise of the empire. [ 82 ]

other uses [edit ]

synonym [edit ]

Otium carried with it many different meanings ( including but not limited to time, opportunity, opportunity ), depending on the time period or the philosophers involved in determining the concept. [ 9 ]

positive sense [edit ]

Synonyms of positive connotations are :

  • quies: rest, repose, relief from toil.[9]
  • requies: rest, repose, rest from labor, a hobby.[9]
  • tranquilitas: tranquility, calm, quiet.[9]
  • peace: as a state or condition of freedom from external enemies.[90]
  • pax: to pacify or appease, as the outcome of diplomatic conference and agreement with an enemy.[90]

negative sense [edit ]

Synonyms of veto connotations are :

  • inhonestum otium: dishonorable leisure, idle self-indulgence leisure.[81]
  • desidia: slackness, idleness.[9]
  • inertia: sloth, idleness, indolence.[9]
  • ignavia: sloth, idleness, faint-heartedness.[9]
  • desidiosissimum otium: a sluggard’s free time, he that fears labor; a man careless to attend to his duty first.[91]

modern scholars [edit ]

For a relatively late and exhaustive authoritative study on “ otium ” in the history of roman culture visit André, Jean-Marie ( 1966 ). “ L’otium dans la compete morale et intellectuelle cos, des origines à l’époque augustéenne ”. Revue des Études Anciennes. Paris : Presses universitaires de France. 69 ( 1–2 ) : 166–168. [ 9 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] Gregory M. Sadlek gives even a more late and exhaustive study on “ otium ” in his 2004 book Idleness Working: The Discourse of Love’s Labor from Ovid Through Chaucer and Gower, ISBN 0-8132-1373-8. [ 9 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

Citations [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

far understand [edit ]

  • Carr, Arthur (1896). General Epistle of St. James. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kusch, Martin (2000). The Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge. Dordrecht; Boston: Springer; Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7923-6150-3.
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