A dutch speaker Dutch ( Nederlands [ ˈneːdərlɑnts ] ( ) ) is a West Germanic language spoken by about 25 million people as a first language [ 4 ] and 5 million people as a second terminology, constituting most of the population of the Netherlands ( where it is the only official terminology countrywide ) [ 5 ] and about 60 % of the population of Belgium ( as one of three official languages ). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] It is the third gear most wide spoken Germanic terminology, after its close relatives English and German.
Reading: Dutch language – Wikipedia
Outside the humble Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it besides holds an official condition, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and are located in the Caribbean. Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction persist in parts of France [ 8 ] and Germany, and in Indonesia, [ nitrogen 1 ] while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined. [ nitrogen 2 ] The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually apprehensible daughter language [ north 3 ] which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, chiefly in South Africa and Namibia. [ n 4 ] dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English [ n 5 ] and is colloquially said to be “ approximately in between ” them. [ normality 6 ] Dutch, like English, has not undergone the high german consonant switch, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its casing system. [ normality 7 ] Features shared with german include the survival of two to three grammatical genders —albeit with few grammatical consequences [ n 8 ] —as well as the use of modal auxiliary verb particles, [ 9 ] final-obstruent devoice, and a alike give voice order. [ newton 9 ] Dutch vocabulary is largely Germanic and incorporates slightly more romance loans than german but far fewer than English. [ normality 10 ]
name [edit ]
In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Sometimes Vlaams ( “ Flemish “ ) is used vitamin a well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders, whereas Hollands ( “ Hollandic “ ) is occasionally used as a colloquial term for the standard speech in the central and northwestern parts of the Netherlands. [ 12 ] English is the merely linguistic process to use the adjective Dutch for the lyric of the Netherlands and Flanders or something else from the Netherlands. The password is derived from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz. The stalk of this bible, *þeudō, mean “ people ” in Proto-Germanic, and *-iskaz was an adjective-forming suffix, of which -ish is the advanced English form. Theodiscus was its catholicize shape [ 14 ] and used as an adjective refer to the Germanic vernaculars of the early Middle Ages. In this smell, it meant “ the lyric of the common people ”. The term was used as opposed to Latin, the non -native terminology of write and the Catholic Church. [ 15 ] It was first recorded in 786, when the Bishop of Ostia writes to Pope hadrian I about a synod taking place in Corbridge, England, where the decisions are being written down “ tam Latine quam theodisce ” meaning “ in Latin equally well as park common ”. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] In northwestern West Francia ( i.e. advanced Belgium ) the term would take on a fresh mean during the early Middle Ages, when, within the context of a highly bicolor linguistic landscape, it came to be the antonym of *walhisk ( Romance-speakers, specifically Old French ). [ 19 ] The password, now rendered as dietsc ( Southwestern form ) or duutsc ( Central and Northern Variant ), could refer to the Dutch language itself, ampere well as a broader Germanic category depending on context. During the High Middle Ages “ Dietsc/Duutsc ” was increasingly used as an umbrella term for the specific Germanic dialects spoken in the low Countries, its mean being largely implicitly provided by the regional orientation of medieval Dutch society : apart from the higher echelons of the clergy and nobility, mobility was largely static and therefore while “ Dutch ” could by propagation besides be used in its earlier common sense, referring to what to today would be called Germanic dialects as opposed to Romance dialects, in many cases it was understand or mean to refer to the language now known as dutch. [ citation needed ] [ 20 ] In the moo Countries Dietsch or its early Modern Dutch shape Duytsch as an endonym for Dutch gradually went out of park manipulation and was gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation ( beginning attested in 1482 ) started at the Burgundian court in the fifteenth century, although the habit of neder, laag, bas, and inferior ( “ chthonian ” or “ low ” ) to refer to the area known as the Low Countries goes back further in time, with the Romans referring to the region as Germania Inferior ( “ Lower ” Germania ). [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] It is a reference to the low Countries ‘ downriver placement at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea. From 1551, the appellation Nederlands received firm contest from the name Nederduytsch ( literally “ depleted dutch ”, Dutch being used in its archaic sense covering all continental West Germanic languages ). It is a calque of the aforesaid Roman province Germania Inferior and an undertake by early Dutch grammarians to give their speech more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Likewise, Hoogduits ( “ high german ” ) and Overlands ( “ Upper-landish ” ) came into use as a dutch exonym for the diverse german dialects, used in neighbor german states. [ 24 ] Use of Nederduytsch was popular in the sixteenth hundred but ultimately lost out over Nederlands during the close of the eighteenth century, with (Hoog)Duytsch establishing itself as the Dutch exonym for german during this same menstruation. In the nineteenth hundred Germany saw the get up of the classification of dialects, with german dialectologists terming the german dialects spoken in the cragged south of Germany as Hochdeutsch ( “ high gear german ” ). subsequently, german dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch ( “ depleted German ” ). The names for these dialects were calqued by dutch linguists as Nederduits and Hoogduits. As a result, Nederduits no longer serves as a synonym for the dutch terminology. In the nineteenth century, the term “ Diets ” was revived by dutch linguists and historians a well, as a poetic name for Middle Dutch and its literature. [ 25 ]
history [edit ]
Old dutch can be discerned more or less around the same fourth dimension as Old English ( Anglo-Saxon ), Old High German, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. These names are derived from the modern standard languages. In this age no criterion languages had so far developed, while a perfect West Germanic dialect continuum remained introduce ; the part reflects the contingent future contribution dialect groups would have to the late languages. The early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the salian frank Franks in the fifth century. These happened to develop through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the path of fifteen centuries. [ 26 ] During that menstruation, they forced Old Frisian back from the western coast to the union of the Low Countries, and influenced or even replaced Old Saxon speak in the east ( conterminous with the low German area ). On the other hired hand, Dutch has been replaced in adjacent lands in contemporary France and Germany. The division into Old, Middle and Modern Dutch is largely ceremonious, since the transition between them was identical gradual. One of the few moments when linguists can detect something of a rotation is when the Dutch standard terminology emerged and cursorily established itself. The development of the dutch terminology is illustrated by the follow prison term in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch :
- Irlôsin sol an frithe sêla mîna fan thên thia ginâcont mi, wanda under managon he was mit mi (Old Dutch)
- Erlossen sal [hi] in vrede siele mine van dien die genaken mi, want onder menegen hi was met mi (Middle Dutch)
- Verlossen zal hij in vrede ziel mijn van degenen die genaken mij, want onder menigen hij was met mij (Modern Dutch, same word order)
- Hij zal mijn ziel in vrede verlossen van degenen die mij genaken, want onder menigen was hij met mij (Modern Dutch, default word order)
- He will deliver my soul in peace from those who approach me, because, amongst many, he was with me (English)
Origins [edit ]
Among the indo-european languages, Dutch is grouped within the Germanic languages, meaning it shares a coarse ancestor with languages such as English, German, and the scandinavian languages. All Germanic languages are subject to the Grimm ‘s law and Verner ‘s law healthy shifts, which originated in the Proto-Germanic language and define the basic features differentiating them from other aryan languages. This is assumed to have taken place in approximately the mid-first millennium BCE in the pre-Roman Northern European Iron Age. [ 29 ] The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups : East ( now extinct ), West, and North Germanic. [ 30 ] They remained mutually apprehensible throughout the Migration Period. dutch is function of the West Germanic group, which besides includes English, Scots, Frisian, depleted German ( Old Saxon ) and senior high school German. It is characterized by a total of phonological and morphologic innovations not found in North or East Germanic. [ 31 ] The West Germanic varieties of the meter are generally split into three dialect groups : Ingvaeonic ( North Sea Germanic ), Istvaeonic ( Weser-Rhine Germanic ) and Irminonic ( Elbe Germanic ). It appears that the Frankish tribes fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group with sealed Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest, which are hush seen in modern Dutch .
Frankish ( 3rd–5th century ) [edit ]
The Frankish language itself is not directly attested, the entirely possible exception being the Bergakker dedication, found near the Dutch city of Tiel, which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish. Although some locate names recorded in Roman text such as vadam ( modern dutch : wad, english : “ mudflat ” ), could arguably be considered as the oldest single “ dutch ” words, the Bergakker inscription yields the oldest tell of Dutch morphology. however, interpretations of the rest of the text lack any consensus. [ 32 ] The Franks emerged in the southerly Netherlands ( salian frank Franks ) and central Germany ( Ripuarian Franks ), and later descended into Gaul. The name of their kingdom survives in that of France. Although they ruled the Gallo-Romans for closely 300 years, their language, Frankish, became extinct in most of France and was replaced by later forms of the terminology throughout Luxembourg and Germany in around the seventh century. It was replaced in France by Old French ( a Romance terminology with a considerable Old Frankish determine ). however, the Old Franconian language did not die out at large, as it continued to be spoken in the moo Countries, and subsequently evolved into what is nowadays called Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch in the low Countries. In fact, Old Frankish could be reconstructed from Old Dutch and Frankish loanwords in Old French. [ 33 ]
Old Dutch ( 5th–12th hundred ) [edit ]
Area in which Old Dutch was spoken The term Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian [ 34 ] [ 35 ] refers to the set of Franconian dialects ( i.e. West Germanic varieties that are assumed to have evolved from Frankish ) spoken in the low Countries during the early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the twelfth century. [ 36 ] Old Dutch is largely recorded on fragmental relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and Old Dutch loanwords in French. [ 37 ] Old Dutch is regarded as the primary coil stage in the development of a discriminate Dutch language. It was spoken by the descendants of the salian frank Franks who occupied what is now the southerly Netherlands, northerly Belgium, function of northerly France, and parts of the Lower Rhine regions of Germany. The high german consonant shift, moving over Western Europe from south to west, caused a specialization with the Central and High Franconian in Germany. The latter would as a consequence evolve ( along with Alemannic, Bavarian and Lombardic ) into Old high German. At more or less the same time the Ingvaeonic rhinal fricative law, moving over Western Europe from west to east, led to the development of Old English ( or Anglo-Saxon ), Old Frisian and Old Saxon. barely influenced by either development, Old Dutch probably remained relatively close to the original linguistic process of the Franks. however, the language did know developments of its own, such as very early final-obstruent devoice. In fact, the rule at Bergakker indicates that the language may already have experienced this shift during the Old Frankish period .
The Utrecht baptismal vow Attestations of Old Dutch sentences are highly rare. The lyric is largely recorded on fragmental relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and loanword words from Old Dutch in early languages. [ 38 ] The oldest recorded is found in the Salic law. In this frankish document written around 510 the oldest dutch sentence has been identified : Maltho thi afrio lito ( “ I say to you, I free you, serf ” ) used to free a serf. Another previous break up of Dutch is Visc flot aftar themo uuatare ( “ A fish was swimming in the water system ” ). The oldest conserve larger Dutch text is the Utrecht baptismal vow ( 776–800 ) starting with Forsachistu diobolae … ec forsacho diabolae ( litt. : “ Forsake you the satan ? … I forsake the monster ” ). If only for its poetic content, the most celebrated Old Dutch sentence is probably Hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan, hinase hic enda tu, wat unbidan we nu ( “ All birds have started making nests, except me and you, what are we waiting for ” ), is dated to around the year 1100, written by a flemish monk in a convent in Rochester, England. Since the prison term speaks to the imagination, it is much mistakenly stated as the oldest dutch sentence .
Middle Dutch ( 12th–15th hundred ) [edit ]
Old Dutch naturally evolved into Middle Dutch. The year 1150 is frequently cited as the fourth dimension of the discontinuity, but it actually marks a fourth dimension of exuberant Dutch spell ; during this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed. There was at that time no overarching standard lyric ; Middle Dutch is rather a collective name for a number of close related, mutually intelligible dialects spoken in the former Old Dutch area. Where Old dutch fragments are very hard to read for untrained Modern Dutch speakers, the respective literary works of Middle Dutch are slightly more accessible. [ 39 ] The most celebrated difference between Old and Middle Dutch is in a feature of manner of speaking known as vowel reduction. Round vowels in word-final syllables are rather frequent in Old Dutch ; in Middle Dutch, such vowels are leveled to a schwa. The Middle Dutch dialect areas were affected by political boundaries. The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler often besides created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the lyric within the area becoming more homogeneous. Following the contemporary political divisions they are in order of importance :
modern Dutch ( 15th century–present ) [edit ]
Biblia […] Uyt de Oorspronckelijcke talen in onse Neder-landtsche tale getrouwelijck over-geset. (English: From the Original languages into our Dutch language faithfully translated. Title page of the Statenvertaling ( 1637 ) reads : ( english : From the master languages into our dutch language faithfully translated. A march of standardization started in the Middle Ages, specially under the influence of the Burgundian Ducal Court in Dijon ( Brussels after 1477 ). The dialects of Flanders and Brabant were the most influential around this time. The process of standardization became much stronger at the start of the sixteenth century, chiefly based on the urban dialect of Antwerp. The 1585 fall of Antwerp to the spanish united states army led to a fledge to the northerly Netherlands, where the Dutch Republic declared its independence from Spain. This influenced the urban dialects of the state of Holland. In 1637, a further important footprint was made towards a unite language, [ 41 ] when the Statenvertaling, the first major bible transformation into Dutch, was created that people from all over the new democracy could understand. It used elements from assorted, even Dutch Low Saxon, dialects but was predominantly based on the urban dialects of Holland of post sixteenth hundred. [ 42 ] In the southern Netherlands ( now Belgium and Luxembourg ), developments were unlike. Under subsequent spanish, austrian and french principle, the standardization of dutch linguistic process came to a stand. The state, law, and increasingly education used French, yet more than half the belgian population were speaking a variety show of Dutch. In the course of the nineteenth century, the Flemish Movement stood up for the rights of dutch speakers, largely referred to as “ flemish ”. however, the dialect magnetic declination was a serious disadvantage in the grimace of the standardize francophony. [ 43 ] Since calibration is a drawn-out work, Dutch-speaking Belgium associated itself with the standard lyric that had already developed in the Netherlands over the centuries. consequently, the situation in Belgium is basically no different from that in the Netherlands, although there are recognizable differences in pronunciation, comparable to the pronunciation differences between standard British and standard American English. [ 44 ] In 1980 the Netherlands and Belgium concluded the Language Union Treaty. This treaty lays down the principle that the two countries must gear their linguistic process policy to each other, among other things, for a common system of spelling .
classification [edit ]
The simplified relation between the West Germanic languages
dutch belongs to its own West Germanic sub-group, the Low Franconian languages, paired with its sister speech Limburgish or East Low Franconian. Its closest relative is the mutually apprehensible daughter lyric Afrikaans. other West Germanic languages related to Dutch are German, English and the frisian languages and the un-standardised languages humble german and yiddish. Dutch stands out in combining some Ingvaeonic characteristics ( occurring systematically in English and Frisian and reduced in volume from west to east over the continental West Germanic flat ) with dominant Istvaeonic characteristics, some of which are besides incorporated in German. unlike german, Dutch ( apart from Limburgish ) has not been influenced at all by the south to north motion of the high german consonant switch and had some changes of its own. [ normality 11 ] The pile of these changes resulted over time in separate, but relate standard languages with diverse degrees of similarities and differences between them. For a comparison between the West Germanic languages, see the sections Morphology, Grammar and Vocabulary .
Dialects [edit ]
dutch dialects are chiefly the dialects that are both relate with the dutch language and are spoken in the lapp lyric sphere as the Dutch standard language. Although heavily under the influence of the standard speech, some of them remain signally [ citation needed ] divers and are found in the Netherlands and in the Brussels and Flemish regions of Belgium. The areas in which they are spoken much equate with former medieval counties and duchies. The Netherlands ( but not Belgium ) distinguishes between a dialect and a streektaal ( “ regional lyric “ ). Those words are actually more political than linguistic because a regional linguistic process unites a large group of very different varieties. such is the casing with the Gronings dialect, which is considered a variety of the Dutch Low Saxon regional speech, but it is relatively distinct from other Dutch Low Saxon varieties. besides, some dutch dialects are more distant from the dutch standard linguistic process than some varieties of a regional language are. Within the Netherlands, a further distinction is made between a regional language and a offprint language, which is the case with the ( standardised ) West frisian terminology. It is spoken aboard Dutch in the state of Friesland. dutch dialects and regional languages are not spoken arsenic much as they used to be, particularly in the Netherlands. Recent inquiry by Geert Driessen shows that the use of dialects and regional languages among both Dutch adults and young person is in big refuse. In 1995, 27 percentage of the Dutch adult population spoke a dialect or regional terminology on a even footing, but in 2011, that was no more than 11 percentage. In 1995, 12 percentage of children of primary coil school age spoke a dialect or regional language, but in 2011, that had declined to 4 percentage. Of the officially recognized regional languages Limburgish is spoken the most ( in 2011 among adults 54 %, among children 31 % ) and Dutch Low Saxon the least ( adult 15 %, children 1 % ). The decline of the West frisian terminology in Friesland occupies a middle situation ( adult 44 %, children 22 % ). Dialects are most frequently spoken in rural areas, but many cities have a distinct city dialect. For example, the city of Ghent has very distinct “ gravitational constant ”, “ e ” and “ gas constant ” sounds that greatly differ from its surrounding villages. The Brussels dialect combines Brabantian with words adopted from Walloon and French. Some dialects had, until recently, extensions across the borders of other standard speech areas. In most cases, the heavy charm of the standard lyric has broken the dialect continuum. Examples are the Gronings dialect spoken in Groningen a well as the closely refer varieties in adjacent East Frisia ( Germany ). south Guelderish ( Zuid-Gelders ) is a dialect spoken in southern Gelderland, the northern topple of Limburg, and northeasterly of North Brabant ( Netherlands ), but besides in adjacent parts of North Rhine-Westphalia ( Germany ). Limburgish ( Limburgs ) is spoken in Limburg ( Belgium ) adenine well as in the remaining part of Limburg ( Netherlands ) and extends across the german border. West Flemish ( Westvlaams ) is spoken in West Flanders, the western part of Zeelandic Flanders and besides in french Flanders, where it virtually became extinct to make way for French .
dialect groups [edit ]
The West Flemish group of dialects, spoken in West Flanders and Zeeland, is so distinct that it might be considered as a separate speech version, although the strong significance of speech in belgian politics would prevent the government from classifying them as such. An oddity of the dialect is that, the voice velar fricative ( written as “ g ” in Dutch ) shifts to a voice glottal fricative ( written as “ heat content ” in Dutch ), while the letter “ heat content ” becomes mute ( like in French ). As a consequence, when West Flemings attempt to talk Standard Dutch, they are much ineffective to pronounce the g-sound, and pronounce it exchangeable to the h-sound. This leaves, for exemplar, no difference between “ held ” ( hero ) and “ geld ” ( money ). Or in some cases, they are aware of the problem, and hyper-correct the “ henry ” into a voice velar fricative or g-sound, again leaving no dispute. The West Flemish variety show historically spoken in adjacent parts in France is sometimes called french Flemish and is listed as a french minority speech. however, only a very belittled and senesce minority of the French-Flemish population even speaks and understands West Flemish. Hollandic is spoken in Holland and Utrecht, though the master forms of this dialect ( which were heavily influenced by a West frisian substrate and, from the sixteenth hundred on, by Brabantian dialects ) are now relatively rare. The urban dialects of the Randstad, which are Hollandic dialects, do not diverge from standard Dutch very much, but there is a unclutter dispute between the city dialects of Rotterdam, The Hague, Amsterdam and Utrecht. In some rural Hollandic areas more authentic Hollandic dialects are still being used, particularly north of Amsterdam. Another group of dialects based on Hollandic is that spoken in the cities and larger towns of Friesland, where it partially displaced West Frisian in the sixteenth century and is known as Stadsfries ( “ Urban Frisian ” ). Hollandic together with bury alia South Guelderish and North Brabantian, but without Stadsfries, are the Central Dutch dialects. Brabantian is named after the diachronic Duchy of Brabant, which corresponded chiefly to the provinces of North Brabant and southerly Gelderland, the belgian provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant, a well as Brussels ( where its native speakers have become a minority ) and the province of Walloon Brabant. Brabantian expands into modest parts in the west of Limburg while its strong influence on the East Flemish of East Flanders and eastern Zeelandic Flanders [ 45 ] weakens towards the west. In a humble area in the northwest of North Brabant ( Willemstad ), Hollandic is spoken. Conventionally, the South Guelderish dialects are distinguished from Brabantian, but there are no objective criteria apart from geography to do so. Over 5 million people live in an area with some phase of Brabantian being the overriding colloquial linguistic process out of the area ‘s 22 million Dutch-speakers. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Limburgish, spoken in both belgian Limburg and Netherlands Limburg and in adjacent parts in Germany, is considered a dialect in Belgium, while having obtained the official status of regional language in the Netherlands. Limburgish has been influenced by the Ripuarian varieties like the Colognian dialect, and has had a reasonably different development since the recently Middle Ages .
regional languages [edit ]
Two dialect groups have been given the official condition of regional language ( or streektaal ) in the Netherlands. Like several other dialect groups, both are part of a dialect continuum that continues across the national frame .
Dutch Low Saxon [edit ]
The Dutch Low Saxon dialect area comprises the provinces of Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel, equally well as parts of the provinces of Gelderland, Flevoland, Friesland and Utrecht. This group, which is not gloomy Franconian but alternatively Low Saxon and close to neighbouring low German, has been elevated by the Netherlands ( and by Germany ) to the legal condition of streektaal ( regional language ) according to the european Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is regarded as dutch for a number of reasons. From the 14th to fifteenth hundred forth, its urban centers ( Deventer, Zwolle, Kampen, Zutphen and Doesburg ) have been increasingly influenced by the western written Dutch and became a linguistically mix area. From the seventeenth hundred forth, it was gradually integrated into the dutch language area. [ 48 ] Dutch Low Saxon used to be at one end of the low german dialect continuum. however, the national molding has given way to dialect boundaries coinciding with a political border, because the traditional dialects are strongly influenced by the home standard varieties. [ 49 ] Cross-the-border dialects now separated by a plain gap besides include South Guelderish and Limburgish on the dutch side of the border and Meuse-Rhenish on the german side of the edge. [ 50 ]
Limburgish [edit ]
While a slightly heterogenous group of Low Franconian dialects, Limburgish has received official status as a regional linguistic process in the Netherlands and Germany, but not in Belgium. Due to this official recognition, it receives protection by chapter 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages .
Daughter and sister languages [edit ]
Afrikaans, although to a significant degree mutually apprehensible with Dutch, is not a dialect but a divide standardised language. It is spoken in South Africa and Namibia. As a daughter terminology of Dutch, Afrikaans evolved chiefly from seventeenth hundred Dutch dialects, but was influenced by assorted other languages in South Africa. West Frisian ( Westerlauwers Fries ), along with Saterland Frisian and North Frisian, evolved from the same branch of the West Germanic languages as Old English ( i.e. Anglo-Frisian ) and are consequently genetically more close related to English and Scots than to Dutch. The different influences on the respective languages, however, particularly that of Norman French on English and Dutch on West Frisian, have rendered English quite distinct from West Frisian, and West Frisian less distinct from dutch than from English. Although under big influence of the Dutch standard language, it is not mutually intelligible with Dutch and considered a sister linguistic process of Dutch, like English and German. [ 51 ]
geographic distribution [edit ]
Approximate distribution of native Dutch speakers worldwide .
Netherlands ( 70.8 % )
Belgium ( 27.1 % )
Suriname ( 1.7 % )
Caribbean ( 0.1 % )
other ( 0.3 % )
dutch is an official language of the Netherlands proper, Belgium, Suriname, the dutch Caribbean municipalities ( St. Eustatius, Saba and Bonaire ), Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. dutch is besides an official lyric of respective external organisations, such as the European Union, [ 56 ] Union of South american Nations [ 57 ] and the Caribbean Community. At an academic level, Dutch is taught in about 175 universities in 40 countries. About 15,000 students worldwide sketch Dutch at university. [ 58 ]
Europe [edit ]
In Europe, Dutch is the majority speech in the Netherlands ( 96 % ) and Belgium ( 59 % ) equally well as a minority language in Germany and northern France ‘s french Flanders. Though Belgium as a whole is multilingual, the four linguistic process areas into which the country is divided ( Flanders, francophone Wallonia, bilingual Brussels and the German-speaking Community ) are largely monolingual. The Netherlands and Belgium produce the huge majority of music, films, books and other media written or spoken in Dutch. [ 59 ] Dutch is a monocentric speech, at least what concerns its written kind, with all speakers using the same standard form ( authorized by the dutch Language Union ) based on a dutch orthography defined in the alleged “ green Booklet “ authoritative dictionary and employing the Latin rudiment when writing ; however, pronunciation varies between dialects. indeed, in austere contrast to its written uniformity, Dutch lacks a alone prestige dialect and has a big dialectal continuum consisting of 28 independent dialects, which can themselves be further divided into at least 600 distinguishable varieties. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] In the Netherlands, the Hollandic dialect dominates in national broadcast media while in Flanders Brabantian dialect dominates in that capacity, making them in turn unofficial prestige dialects in their respective countries. Outside the Netherlands and Belgium, the dialect spoken in and around the german town of Kleve ( South Guelderish ) is historically and genetically a humble Franconian assortment. In North-Western France, the sphere around Calais was historically Dutch-speaking ( West Flemish ), of which an estimated 20,000 are daily speakers. The cities of Dunkirk, Gravelines and Bourbourg alone became predominantly French-speaking by the end of the nineteenth century. In the countryside, until World War I, many elementary schools continued to teach in Dutch, and the Catholic Church continued to preach and teach the catechism in Dutch in many parishes. [ 62 ] During the second one-half of the nineteenth hundred, Dutch was banned from all levels of education by both Prussia and France and lost most of its functions as a cultural language. In both Germany and France, the dutch standard speech is largely lacking, and speakers of these dutch dialects will use german or french in everyday speech. dutch is not afford legal condition in France or Germany, either by the central or regional public authorities, and cognition of the language is declining among younger generations. [ 63 ] As a foreign linguistic process, Dutch is chiefly taught in primary and secondary schools in areas adjacent to the Netherlands and Flanders. In French-speaking Belgium, over 300,000 pupils are enrolled in Dutch courses, followed by over 23,000 in the german states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, and about 7,000 in the french area of Nord-Pas-de-Calais ( of which 4,550 are in primary school ). [ 64 ] At an academic flat, the largest count of faculties of neerlandistiek can be found in Germany ( 30 universities ), followed by France ( 20 universities ) and the United Kingdom ( 5 universities ). [ 64 ] [ 65 ]
Asia and Australasia [edit ]
asia [edit ]
Despite the dutch presence in Indonesia for about 350 years, as the Asian bulge of the Dutch East Indies, the dutch terminology has no official condition there [ 66 ] and the small minority that can speak the linguistic process fluently are either educate members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession, [ 67 ] as certain police codes are hush only available in Dutch. [ 68 ] Dutch is taught in diverse educational centres in Indonesia, the most significant of which is the Erasmus Language Centre ( ETC ) in Jakarta. Each year, some 1,500 to 2,000 students take dutch courses there. [ 69 ] In full, several thousand Indonesians study Dutch as a foreign language. [ 70 ] Owing to centuries of Dutch rule in Indonesia, many old documents are written in Dutch. many universities therefore include Dutch as a source terminology, chiefly for law and history students. [ 71 ] In Indonesia this involves about 35,000 students. [ 58 ] Unlike other european nations, the Dutch chose not to follow a policy of speech expansion amongst the autochthonal peoples of their colonies. [ 72 ] In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, however, a local elite gained proficiency in Dutch then as to meet the needs of expanding bureaucracy and clientele. [ 73 ] Nevertheless, the dutch government remained loath to teach Dutch on a large scale for concern of destabilising the colony. dutch, the speech of power, was supposed to remain in the hands of the leading elite. [ 73 ] After independence, Dutch was dropped as an official language and replaced by Malay. Yet the indonesian lyric inherited many words from dutch : words for everyday life deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as scientific and technical terms. [ 74 ] One scholar argues that 20 % of indonesian words can be traced back to Dutch words, many of which are transliterated to reflect phonetic pronunciation e.g. kantoor “ agency ” in Indonesian is kantor, while bus “ bus ” becomes bis. In addition, many indonesian words are calques of Dutch ; for case, rumah sakit “ hospital ” is calqued on the dutch ziekenhuis ( literally “ sickhouse ” ), kebun binatang “ menagerie ” on dierentuin ( literally “ animal garden ” ), undang-undang dasar “ united states constitution ” from grondwet ( literally “ background law ” ). These history for some of the differences in vocabulary between indonesian and Malay .
australasia [edit ]
After the announcement of independence of Indonesia, Western New Guinea, the “ crazy east ” of the Dutch East Indies, remained a dutch colony until 1962, known as Netherlands New Guinea. [ 76 ] Despite prolong Dutch presence, the dutch lyric is not spoken by many Papuans, the colony having been ceded to Indonesia in 1963. Dutch-speaking immigrant communities can besides be found in Australia and New Zealand. The 2011 australian census showed 37,248 people speaking dutch at home. [ 77 ] At the 2006 New Zealand census, 26,982 people, or 0.70 percentage of the sum population, reported to speak Dutch to sufficient fluency that they could hold an everyday conversation. [ 78 ]
america [edit ]
In contrast to the colonies in the East Indies, from the second half of the nineteenth century onwards, the Netherlands envisaged the expansion of Dutch in its colonies in the West Indies. Until 1863, when bondage was abolished in the West Indies, slaves were forbidden to speak Dutch, with the effect that local creoles such as Papiamento and Sranan Tongo which were based not on dutch but quite other european languages, became common in the dutch West Indies. however, as most of the people in the Colony of Surinam ( nowadays Suriname ) worked on Dutch plantations, this reinforced the use of Dutch as a mean for direct communication. [ 73 ] [ 79 ] In Suriname nowadays, Dutch is the exclusive official language, [ 80 ] and over 60 percentage of the population speaks it as a mother tongue. [ 6 ] Dutch is the obligatory medium of instruction in schools in Suriname, even for non-native speakers. [ 81 ] A far twenty-four percentage of the population speaks Dutch as a second speech. [ 82 ] Suriname gained its independence from the Netherlands in 1975 and has been an associate penis of the dutch Language Union since 2004. [ 83 ] The tongue franca of Suriname, however, is Sranan Tongo, [ 84 ] spoken natively by about a fifth of the population. [ 59 ] [ n 12 ] In Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, all parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch is the official language but spoken as a first language by alone 7 % to 8 % of the population, [ 85 ] although most native-born people on the islands can speak the lyric since the education system is in dutch at some or all levels. In the United States, a nowadays extinct dialect of Dutch, Jersey Dutch, spoken by descendants of 17th-century Dutch settlers in Bergen and Passaic counties, was distillery spoken a recently as 1921. [ 86 ] other Dutch-based creole languages once spoken in the Americas include Mohawk Dutch ( in Albany, New York ), Berbice ( in Guyana ), Skepi ( in Essequibo, Guyana ) and Negerhollands ( in the United States Virgin Islands ). Pennsylvania Dutch is not a member of the set of dutch dialects and is less deceptively called Pennsylvania German. [ 87 ] Martin Van Buren, the eighth President of the United States, spoke Dutch natively and is the merely U.S. president of the united states whose first gear language was not English. Dutch prevailed for many generations as the prevailing lyric in parts of New York along the Hudson River. Another celebrated american born in this area who spoke Dutch as a first language was Sojourner Truth. According to the 2000 United States census, 150,396 people spoke Dutch at home, [ 88 ] while according to the 2006 canadian census, this number reaches 160,000 dutch speakers. [ 89 ] At an academician level, 20 universities offer dutch studies in the United States. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] In Canada, Dutch is the one-fourth most talk linguistic process by farmers, after English, French and German, [ 90 ] and the one-fifth most talk non-official lyric overall ( by 0.6 % of Canadians ). [ 91 ]
Africa [edit ]
The distribution of Afrikaans across South Africa : symmetry of the population speaking Afrikaans at home The largest bequest of the dutch speech lies in South Africa, which attracted large numbers of Dutch, Flemish and other northwest european farmer ( in Dutch, boer ) settlers, all of whom were quickly assimilated. [ 92 ] The hanker isolation from the respite of the Dutch-speaking worldly concern made the Dutch as spoken in Southern Africa evolve into what is now Afrikaans. [ 93 ] In 1876, the foremost Afrikaans newspaper called Die Afrikaanse Patriot was published in the Cape Colony. [ 94 ] european Dutch remained the literary terminology [ 93 ] until the start of the 1920s, when under pressure of Afrikaner nationalism the local anesthetic “ african ” dutch was preferred over the written, European-based standard. [ 92 ] In 1925, section 137 of the 1909 fundamental law of the Union of South Africa was amended by Act 8 of 1925, stating “ the word Dutch in article 137 … is hereby declared to include Afrikaans ”. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The united states constitution of 1983 only list English and Afrikaans as official languages. It is estimated that between 90 % to 95 % of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] Both languages are still largely mutually intelligible, although this relation can in some fields ( such as dictionary, spelling and grammar ) be asymmetrical, as it is easier for dutch speakers to understand written Afrikaans than it is for Afrikaans speakers to understand written Dutch. [ 99 ] Afrikaans is grammatically far less building complex than dutch, and vocabulary items are broadly altered in a distinctly model manner, e.g. vogel becomes voël ( “ boo ” ) and regen becomes reën ( “ rain ” ). [ 100 ] In South Africa, the phone number of students following dutch at university is difficult to estimate, since the academic analyze of Afrikaans inescapably includes the sketch of Dutch. [ 58 ] elsewhere in the world, the number of people learning Dutch is relatively belittled .
Afrikaans is the third gear largest lyric of South Africa in terms of native speakers ( ~13.5 % ), [ 101 ] of whom 53 % are Coloureds and 42.4 % Whites. [ 102 ] In 1996, 40 percentage of South Africans reported to know Afrikaans at least at a very basic level of communication. [ 103 ] It is the tongue franca in Namibia, [ 92 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] where it is spoken natively in 11 percentage of households. [ 106 ] In full, Afrikaans is the first language in South Africa alone of about 7.1 million people [ 101 ] and is estimated to be a moment lyric for at least 10 million people worldwide, [ 107 ] compared to over 23 million [ 6 ] and 5 million respectively, for Dutch. [ 2 ] The dutch colonial presence elsewhere in Africa, notably Dutch Gold Coast, was excessively ephemeron not to be wiped out by prevailing colonizing european successors. belgian colonial bearing in Congo and Rwanda-Urundi ( Burundi and Rwanda, held under League of Nations mandate and belated a UN reliance territory ) left small Dutch ( Flemish ) bequest, as French was the chief colonial lyric. [ 108 ]
phonology [edit ]
Spoken Dutch, with a Netherlands emphasis For farther details on different realisations of phonemes, dialectal differences and exercise words, see the full article at Dutch phonology .
Consonants [edit ]
Unlike other Germanic languages, Dutch has no phonological ambition of consonants. [ 109 ] Like most other Germanic languages, the Dutch accordant arrangement did not undergo the high german consonant shift and has a syllable structure that allows fairly-complex consonant clusters. Dutch besides retains full function of the velar fricatives of Proto-Germanic that were lost or modified in many other Germanic languages. dutch has final-obstruent devoice. At the goal of a news, voicing eminence is neutralised and all obstruents are pronounce breathed. For exercise, Dutch goede ( ̇ ‘ good ’ ) is /ˈɣudə/ but the relate form goed is /ɣut/. Dutch shares this final-obstruent devoice with German ( the Dutch noun goud is pronounced [ ɣɑut ], the adjective gouden is pronounced [ ɣɑudə ( n ) ], like the german noun Gold, pronounced [ ɡɔlt ], adjectival golden, pronounced [ ɡɔldn ] vs English gold and golden, both pronounced with [ d ]. ) Voicing of pre-vocalic initial aphonic alveolar consonant fricatives occurs although less in dutch than in German ( Dutch zeven, german sieben with [ z ] versus English seven and low german seven with [ s ] ), and besides the shift /θ/ → /d/. Dutch shares entirely with low german the development of /xs/ → /ss/ ( Dutch vossen, ossen and low German Vösse, Ossen versus German Füchse, Ochsen and English foxes, oxen ), and besides the development of /ft/ → /xt/ though it is army for the liberation of rwanda more coarse in Dutch ( Dutch zacht and low German sacht versus German sanft and English soft, but Dutch kracht versus German Kraft and English craft ) .
- [ ʔ ] is not a separate phoneme in Dutch, but is inserted before vowel-initial syllables within words after /a/ and /ə/ and often also at the beginning of a word.
- The realization of /r/ phoneme varies considerably from dialect to dialect and even between speakers in the same dialect area. Common realisations are an alveolar trill [ roentgen ], alveolar tap [ ɾ ], uvular trill [ ʀ ], voiced uvular fricative [ ʁ ], and alveolar approximant [ ɹ ].
- The realization of /ʋ/ also varies somewhat by area and speaker. The main realisation is a labiodental approximant [ ʋ ], but some speakers, particularly in the south, use a bilabial approximant [ β̞ ] or a labiovelar approximant [ tungsten ].
- The lateral /l/ is slightly velarized postvocalically in most dialects, particularly in the north.
- /x/ and /ɣ/
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may be true velars [ x ] and [ ɣ ], uvular [ χ ] and [ ʁ ] or palatal [ ç ] and [ ʝ ]. The more palatal realisations are common in southern areas, and uvulars are common in the north.
- Some northern dialects have a tendency to devoice all fricatives, regardless of environment, which is particularly common with /ɣ/ but can affect others as well.
- /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ are not native phonemes of Dutch and usually occur in borrowed words, like show and bagage (‘baggage’), but may occur if /s/ and /z/ are palatalised.
- /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Dutch and occurs only in borrowed words, like garçon.
Vowels [edit ]
Like English, Dutch did not develop i-mutation as a geomorphologic marker and shares with most other Germanic languages the lengthen of short vowels in stressed exposed syllables, which has led to contrastive vowel length being used as a morphologic marker. Dutch has an extensive vowel inventory. Vowels can be grouped as back rounded, front unrounded and front rounded. They are besides traditionally distinguished by length or tension. Vowel length is not always considered a classifiable feature in Dutch phonology because it normally occurs with changes in vowel quality. One feature of speech or the other may be considered pleonastic, and some phonemic analyses prefer to treat it as an enemy of tension. however, flush if it is not considered depart of the phonemic opposition, the long/tense vowels are still realised as phonetically longer than their shortstop counterparts. The changes in vowel quality are besides not always the same in all dialects, some of which may be little remainder at all, with length remaining the chief signalize feature. Although all older words pair vowel length with a change in vowel quality, newfangled loanwords have reintroduced phonemic oppositions of length. Compare zonne(n) [ ˈzɔnə ] ( “ suns ” ) versus zone [ ˈzɔːnə ] ( “ zone ” ) versus zonen [ ˈzoːnə ( n ) ] ( “ sons ” ), or kroes [ krus ] ( “ countenance ” ) versus cruise [ kruːs ] ( “ cruise ” ) .
- The distinction between /i yttrium u/ and /iː yː uː/ is only slight and may be considered allophonic for most purposes. However, some recent loanwords have introduced distinctively-long /iː yː uː/, making the length distinction marginally phonemic.
- The long close-mid vowels /eː øː oː/ are realised as slightly closing diphthongs [ eɪ øʏ oʊ ] in many northern dialects.
- The long open-mid vowels /ɛː œː ɔː/ occur only in a handful of loanwords, mostly from French. In certain Belgian Dutch varieties, they may also occur as realisations of /ɛi œy au/.
- The long close and close-mid vowels are often pronounced more closed or as centering diphthongs before an /r/ in the syllable coda, which may occur before coda /l/ as well.
Diphthongs [edit ]
singular to the growth of Dutch is the break down of older ol / ul / al + dental into ol + dental, followed by voice of pre- consonantal /l/ and after a brusque vowel. That created the diphthong /ɑu/ : dutch goud, zout and bout corresponds with abject german Gold, Solt, Bolt ; german Gold, Salz, Balt and English gold, salt, bolt. It is the most common diphthong, along with /ɛi œy/. All three are the only ones normally considered singular phonemes in Dutch. The leaning for native english speakers is to pronounce Dutch names with /ɛi/ ( written as ij or ei ) as /aɪ/, ( like the English “ hanker iodine ” ), which does not normally lead to confusion for native listeners since in a number of dialects ( such as in Amsterdam [ 111 ] ), the like pronunciation is heard. In contrast, /ɑi/ and /ɔi/ are rare in Dutch. The “ long/tense ” diphthongs are indeed realised as proper diphthongs but are by and large analysed phonemically as a long/tense vowel, followed by a glide /j/ or /ʋ/. All diphthongs end in a conclusion vowel ( /i yttrium u/ ) and are grouped here by their first gear element .
Phonotactics [edit ]
The syllable structure of Dutch is ( C ) ( C ) ( C ) V ( C ) ( C ) ( C ) ( C ). many words, as in English, begin with three consonants : straat /straːt/ ( street ). There are words that end in four consonants : herfst /ɦɛrfst/ ( fall ), ergst /ɛrxst/ ( worst ), interessantst /ɪn.tə.rɛ.sɑntst/ ( most interesting ), sterkst /stɛrkst/ ( strongest ), the last three of which are superlative adjectives. The highest act of consonants in a single bunch is found in the word slechtstschrijvend /ˈslɛxtstˌsxrɛi̯vənt/ ( writing bad ), with seven consonant phonemes. angstschreeuw ( help · information ) ( yell in concern ) has six in a quarrel .
Polder Dutch [edit ]
A luminary deepen in pronunciation has been occurring in younger generations in the dutch provinces of Utrecht, North and South Holland, which has been dubbed “ Polder Dutch ” by Jan Stroop. [ 112 ] such speakers pronounce ⟨ij/ei⟩, ⟨ou/au⟩ and ⟨ui⟩, which used to be pronounced respectively as /ɛi/, /ɔu/, and /œy/, as increasingly lowered to [ three-toed sloth ], [ au ], and [ ay ] respectively. In addition, the same speakers pronounce /eː/, /oː/, and /øː/ as the diphthongs [ ei ], [ ou ], and [ øy ] [ 113 ] respectively, making the change an example of a chain switch. The change is interesting from a sociolinguistic point of opinion because it has obviously happened relatively recently, in the 1970s and was pioneered by older knowing women from the upper middle classes. [ 114 ] The turn down of the diphthongs has retentive been current in many Dutch dialects and is comparable to the English Great Vowel Shift and the diphthongisation of farseeing high vowels in Modern High German, which had centuries earlier reached the state now found in Polder Dutch. Stroop theorizes that the frown of open-mid to open diphthongs is a phonetically “ lifelike ” and inevitable development and that Dutch, after it had diphthongised the long high vowels like German and English, “ should ” have lowered the diphthongs like German and English adenine well. alternatively, he argues that the development has been artificially frigid in an “ intercede ” submit by the calibration of Dutch pronunciation in the sixteenth hundred in which lowered diphthongs found in rural dialects were perceived as atrocious by the educated classes and were consequently declared deficient. now, however, he thinks that the newly-affluent and independent women can afford to let that natural development take put in their speech. Stroop compares the function of Polder Dutch with the urban kind of british English pronunciation called Estuary English. Among belgian and Surinamese Dutch-speakers and speakers from early regions in the Netherlands, this vowel stir is not taking put .
grammar [edit ]
dutch is grammatically like to german, such as in syntax and verb morphology ( for verb morphology in English verb, Dutch and German, see teutonic weak verb and Germanic strong verb ). grammatical cases have largely become circumscribed to pronouns and many set phrases. Inflected forms of the articles are frequently grace surnames and place name. Standard Dutch uses three genders across natural and grammatical genders but for most non-Belgian speakers, masculine and feminine have merged to form the common sex ( with de for “ the ” ). The neuter ( which uses het ) remains distinct. This is exchangeable to those of most continental scandinavian tongues. Less thus than English, inflectional grammar ( such as in adjectival and noun endings ) has simplified .
Verbs and tenses [edit ]
When grouped according to their conjugational class, Dutch has four main verb types : watery verb, potent verb, irregular verb and interracial verbs. Weak verbs are most numerous, constituting about 60 % of all verbs. In these, the past strain and past participle are formed with a alveolar consonant suffix :
- Weak verbs with past in -de
- Weak verbs with past in -te
potent verbs are the second most numerous verb group. This group is characterised by a vowel alternation of the bow in the past tense and perfect participle. Dutch distinguishes between 7 classes, comprising about all potent verbs, with some internal variants. Dutch has many ‘half strong verbs ‘ : these have a watery past tense and a strong participle or a strong by tense and a weak participle. The following table shows the vowel alternations in more contingent. It besides shows the number of roots ( bare verb ) that belong to each class, variants with a prefix are excluded .
|Verb class||Verb||Present||Past||Participle||Number of roots|
|3 + 7||sterven||(to die)||ɛ||sterf||i||stierf||ɔ||gestorven||6|
|4||breken||(to break)||e:||breek||ɑ ~ a:||brak ~ braken||o:||gebroken||7|
|4 irregular||wegen||(to weigh)||e:||weeg||o:||woog||o:||gewogen||3|
|5||geven||(to give)||e:||geef||ɑ ~ a:||gaf ~ gaven||e:||gegeven||10|
|5 irregular||zitten||(to sit)||ɪ||zit||ɑ ~ a:||zat ~ zaten||e:||gezeten||3|
|7 irregular||vangen||(to catch)||X||vang||ɪ||ving||X||gevangen||3|
|Half strong past||vragen||(to ask)||vraag||vroeg||gevraagd||3|
|Half strong perfect||bakken||(to bake)||bak||bakte||gebakken||19|
Genders and cases [edit ]
As in English, the casing system of Dutch and the subjunctive mood have largely fallen out of practice, and the system has generalised the dative over the accusative event for certain pronouns ( NL : me, je ; EN : me, you ; LI : mi, di vs. DE : mich/mir, dich/dir ). While standard Dutch has three grammatical genders, this has few consequences and the masculine and feminine sex are normally merged into a common gender in the Netherlands but not in Belgium ( EN : none ; NL/LI : park and neuter ; in Belgium masculine, feminine and alter is in consumption ). Modern Dutch has largely lost its subject system. [ 115 ] however, certain idioms and expressions continue to include now archaic case declensions. The article has just two forms, de and het, more complex than English, which has only the. The function of the older inflected class den in the dative and accusative, a well as use of der in the dative, is restricted to numerous fit phrases, surnames and place name .
|Masculine singular||Feminine singular||Neuter singular||Plural (any gender)|
|Genitive||van de||van de||van het||van de|
In advanced Dutch, the genitive articles des and der in the bottom line are normally used in idioms. early usage is typically considered antediluvian, poetic or stylistic. One must know whether a noun is masculine or womanly to use them correctly. In most circumstances, the preposition van, the middle wrinkle, is rather used, followed by the normal article de or het, and in that case it makes no deviation whether a word is masculine or feminine. . For the idiomatic function of the articles in the possessive, see for example :
- Masculine singular: “des duivels” (lit: “of the devil”) (common proverbial meaning: Seething with rage)
- Feminine singular: het woordenboek der Friese taal (“the dictionary of the Frisian language”)
- Neuter singular: de vrouw des huizes (“the lady of the house”)
- Plural: de voortgang der werken (“the progress of (public) works”)
In contemporaneous usage, the genitive encase still occurs a little more much with plurals than with singulars, as the plural article is der for all genders and no limited noun modulation must be taken account of. Der is normally used in order to avoid reduplication of van, e.g. het merendeel der gedichten van de auteur rather of het merendeel van de gedichten van de auteur ( “ the bulk of the writer ‘s poems ” ). There is besides a genitive shape for the pronoun die/dat ( “ that [ one ], those [ ones ] ” ), namely diens for masculine and neuter singulars ( occurrences of dier for feminine curious and all plurals are extremely rare ). Although normally avoided in common address, this form can be used rather of possessive pronouns to avoid confusion. compare :
- Hij vertelde over zijn zoon en zijn vrouw. – He told about his son and his (own) wife.
- Hij vertelde over zijn zoon en diens vrouw. – He told about his son and the latter’s wife.
Analogically, the proportional and interrogative pronoun wie ( “ who ” ) has the genitive forms wiens and wier ( corresponding to English whose, but less frequent in use ). dutch besides has a scope of specify expressions that make use of the genitive articles, which can be abbreviated using apostrophes. park examples include “ ‘s ochtends ” ( with ‘s as abbreviation of des ; “ in the morning ” ) and desnoods ( literature : “ of the want ”, translated : “ if necessary ” ). The Dutch written grammar has simplified over the past 100 years : cases are now chiefly used for the pronouns, such as ik ( I ), mij, me ( me ), mijn ( my ), wie ( who ), wiens ( whose : masculine or neuter singular ), wier ( whose : feminine singular ; masculine, womanly or alter plural ). Nouns and adjectives are not sheath inflected ( except for the possessive of proper nouns ( names ) : -s, – ‘s or – ‘ ). In the spoken speech cases and subject inflections had already gradually disappeared from a much earlier date on ( credibly the fifteenth century ) as in many continental West Germanic dialects. inflection of adjectives is more complicate. The adjective receives no ending with indefinite neuter nouns in curious ( as with een /ən/ ‘a/an ‘ ), and -e in all other cases. ( This was besides the case in Middle English, as in “ a effective e man ”. ) Fiets belongs to the masculine/feminine class, while water and huis are alter .
|Masculine singular or feminine singular||Neuter singular||Plural (any gender)|
(with definite article
|de mooie fiets (“the beautiful bicycle”)
onze mooie fiets (“our beautiful bicycle”)
deze mooie fiets (“this beautiful bicycle”)
|het mooie huis (“the beautiful house”)
ons mooie huis (“our beautiful house”)
dit mooie huis (“this beautiful house”)
|de mooie fietsen (“the beautiful bicycles”)
de mooie huizen (“the beautiful houses”)
onze mooie fietsen (“our beautiful bicycles”)
deze mooie huizen (“these beautiful houses”)
(with indefinite article or
no article and no pronoun)
|een mooie fiets (“a beautiful bicycle”)
koude soep (“cold soup”)
|een mooi huis (“a beautiful house”)
koud water (“cold water”)
|mooie fietsen (“beautiful bicycles”)
mooie huizen (“beautiful houses”)
An adjectival has no e if it is in the predicative : De soep is koud. More complex prosody is hush found in certain lexicalized expressions like de heer des huizes ( literally, “ the world of the house ” ), etc. These are normally remnants of cases ( in this exemplify, the genitive subject which is calm used in german, cf. Der Herr des Hauses ) and early inflections no long in general practice today. In such lexicalized expressions remnants of impregnable and fallible nouns can be found besides, e.g. in het jaar des Heren ( Anno Domini ), where -en is actually the possessive ending of the decrepit noun. Similarly in some place names : ’s-Gravenbrakel, ’s-Hertogenbosch, etc. ( with weak genitives of graaf “ count ”, hertog “ duke ” ). besides in this character, german retains this feature .
Word order [edit ]
Dutch shares much of its discussion order with german. Dutch exhibits subject–object–verb son rate, but in chief clauses the conjugate verb is moved into the second placement in what is known as verb second or V2 give voice order. This makes Dutch discussion order about identical to that of german, but frequently different from English, which has subject–verb–object son order and has since lost the V2 word order that existed in Old English. [ 116 ] An case prison term used in some dutch speech courses and textbooks is “ Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is “, which translates into English word for word as “ I can my pen not find because it far too dark is “, but in standard English give voice order would be written “ I cannot find my pen because it is far too dark “. If the sentence is split into a main and subclause and the verb highlighted, the logic behind the son decree can be seen. main article : “ Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden “ Verbs are placed in the concluding side, but the conjugate verb, in this case “ kan ” ( can ), is made the second component of the article. Subclause : “ omdat het veel te donker is “ The verb or verb constantly go in the final side. In an interrogative mood main clause the usual news orderliness is : conjugated verb followed by subject ; other verb in final put :
- “Kun jij je pen niet vinden?” (literally “Can you your pen not find?“) “Can’t you find your pen?“
In the dutch equivalent of a wh-question the discussion order is : interrogative pronoun ( or construction ) + conjugated verb + topic ; other verb in final place :
- “Waarom kun jij je pen niet vinden?” (“Why can you your pen not find?“) “Why can’t you find your pen?“
In a tag interrogate the word arrange is the same as in a declarative article :
- “Jij kunt je pen niet vinden?” (“You can your pen not find?“) “You can’t find your pen?“
A dependent clause does not change its son rate :
- “Kun jij je pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is?” (“Can you your pen not find because it far too dark is?“) “Can you not find your pen because it’s far too dark?“
Diminutives [edit ]
In Dutch, the diminutive is used extensively. The nuances of meaning expressed by the bantam are a distinctive view of Dutch, and can be unmanageable for non-native speakers to headmaster. It is very productive [ 117 ] : 61 and formed by adding one of the suffixes to the noun in motion, depending on the latter ‘s phonological ending :
- -je for ending in -b, -c, -d, -t, -f, -g, -ch, -k, -p, -v, -x, -z or -s: neef → neefje (male cousin, nephew)
- -pje for ending in -m: boom (tree) → boompje
- -kje for ending in -ing if the preceding syllable carries the stress: koning (king) → koninkje (the ‘ng’-sound transforms into ‘nk’); but ring → ringetje (ring), and vondeling → vondelingetje (foundling) without this stress pattern
- -tje for ending in -h, -j, -l, -n, -r, -w, or a vowel other than -y: zoen → zoentje (kiss). A single open vowel is doubled when adding “-tje” would change the pronunciation: auto → autootje (car).
- -′tje for ending in -y and for abbreviations: baby → baby’tje, cd → cd’tje, A4 → A4’tje
- -etje for ending in -b, -l, -n, -ng or -r preceded by a “short” (lax) vowel: bal → balletje (ball). Final consonant is doubled (except for -ng) to preserve the vowel’s shortness.
The bantam suffixes -ke ( from which -tje has derived by palatalization ), -eke, -ske, -ie ( alone for words ending -ch, -k, -p, or -s ), -kie ( rather of -kje ), and -pie ( alternatively of -pje ) are used in southern dialects, and the forms ending on -ie angstrom well in northern urban dialects. Some of these shape part of expressions that became criterion lyric, like een makkie, from gaea mak = ease ). The noun joch ( young boy ) has, exceptionally, only the bantam shape jochie, besides in standard Dutch. The form -ke is besides found in many women ‘s given names : Janneke, Marieke, Marijke, Mieke, Meike etc. In Dutch, the bantam is not restricted to nouns, but can be applied to numerals ( met z’n tweetjes, “ the two of us ” ), pronouns ( onderonsje, “ tête-à-tête ” ), verbal particles ( moetje, “ shotgun marriage ” ), and even prepositions ( toetje, “ dessert ” ). [ 117 ] : 64–65 Adjectives and adverbs normally take bantam forms ; the former take a bantam ending and therefore function as nouns, while the latter remain adverb and constantly have the bantam with the -s appended, e.g. adjective : groen ( “ k ” ) → noun : groen tje ( “ cub ” ) ; adverb : evening ( “ a while ” ) → adverb : even tjes ( “ a small while ” ). Some nouns have two unlike diminutives, each with a different mean : bloem ( flower ) → bloem pje ( light up. “ belittled bloom ” ), but bloem etje ( light up. besides “ little flower ”, meaning bouquet ). A few nouns exist entirely in a bantam shape, e.g. zeepaardje ( seahorse ), while many, e.g. meisje ( girl ), primitively a bantam of meid ( maid ), have acquired a mean independent of their non-diminutive forms. A bantam can sometimes be added to an uncountable noun to refer to a single parcel : ijs ( ice, ice cream ) → ijsje ( ice cream treat, cone of ice cream ), bier ( beer ) → biertje. Some diminutive forms lone exist in the plural, e.g. kleertjes ( clothing ). When used to refer to time, the Dutch diminutive shape can indicate whether the person in question found it pleasant or not : een uur tje kletsen ( chatting for a “little” hour. ) The diminutive can, however, besides be used pejoratively : Hij was weer eens het “mannetje”. ( He acted as if he was the “little” man. ) All diminutives ( evening lexicalised ones like “ meisje ” (girl) ) have neuter gender and take neuter concords : “ dit kleine meisje ”, not “ deze kleine meisje ” .
Pronouns and determiners [edit ]
There are two serial of personal pronouns, subject and objects pronouns. The forms on the right-hand sides within each column are the unemphatic forms ; those not normally written are given in brackets. lone ons and u do not have an unemphatic form. The distinction between emphatic and unemphatic pronoun is very important in Dutch. [ 117 ] : 67 emphatic pronouns in English use the reflexive pronoun form, but are used to emphasize the subject, not to indicate a direct or indirect object. For example, “ I gave ( to ) myself the money ” is reflexive pronoun but “ I myself gave the money ( to person else ) “ is emphatic .
|1st person singular||ik – (‘k)||mij – me|
|2nd person singular, informal||jij – je||jou – je|
|2nd person singular, formal||u||u|
|3rd person singular, masculine||hij – (ie)||hem – (‘m)|
|3rd person singular, feminine||zij – ze||haar – (‘r, d’r)|
|3rd person singular, neuter||het – (‘t)||het – (‘t)|
|1st person plural||wij – we||ons|
|2nd person plural, informal||jullie – je||jullie – je|
|2nd person plural, formal||u||u|
|3rd person plural, for a person||zij – ze||hun, hen – ze|
|3rd person plural, for an object||zij – ze||die – ze|
Like English, Dutch has generalised the dative over the objective case for all pronouns, e.g. NL ‘me ‘, ‘je ‘, EN ‘me ‘, ‘you ‘, vs. DE ‘mich’/’mir ‘ ‘dich’/’dir ‘. There is one exception : the criterion lyric prescribes that in the third person plural, hen is to be used for the steer object, and hun for the indirect aim. This eminence was artificially introduced in the seventeenth century by grammarians, and is largely ignored in spoken lyric and not well understand by dutch speakers. consequently, the third gear person plural forms hun and hen are interchangeable in normal use, with hun being more common. The shared unstressed form ze is besides much used as both directly and indirect objects and is a utilitarian avoidance scheme when people are uncertain which shape to use. [ 118 ] dutch shares besides with English the bearing of h- pronouns, e.g. NL hij, hem, haar, hen, hun and EN he, him, her vs. DE er, ihn, ihr, ihnen .
Compounds [edit ]
Like most Germanic languages, Dutch forms noun compounds, where the beginning noun modifies the class given by the irregular ( hondenhok = kennel ). Unlike English, where newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are frequently written in exposed form with separating spaces, Dutch ( like the other Germanic languages ) either uses the closed form without spaces ( boomhut = tree house ) or inserts a hyphenate ( VVD-coryfee = outstanding member of the VVD, a political party ). Like german, Dutch allows randomly long compounds, but the longer they get, the less frequent they tend to be. The longest dangerous entrance in the Van Dale dictionary is ( help · information ) ( ceasefire negotiation ). Leafing through the articles of association ( Statuten ) one may come across a 30-letter ( help · information ) ( mandate of theatrical performance ). An even longer give voice cropping up in official documents is ziektekostenverzekeringsmaatschappij ( health policy company ) though the inadequate zorgverzekeraar ( health insurance company ) is more common. Notwithstanding official spell rules, some Dutch-speaking people, like some Scandinavians and german speakers, nowadays tend to write the parts of a compound individually, a practice sometimes dubbed de Engelse ziekte ( the English disease ). [ 119 ]
vocabulary [edit ]
Dutch vocabulary is predominantly Germanic in origin, with loanwords accounting for 20 %. [ 120 ] The main extraneous influence on Dutch vocabulary since the twelfth hundred and culminate in the french period has been french and ( northern ) Oïl languages, accounting for an calculate 6.8 % of all words, or more than a third of all loanwords. Latin, which was spoken in the southern Low Countries for centuries and then played a major character as the terminology of skill and religion, follows with 6.1 %. high german and low German were influential until the mid-19th hundred and explanation for 2.7 %, but they are by and large unrecognizable since many have been “ Dutchified ” : german Fremdling → Dutch vreemdeling. Dutch has borrowed words from English since the mid-19th century, as a consequence of the increasing baron and influence of Britain and the United States. english loanwords are about 1.5 %, but continue to increase. [ 121 ] Many English loanwords become less visible all over time as they are either gradually replaced by calques ( skyscraper became Dutch wolkenkrabber ) or neologism ( bucket list became loodjeslijst ). conversely, Dutch contributed many loanwords to English, accounting for 1.3 % of its dictionary. [ 122 ] The chief Dutch dictionary is the Van Dale groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal, which contains some 268,826 headwords. [ 123 ] In the field of linguistics, the 45,000-page Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal is besides wide used. That scholarly enterprise took 147 years to complete and contains all recorded Dutch words from the early Middle Ages ahead .
Spelling and writing system [edit ]
lijnbus (“line/route” + “bus”; the tram lane also serves as bus road). dutch uses the digraph IJ as a individual letter and it can be seen in several variations. here, a marking saying ( “ line/route ” + “ bus ” ; the tramway lane besides serves as bus topology road ). dutch is written using the Latin script. dutch uses one extra character beyond the standard rudiment, the digraph IJ. It has a relatively senior high school proportion of double letters, both vowels and consonants, due to the geological formation of compound words and besides to the spelling devices for distinguishing the many vowel sounds in the dutch linguistic process. An model of five consecutive doubled letters is the word voorraaddoos ( food repositing container ). The umlaut ( dutch : trema ) is used to mark vowels that are pronounced individually when involving a pre- or suffix, and a hyphen is used when the problem occurs in compound words. For exemplar ; “ be ïnvloed ” ( influenced ), de zee ën ( the sea ) but zee-eend ( scoter ; litt : sea duck ). generally, early diacritic marks occur only in loanwords. however, the acuate stress can besides be used for emphasis or to differentiate between two forms, and its most common practice is to differentiate between the indefinite article ‘een ‘ /ən/ ( a, an ) and the numeral ‘één ‘ /e : n/ ( one ). Since the 1980s, the dutch Language Union has been given the mandate to review and make recommendations on the official spell of Dutch. Spelling reforms undertaken by the union occurred in 1995 and 2005. In the Netherlands, the official spell is presently given legal basis by the Spelling Act of 15 September 2005. [ normality 13 ] [ n 14 ] The Spelling Act gives the Committee of Ministers of the dutch Language Union the authority to determine the spell of dutch by ministerial decisiveness. In addition, the police requires that this spell be followed “ at the governmental bodies, at educational institutions funded from the public purse, american samoa well as at the examination for which legal requirements have been established ”. In other cases, it is recommended, but it is not mandate to follow the official spell. The Decree on the Spelling Regulations 2005 of 2006 contains the annex spell rules decided by the Committee of Ministers on 25 April 2005. [ nitrogen 15 ] [ n 16 ] In Flanders, the lapp spell rules are presently applied by the Decree of the flemish Government Establishing the Rules of the Official Spelling and Grammar of the dutch language of 30 June 2006. [ n 17 ] The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal, more normally known as “ het groene boekje “ ( i.e. “ the green booklet ”, because of its semblance ), is the authoritative orthographic password list ( without definitions ) of the dutch Language Union ; a interpretation with definitions can be had as Het Groene Woordenboek ; both are published by Sdu .
Example text [edit ]
The Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in dutch :
- Alle mensen worden vrij en gelijk in waardigheid en rechten geboren. Zij zijn begiftigd met verstand en geweten, en behoren zich jegens elkander in een geest van broederschap te gedragen.
The Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English :
- All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
Citations [edit ]
General references [edit ]
Dutch language at Wikipedia’s at Wikipedia ‘s
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