But I wasn ’ t fix when, as we walked into a beautiful beach golf club on the Aegean seashore, he grumbled, “ What are we going to do ? ”
“ What do you mean ? ” I said. “ Lie polish, enjoy the sun and the sea. ”
“ But what about the things to do – beach volleyball, Frisbees, urine sports ? ”
“ There international relations and security network ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate any of that. We ’ re barely here to relax. ”
This was the first time I got a smell of our cultural differences. He ’ second american and I ’ thousand Turkish. He needed to “ do stuff. ” I wanted to chill. Over the years, he became better at relaxing – more turkish, if you will .
But I started noticing all the ways the imperative to “ do stuff ” kept marching along in the U.S .
It morphed and migrated into pithy catchphrases like YOLO – “ you only live once ” – and “ rise and grind. ” I saw it in the room people bragged about how busy they were, as if it were a badge of respect. And I noticed it in the heighten of “ hustle culture, ” or the collective recommend to get a much done in arsenic little clock time as possible, while constantly keeping an center on the next opportunity .
Underlying all of it is the impression that resting or restful is a waste of time .
I wondered : How might these attitudes influence people ’ sulfur wellbeing ? And are some cultures more probable than others to promote such beliefs ?
Ruining all the fun
In a series of new studies I conducted with fellow commercialize professors Gabbie Tonietto, Rebecca Reczek and Mike Norton, we took a jab at finding some answers .
In one cogitation, 141 undergraduate students participated at our behavioral lab at the Ohio State University. They arrived to complete a series of surveys in which we asked them the extent to which they agreed with certain statements – “ Time spend on leisure activities is often waste clock, ” “ Most leisure activities are a way to burn clock time ” – that measured whether they endorsed the idea that leisure is otiose .
During these differently humdrum and boring studies, participants watched four funny story and democratic YouTube video that were rated entertaining by a different rig of participants. After watching all four videos, participants indicated how a lot they enjoyed them .
We found that participants who believed leisure to be wasteful didn ’ t enjoy the television as a lot .
In a follow-up learn, we asked participants to indicate how much they enjoyed engaging in a variety of at leisure experiences – some active agent, like exercising, and some passive, like watching television. Others were social – hanging out with friends – or hermit, such as study .
We found that those who viewed leisure as wasteful tended to get less enjoyment out of all of the different types of activities. furthermore, these people were besides more probable to be stressed, anxious and depress.
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An attitude that’s tough to shake
In a different sketch, we wanted to see the extent to which this was a uniquely american phenomenon. So we recruited participants from France, the U.S. and India – countries chosen for being low, medium and high, respectively, on Hofstede ’ s industry-indulgence dimension, which captures the extent to which a given culture is work-oriented and values autonomy .
We asked them to indicate the degree to which they agreed with the idea that leisure is wasteful. consistent with the prevail stereotypes, there were far fewer french participants who believed that leisure was uneconomical compared to American and, particularly, indian ones .
But french people who held a negative view of leisure were a likely to be stressed, anxious and depressed as their american and indian counterparts. indeed while Americans and Indians might more readily believe that leisure is wasteful, the consequences of holding this impression are universal .
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a marked impression on the way we live, work and socialize. During this menstruation, many people have taken a step second and reevaluated their priorities .
We wondered whether people ’ s attitudes toward leisure had shifted. Since we had data from both pre- and post-pandemic studies, we were able to compare the two .
To our surprise, we didn ’ thyroxine find any evidence of these beliefs declining after the pandemic .
To us, this revealed how entrenched the belief that leisure is wasteful can be .
Another study affirmed it. In this one, participants read an article that either discussed the efficacy of coffee makers or described leisure in one of three potential ways : wasteful, unproductive or fat. Participants then played the video game Tetris for five minutes and told us how enjoyable it was. We found that those who read an article describing leisure as wasteful and unproductive didn ’ metric ton enjoy the game a much as those who read about leisure being productive or read about chocolate makers .
however, describing leisure as fat didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate increase use beyond its service line levels. So it appears that framing leisure as productive – say, as a good way to manage stress or recharge your batteries – doesn ’ thymine increase how much people enjoy leisure .
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Not all leisure is equal
In the studies I described above, we focused entirely on what psychologists call “ terminal leisure ” – leisure that takes place strictly for enjoyment .
This differs from “ implemental leisure ” – leisure that might serve a larger purpose, like making friends or staying healthy, and therefore feels more generative .
So we explored whether the negative attitudes toward leisure would be less damaging for instrumental leisure activities.
In 2019, on the Monday after Halloween, we asked participants to recall what they did and tell us how much they enjoyed it. We found the belief that leisure was wasteful was peculiarly damaging for the enjoyment of terminal activities like going to a party. On the early hired hand, it boosted the enjoyment of implemental activities, such as taking their kids trick-or-treating, which could be seen as a bonding experience .
The full news ? Whether a detail action is terminal or instrumental leisure is relative and depends on the person and the site. For case, people may exercise for fun ( a terminal motivation ) or to lose weight ( an instrumental motivation ). The frame can constantly be changed .
It might not be easy to change what you believe about leisure. But by reframing at leisure activities as instrumental, more people can hopefully reap their true benefits : satisfaction, convalescence, improved genial health – and, yes, chilling on the beach for the sake of chilling on the beach .