Geography of Hungary – Wikipedia

Hungary is a landlocked country in East-Central Europe with a land area of 93,030 square kilometer. It measures about 250 km from north to south and 524 kilometer from east to west. It has 2,106 kilometer of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeastern, and Slovakia to the north. Hungary ‘s modern borders were beginning established after World War I when, by the terms of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, it lost more than 71 % of what had once been the Kingdom of Hungary, 58.5 % of its population, and 32 % of the Hungarians. The nation secured some limit revisions from 1938 to 1941 : In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1939 Hungary occupied Carpatho-Ukraine. In 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and finally Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. however, Hungary lost these territories again with its kill in World War II. After World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a little revision that benefited Czechoslovakia. Most of the country has an elevation of less than 200 m. Although Hungary has several reasonably high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 megabyte or more shroud less than 2 % of the nation. The highest item in the area is Kékes ( 1,014 m ) in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest. The lowest spot is 77.6 meter above sea flush, located in the south of Hungary, near Szeged. The major rivers in the nation are the Danube and Tisza. The Danube is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 kilometer in the state. Less significant rivers include the Drava along the croatian molding, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, and the Ipoly along the slovakian bound. Hungary has three major lakes. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 kilometer long and from 3 to 14 km broad, with an area of 600 square kilometer. [ 1 ] Hungarians often refer to it as the Hungarian Sea. It is Central Europe ‘s largest fresh water lake and an significant refreshment area. Its shoal waters offer adept summer swim, and in winter its freeze surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence ( 26 squarely kilometer ) in Fejér County and Lake Fertő ( Neusiedler See —about 82 square kilometer within Hungary ), and the artificial Lake Tisza.

Hungary has three major geographic regions ( which are subdivided to seven smaller ones ) : the Great Alföld, lying east of the Danube River ; the Transdanubia, a cragged region lying west of the Danube and extending to the austrian foothills of the Alps ; and the North Hungarian Mountains, which is a cragged and cragged state beyond the northern boundary of the Great Hungarian Plain. The country ‘s best natural resource is fecund land, although dirt quality varies greatly. About 70 % of the area ‘s total territory is suitable for department of agriculture ; of this share, 72 % is arable estate. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development .

Plains and hills [edit ]

The Little Alföld or Little hungarian Plain is a plain ( tectonic basin ) of approximately 8,000 km2 in northwestern Hungary, southwest Slovakia and easterly Austria, along the lower course of the Rába River, with high gear timbre fecund soils. The Transdanubia area lies in the western share of the state, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River, and the end of the country ‘s margin with Slovenia and Croatia. It lies south and west of the course of the Danube. It contains Lake Fertő and Lake Balaton. The area consists largely of rolling hills. Transdanubia is primarily an agricultural sphere, with booming crops, livestock, and viticulture. Mineral deposits and anoint are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia. The Great Alföld contains the basin of the Tisza River and its branches. It encompasses more than half of the nation ‘s territory. Bordered by mountains on all sides, it has a variety show of terrains, including regions of fat territory, arenaceous areas, wastelands, and boggy areas. Hungarians have inhabited the Great Plain for at least a millennium. here is found the puszta, a hanker, and lowbrow sweep ( the most celebrated such area hush in being is the Hortobágy National Park ), with which much Hungarian folklore is associated. In earlier centuries, the Great Plain was unsuitable for farming because of patronize deluge. alternatively, it was the home of massive herds of cattle and horses. In the last one-half of the nineteenth century, the government sponsored programs to control the riverways and expedite inland drain in the Great Plain. With the danger of perennial flooding largely eliminated, much of the domain was placed under cultivation, and herding ceased to be a major contributor to the area ‘s economy .

Mountains [edit ]

Although the majority of the area has an elevation lesser than 300 m, Hungary has several reasonably high ranges of mountains. They can be classified to four geographic regions, from west to east : Alpokalja, Transdanubian Mountains, Mecsek and North Hungarian Mountains. Alpokalja ( literally the foothills of the Alps ) is located along the austrian border ; its highest indicate is Írott-kő with an elevation of 882 metres. The Transdanubian Mountains elongate from the west separate of Lake Balaton to the Danube Bend near Budapest, where it meets the North hungarian Mountains. Its tallest vertex is the 757 meter high Pilis. Mecsek is the southernmost Hungarian mountain crop, located north from Pécs – Its highest point is the Zengő with 682 metres. The North hungarian Mountains lie north of Budapest and run in a northeasterly management south of the border with Slovakia. The higher ridges, which are by and large forested, have rich char and cast-iron deposits. Minerals are a major resource of the area and have long been the basis of the industrial economies of cities in the area. viticulture is besides authoritative, producing the celebrated Tokaji wine. The highest vertex of it is the Kékes, located in the Mátra mountain range .

Highest autonomous peaks [edit ]

climate [edit ]

Hungary map of Köppen climate classification. Hungary has a chiefly continental climate, with cold winters and warm to hot summers. The modal annual temperature is about 10 °C ( 50 °F ), in summer 27 to 35 °C ( 81 to 95 °F ), and in winter 0 to −15 °C ( 32 to 5 °F ), with extremes ranging from about 42 °C ( 108 °F ) in summer to −35 °C ( −31 °F ) in winter. average annually rain is about 600 mm ( 23.6 in ). distribution and frequency of rain are unpredictable. The westerly part of the area normally receives more rain than the eastern function, where hard droughts may occur in summer. Weather conditions in the Great Plain can be specially harsh, with blistering summers, cold winters, and scant rain. By the 1980s, the countryside was beginning to show the effects of pollution, both from herbicides used in farming and from industrial pollutants. Most noticeable was the gradual contamination of the nation ‘s bodies of water, endangering fish and wildlife. Although concern was mounting over these disturbing threats to the environment, no major steps had so far been taken to arrest them .

Rivers and lakes [edit ]

The springs of the major hungarian rivers are outside the state. The two most significant rivers, the Danube and the Tisza are navigable on their solid hungarian length. They have several tributaries .
Name Length in Hungary
Danube 417 km
Tisza 596 km
Leitha 180 km
Rába 211 km
Zala 139 km
Dráva 125 km
Ipoly 143 km
Zagyva 160 km
Sajó 125 km
Hernád 118 km
Bodrog 52 km
Maros 48 km
Hungary has several bodies of urine, including the greatest lake of Central Europe, Lake Balaton, which is a celebrated tourist destination. Lake Hévíz, the largest thermal lake in the worldly concern ( 47,500 square metres in area ) is located in Hungary angstrom well. The Lake Cave ( Hungarian: Barlangtó ) of Tapolca is besides celebrated as being a sub-surface lake. major lakes include :
Name Surface in Hungary
Balaton 596 km2
Tisza (artificial) 127 km2
Fertő 75 km2
Velence 26 km2

farming [edit ]

Wheat field, Hungary Hungary, with its plains and cragged regions, is highly desirable for agribusiness .

arable estate [edit ]

Doubtless, one of Hungary ‘s most important natural resources is arable land. It covers about 48.57 % of the country, which is outstanding in the global ( see the relate map ). The mass majority of the fat dirt has a good quality. The most important agricultural zones are the Little hungarian Plain ( it has the highest quality prolific territory in average ), Transdanubia, and the Great Hungarian Plain. The survive covers more than half of the state ( 52,000 km2 in total ), whereas soil quality varies highly ; the territory even contains a small, grassy semi-desert, the alleged puszta ( steppe in English ). Puszta is exploited by sheep and cattle raising. The most crucial hungarian agrarian products include corn, pale yellow, barley, oat, sunflower, poppy, potato, millet, sugar-beet, flax, and many other plants. There are besides some newly naturalized plants excessively, for example amaranth. Poppy sow is part of the traditional hungarian cuisine .
A greengrocer ‘s in Hungary The country is well known for producing high quality peppers, which are often made into paprika. There are numerous fruits reared, including many subspecies of apple, pear, peach, grapeshot, apricot, watermelon, cantaloupe, etc. Hungary does not grow any GMO products, therefore these products are chiefly imported from the United States. They can not, however, be distributed without a mark on the wrap. [ citation needed ]

viticulture [edit ]

Wine product has a long history in Hungary. There are two languages in Europe in which the news for “ wine ” does not derive from the Latin, being greek – and Hungarian. The hungarian discussion is bor. viticulture has been recorded in the territory of today ‘s Hungary since the Roman times, who were creditworthy for the introduction of the polish of wines. The arrive Hungarians took over the exercise and have maintained it ever since. today, there are numerous wine regions in Hungary, producing quality and cheap wines deoxyadenosine monophosphate well, comparable to western european ones. The majority of the nation ‘s wine regions are located in the mountains or in the hills, such as Transdanubian Mountains, North Hungarian Mountains, Villány Mountains, and then on. significant ones include the regions of Eger, Hajós, Somló, Sopron, Villány, Szekszárd, and Tokaj-Hegyalja.

forestry [edit ]

19 % of the country is covered by forests. These are chiefly mountainous areas, such as the North Hungarian and the Transdanubian Mountains, and the Alpokalja. The constitution of forests is versatile, with trees like fir, beech, oak, willow, acacia, plane, etc .

political geography [edit ]

Hungary ‘s stream counties are largely based on the area ‘s historic regions. The counties are subdivided into districts ( járás ), and these are further divided into municipalities ( település ). Hungary has 19 counties, 174 districts + 23 districts in Budapest and 2,722 municipality .

Area and boundaries [edit ]

area [edit ]

  • Total: 93,030 km2
country comparison to the world: 108th
  • Land: 92,340 km2
  • Water: 690 km2 (0.74% of total land area)

Boundaries [edit ]

  • Land boundaries: total: 2,009 km (1,248 mi).
  • Border countries and length:  Austria: 366 km (227 mi),  Slovakia: 679 km (422 mi),  Ukraine: 103 km (64 mi),  Romania: 443 km (275 mi),  Serbia: 151 km (94 mi),  Croatia: 329 km (204 mi) and  Slovenia: 102 km (63 mi)

Area comparison [edit ]

Resources and land use [edit ]

environmental concerns [edit ]

Natural hazards: casual flood National parks Environment – current issues: The approximation of Hungary ‘s standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and publicize, land, and water contamination with environmental requirements for EU accession will require boastfully investments. Environment – international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental protocol Geography – note: landlocked ; strategic location astride chief land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula a well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

extreme points [edit ]

elevation [edit ]

Latitude and longitude [edit ]

center [edit ]

Pictures [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

source :
Category : Education

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai.