Humboldt University of Berlin ( german : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin ) is a populace research university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the enterprise of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin ( Universität zu Berlin ) in 1809, and opened in 1810, [ 6 ] making it the oldest of Berlin ‘s four universities. From 1810 until its closing in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University ( german : Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität ). [ 7 ] [ 8 ] During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto schism in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin. The university received its current mention in honor of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. [ 9 ] The university is divided into nine faculties, including its aesculapian school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a scholar registration of around 32,000 students, and offers academic degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level. [ 10 ] Its main campus is located on the Unter lair Linden avenue in central Berlin. The university is known global for pioneering the Humboldtian exemplary of higher education, which has powerfully influenced other european and western universities. [ 11 ]
It was regarded as the populace ‘s leading university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early twentieth hundred, as the university is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors, such as Albert Einstein. [ 12 ] Past and introduce staff and noteworthy alumni include 57 Nobel Prize laureates [ 5 ] ( the most of any german university by a significant margin ), deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as eminent philosophers, sociologists, artists, lawyers, politicians, mathematicians, scientists, and Heads of State ; among them are Albert Einstein, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Otto von Bismarck, W. E. B. Du Bois, Angela Davis, Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Walter Benjamin, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Karl Liebknecht, Ernst Cassirer, Heinrich Heine, Max Planck and the Brothers Grimm. As one of Germany ‘s most esteemed institutions of higher education, Humboldt University of Berlin has been conferred the claim of “ University of Excellence ” under the german Universities Excellence Initiative .
history [edit ]
chief build [edit ]
The main build up of Humboldt University is the Prinz-Heinrich-Palais ( english : Prince Henry’s Palace ) on Unter den Linden avenue in the historic center of Berlin. It was erected from 1748 to 1753 for Prince Henry of Prussia, the brother of Frederick the Great, according to plans by Johann Boumann in Baroque style. In 1809, the former Royal Prussian residence was converted into a university build up. Damaged during the Allied fail in World War II, it was rebuilt from 1949 to 1962. [ 13 ] In 1967, eight statues from the destroy Potsdam City Palace were placed on the side wings of the university build. Currently there is discussion about returning the statues to the Potsdam City Palace, which was rebuilt as the Landtag of Brandenburg in 2013. [ 14 ]
early history [edit ]
Statue of Wilhelm von Humboldt in front of the chief build by artist Paul Otto. The University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the first step of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the prussian Reform Movement. The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748 to 1766 [ 15 ] for the late Prince Henry, the younger buddy of Frederick the Great. [ 16 ] After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the build in the winter of 1809. [ 16 ] Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas as he set up the university. He submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, and was not present when the school opened that descent. [ 1 ] The first gear students were admitted on 6 October 1810, and the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers [ 9 ] in faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy under curate Theodor Schmalz. The university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the go steady of its open. [ 1 ] From 1828 to 1945, the educate was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach, then one of the students, made a gloss on the university in 1826 : “ There is no question here of drink, duelling and pleasant communal outings ; in no other university can you find such a passion for work, such an sake for things that are not petit larceny student intrigues, such an dip for the sciences, such composure and such hush. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like populace houses. ” [ 17 ] The university has been home to many of Germany ‘s greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the immanent idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the romanticist legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the aim idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and celebrated physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck .
Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1850 The founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, african American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, arsenic well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s. The structure of german research-intensive universities served as a exemplary for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that “ the ‘Humboldtian ‘ university became a model for the rest of Europe [ … ] with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the solve of the individual learner or scientist. ” [ 18 ]
expansion [edit ]
In addition to the firm anchor of traditional subjects, such as science, law, doctrine, history, theology and music, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new memorize. With the construction of modern inquiry facilities in the second half of the nineteenth Century education of the natural sciences began. celebrated researchers, such as the pharmacist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University ‘s scientific fame .
 Friedrich Wilhelm University became an emulate model of a modern university in the nineteenth century ( photochrom from 1900 ). During this period of expansion, the university gradually expanded to incorporate other previously separate colleges in Berlin. An model would be the Charité, the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1710, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the “ soldier king ” Friedrich Wilhelm : “ Es soll hyrax Haus die Charité heißen ” ( It will be called Charité [ French for charity ] ). By 1829 the site became the Friedrich Wilhelm University ‘s aesculapian campus and remained so until 1927 when the more modern University Hospital was constructed. The university started a natural history solicitation in 1810, which, by 1889 required a freestanding build and became the Museum für Naturkunde. The preexisting Tierarznei School, founded in 1790 and absorbed by the university, in 1934 formed the basis of the Veterinary Medicine Facility ( Grundstock five hundred Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät ). besides the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule Berlin ( Agricultural University of Berlin ), founded in 1881 was affiliated with the Agricultural Faculties of the university. In August 1870, in a speech delivered at the University of Berlin, Emil du Bois-Reymond proclaimed ‘the University of Berlin, quartered opposite the King ‘s palace, are, by the act of our foundation, the cerebral bodyguard of the house of Hohenzollern ( geistige Leibregiment des Hauses Hohenzollern ). ‘ [ 20 ]
Third Reich [edit ]
Friedrich Wilhelm University in 1938 After 1933, like all german universities, Friedrich Wilhelm University was affected by the Nazi government. The curate during this period was Eugen Fischer. It was from the university ‘s library that some 20,000 books by “ degenerates “ and opponents of the regimen were taken to be burned on May 10 of that year in the Opernplatz ( now the Bebelplatz ) for a demonstration protected by the SA that besides featured a speech by Joseph Goebbels. A memorial to this can now be found in the center of the feather, consisting of a methamphetamine jury opening onto an metro white board with vacate ledge space for 20,000 volumes and a brass, bearing an epigraph from an 1820 sour by Heinrich Heine : “ Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen ” ( “ This was but a prelude ; where they burn books, they ultimately burn people ” ). The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service ( german “ Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums ” ) resulted in 250 jewish professors and employees being fired from Friedrich Wilhelm University during 1933–1934 and numerous doctorates being swallow. Students and scholars and political opponents of Nazis were ejected from the university and often extradite. During this time about one third of all of the staff were fired by the Nazis .
Cold War [edit ]
Humboldt University, 1950 Humboldt University in 1964 During the Cold War, the university was located in East Berlin. It reopened in 1946 as the University of Berlin, but faced repression from the soviet military administration in Germany, including the persecution of broad and social democrat students. Almost immediately, the soviet occupiers started persecuting non-communists and suppressing academic exemption at the university, requiring lectures to be submitted for approval by Socialist Unity Party officials, and piped soviet propaganda into the cafeteria. This led to strong protests within the scholar body and faculty. NKVD clandestine patrol arrested a act of students in March 1947 as a response. The soviet military court in Berlin-Lichtenberg ruled the students were involved in the formation of a “ resistor drift at the University of Berlin ”, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as espionage, and were sentenced to 25 years of forced labor. From 1945 to 1948, 18 early students and teachers were arrested or abducted, many gone for weeks, and some taken to the Soviet Union and executed. Many of the students targeted by soviet persecution were active in the liberal or sociable democratic resistance against the Soviet-imposed communist “ dictatorship ” ; the german communist party had regarded the sociable democrats as their main enemies since the early days of the Weimar Republic. [ 21 ] During the Berlin Blockade, the Free University of Berlin was established as a de facto western successor in West Berlin in 1948, with support from the United States, and retaining traditions and faculty members of the old Friedrich Wilhelm University. The name of the Free University refers to West Berlin ‘s perceived condition as partially of the western “ free world, ” in contrast to the “ unfree ” communist worldly concern in general and the “ unfree ” communist-controlled university in East Berlin in particular. [ 21 ] Since the historical name, Friedrich Wilhelm University, had monarchal origins, the school was officially renamed in 1949. Although the soviet occupational authorities preferred to name the school after a communist leader, university leaders were able to name it Humboldt University of Berlin, after the two Humboldt brothers, a name that was uncontroversial besides in the west and capitalized on the fame of the Humboldt name, which is associated with the Humboldtian model of higher education. [ 22 ]
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Modern Germany [edit ]
After the german reunion, the university was radically restructured under the Structure and Appointment Commissions, which were presided by west german professors. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] For departments on social sciences and humanities, the staff was subjected to a “ elimination ” work, in which contracts of employees were terminated and positions were made exposed to new academics, chiefly West Germans. Older professors were offered early retirement. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The east german higher education system included a much larger number of permanent wave adjunct professors, lecturers and other middle flush academic positions. After reunion, these positions were abolished or converted to impermanent posts for consistency with the west german system. [ 26 ] As a result, only 10 % of the mid-level academics in Humboldt University even had a position in 1998. [ 24 ] Through the transformations, the university ‘s research and central links with eastern european institutions were maintained and stabilized. [ 23 ] today, Humboldt University is a state university with a bombastic number of students ( 36,986 in 2014, among them more than 4,662 extraneous students ) after the mannequin of west german universities, and like its counterpart the Free University of Berlin. The university consists of three different campuses, namely Campus Mitte, Campus Nord and Campus Adlershof. Its independent build is located in the center of Berlin at the avenue Unter lair Linden and is the heart of Campus Mitte. The build was erected on order by King Frederick II for his younger brother Prince Henry of Prussia. All the institutes of humanities are located around the main construction together with the Department of Law and the Department of Business and Economics. Campus Nord is located north of the main build close to Berlin Hauptbahnhof and is the home of the life science departments including the university medical focus on Charité. The natural sciences, together with computer skill and mathematics, are located at Campus Adlershof in the southeast of Berlin. Furthermore, the university continues its custom of a book sale at the university gates facing Bebelplatz .
organization [edit ]
The Berlin Natural History Museum ( shown here photographed in 2005 ) is one of the largest natural history museums in the universe. Founded alongside the University of Berlin in 1810 it left the Humboldt University in 2009. These are the nine faculties into which the university is divided : [ 27 ] furthermore, there are two independent institutes ( Zentralinstitute ) that are region of the university :
library [edit ]
The early Royal Library, immediately seat of the Faculty of Law When the Royal Library proved insufficient, a new library was founded in 1831, first located in several temp sites. In 1871–1874 a library build up was constructed, following the blueprint of architect Paul Emanuel Spieker. In 1910 the collection was relocated to the construct of the Berlin State Library. During the Weimar Period the library contained 831,934 volumes ( 1930 ) and was frankincense one of the leading university libraries in Germany at that time. During the Nazi book burnings in 1933, no volumes from the university library were destroyed. The loss through World War II was relatively little. In 2003, natural science-related books were outhoused to the newly founded library at the Adlershof campus, which is dedicated entirely to the natural sciences. Since the premises of the State Library had to be cleared in 2005, a new library building was erected close to the main build in the center of Berlin. The “ Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum ” ( Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Centre, Grimm Zentrum, or GZ as referred to by students ) opened in 2009. In sum, the university library contains about 6.5 million volumes and 9,000 held magazines and journals, and is one of the biggest university libraries in Germany. The books of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft were destroyed during the Nazi book burnings, and the institute destroy. Under the terms of the Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation, the government had agreed to continue the influence of the institute at the university after its founder ‘s death. however, these terms were ignored. In 2001, the university acquired the Archive for Sexology from the Robert Koch Institute, which was founded with a large secret library donated by Erwin J. Haeberle. This has nowadays been housed at the raw Magnus Hirschfeld Center. [ 28 ]
Academics [edit ]
Rankings [edit ]
Measured by the issue of top managers in the german economy, Humboldt University ranked 53rd in 2019. [ 32 ] In 2020 the british QS World University Rankings ranked Humboldt University 117th overall in the worldly concern and 4th best in Germany. Its global subject rankings were : 15th in Arts & Humanities, 13th in Philosophy and 7th in Classics & Ancient History. [ 33 ] The british Times Higher Education World University Ranking 2019 listed Humboldt-University as the 67th best university in the earth, 20th best in the Arts & Humanities, and 4th best in Germany. [ 34 ] In 2020, the American U.S. News & World Report listed Humboldt-University as the 82nd best in the global, climbing eight positions. Being among the 100 best in the global in 17 areas of 29 ranked. [ 35 ]
International partnerships [edit ]
HU students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the University of Warwick, Princeton University, and the University of Vienna .
luminary alumni and faculty [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
far reading [edit ]
- Ash, Mitchell G., “Bachelor of What, Master of Whom? The Humboldt Myth and Historical Transformations of Higher Education in German‐Speaking Europe and the U.S.” European Journal of Education 41.2 (2006): 245-267 online.
- McClelland, Charles E. Berlin, the Mother of All Research Universities, 1860–1918 (Lexington Books, 2016). excerpt
- McClelland, Charles E. State, Society and University in Germany 1700–1914 (1980)
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