Google – Wikipedia

American multinational engineering company
This article is about the company. For the search engine, see Google Search. For other uses, see Google ( disambiguation ) not to be confused with googol

Google LLC is an american multinational engineering caller that specializes in Internet -related services and products, which include a search engine, on-line advertise technologies, cloud computer science, software, and hardware. Google ’ sulfur parent company Alphabet Inc. is considered one of the Big Five American information technology companies, aboard Amazon, Apple, Meta and Microsoft. Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were PhD students at Stanford University in California. together they own about 14 % of its publicly listed shares and control 56 % of the stockholder vote power through super-voting stock. The party went public via an initial public offer ( IPO ) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly-owned subordinate of Alphabet Inc. . Google is Alphabet ‘s largest auxiliary and is a holding company for Alphabet ‘s Internet properties and interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the chief executive officer of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai besides became the chief executive officer of Alphabet. [ 10 ] In 2021, the Alphabet Workers Union was founded, chiefly composed of Google employees. [ 11 ] The company ‘s rapid growth since incorporation has included products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google ‘s core search engine, ( Google Search ). It offers services designed for workplace and productivity ( Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides ), email ( Gmail ), scheduling and time management ( Google Calendar ), cloud storage ( Google Drive ), instant message and video chat ( Google Duo, Google Chat, and Google Meet ), terminology translation ( Google Translate ), mapping and navigation ( Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, and Street View ), podcast host ( Google Podcasts ), television communion ( YouTube ), blog publish ( Blogger ), note-taking ( Google Keep and Jamboard ), and photograph organize and edit ( Google Photos ). The company leads the growth of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome network browser, and Chrome OS ( a whippersnapper, proprietary operate system based on the free and open-source Chromium OS operating arrangement ). Google has moved increasingly into hardware ; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Google Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in 2016, including the Google Pixel course of smartphones, Google Home fresh speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router. Google has besides experimented with becoming an Internet mailman ( Google Fiber and Google Fi ). Google.com is the most visit web site worldwide. several other Google-owned websites besides are on the tilt of most democratic websites, including YouTube and Blogger. [ 12 ] On the number of most valuable brands, Google is ranked irregular by Forbes [ 13 ] and fourth by Interbrand. [ 14 ] It has received meaning criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, censoring, search neutrality, antimonopoly and misuse of its monopoly position .

history

early years

Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] The project initially involved an unofficial “ third base collapse ”, Scott Hassan, the original lead programmer who wrote much of the code for the master Google Search engine, but he left before Google was officially founded as a party ; [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Hassan went on to pursue a career in robotics and founded the company Willow Garage in 2006. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] While conventional research engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the foliate, they theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites. [ 22 ] They called this algorithm PageRank ; it determined a web site ‘s relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages that linked back to the original site. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Page told his ideas to Hassan, who began writing the code to implement Page ‘s ideas. [ 18 ] page and Brin originally nicknamed the new search locomotive “ BackRub “, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a locate. [ 15 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Hassan equally well as Alan Steremberg were cited by page and Brin as being critical to the development of Google. Rajeev Motwani and Terry Winograd former co-authored with Page and Brin the beginning newspaper about the project, describing PageRank and the initial prototype of the Google search engine, published in 1998. Héctor García-Molina and Jeff Ullman were besides cited as contributors to the project. [ 27 ] PageRank was influenced by a like page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for RankDex, developed by Robin Li in 1996, with Larry Page ‘s PageRank patent including a citation to Li ‘s earlier RankDex patent ; Li late went on to create the chinese search engine Baidu. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] finally, they changed the name to Google ; the identify of the search engine was a play on the word googol, [ 15 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] a very big number written 10100 ( 1 followed by 100 zeros ), picked to signify that the search locomotive was intended to provide big quantities of information. [ 32 ] Google's homepage in 1998 [33] Google ‘s original home page had a simple design because the company founders had little experience in HTML, the markup linguistic process used for designing web pages. The sphere name www.google.com was registered on September 15, 1997, [ 34 ] and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of Susan Wojcicki [ 17 ] in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a mate PhD scholar at Stanford, was hired as the inaugural employee. [ 17 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Google was initially funded by an August 1998 investment of $ 100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, [ 15 ] co-founder of Sun Microsystems, a few weeks anterior to September 7, 1998, the day Google was formally incorporated. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Google received money from three other saint investors in 1998 : Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University calculator science professor David Cheriton, and entrepreneur Ram Shriram. [ 39 ] Between these initial investors, friends, and family Google raised around $ 1,000,000, which is what allowed them to open up their original denounce in Menlo Park, California. [ 40 ] After some extra, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, [ 39 ] a new $ 25 million round of financing was announced on June 7, 1999, [ 41 ] with major investors including the guess capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. [ 38 ]

increase

In March 1999, the party moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, [ 42 ] which is base to several big Silicon Valley engineering start-ups. [ 43 ] The future class, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin ‘s initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. [ 44 ] [ 17 ] To maintain an unclutter foliate invention, advertisements were entirely text-based. [ 45 ] In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default option search locomotive provider for yokel !, one of the most popular websites at the clock time, replacing Inktomi. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] In 2003, after outgrowing two early locations, the company leased an position complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. [ 49 ] The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the numeral one followed by a googol zero. Three years later, Google bought the property from SGI for $ 319 million. [ 50 ] By that time, the name “ Google ” had found its way into casual linguistic process, causing the verb “ google “ to be added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as : “ to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet ”. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] The first use of the verb on television appeared in an October 2002 episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. [ 53 ] additionally, in 2001 Google ‘s Investors felt the want to have a potent home management, and they agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the president and CEO of Google [ 40 ]

initial populace offer

On August 19, 2004, Google became a public company via an initial public put up. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024. [ 54 ] The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $ 85 per share. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Shares were sold in an on-line auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the conduct. [ 57 ] [ 58 ] The sale of $ 1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $ 23 billion. [ 59 ] On November 13, 2006, Google acquired YouTube for $ 1.65 billion in Google stock, [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] [ 63 ] On March 11, 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for $ 3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] By 2011, Google was handling approximately 3 billion searches per day. To handle this workload, Google built 11 data centers around the earth with respective thousand servers in each. These data centers allowed Google to handle the changing workload more efficiently. [ 40 ] In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] In May 2012, Google acquired Motorola Mobility for $ 12.5 billion, in its largest acquisition to date. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ] This purchase was made in separate to help Google gain Motorola ‘s considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and radio receiver technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with early companies, [ 71 ] chiefly Apple and Microsoft, [ 72 ] and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android. [ 73 ]

2012 forth

In June 2013, Google acquired Waze, a $ 966 million deal. [ 74 ] While Waze would remain an freelancer entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced placement platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and Google Maps, Google ‘s own mapping service. [ 75 ] Google announced the launch of a new company, called Calico, on September 19, 2013, to be led by Apple Inc. president Arthur Levinson. In the official public argument, Page explained that the “ health and wellbeing ” party would focus on “ the challenge of ageing and associated diseases ”. [ 76 ] capture of build where Google and its subordinate Deep Mind are located at 6 Pancras Square, London On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. [ 77 ] Technology news program web site Recode reported that the ship’s company was purchased for $ 400 million, yet the beginning of the information was not disclosed. A Google spokesperson declined to comment on the price. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google ‘s recent emergence in the artificial news and robotics community. [ 80 ] According to Interbrand ‘s annual Best Global Brands reputation, Google has been the second most valuable brand in the earth ( behind Apple Inc. ) in 2013, [ 81 ] 2014, [ 82 ] 2015, [ 83 ] and 2016, with a valuation of $ 133 billion. [ 84 ] On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its assorted interests as a accumulate named Alphabet Inc. Google became Alphabet ‘s largest subsidiary company and the umbrella company for Alphabet ‘s Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became CEO of Alphabet. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ] On August 8, 2017, Google fired employee James Damore after he distributed a memo throughout the company that argued bias and “ Google ‘s Ideological Echo Chamber “ clouded their think about diverseness and inclusion, and that it is besides biological factors, not discrimination entirely, that cause the average womanhood to be less matter to than men in technical positions. [ 88 ] Google CEO Sundar Pichai accused Damore in violating ship’s company policy by “ advancing harmful gender stereotypes in our workplace ”, and he was fired on the same day. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] between 2018 and 2019, tensions between the company ‘s leadership and its workers escalated as staff protested party decisions on inner intimate harassment, Dragonfly, a censored chinese research locomotive, and Project Maven, a military drone artificial news, which had been seen as areas of gross increase for the caller. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] On October 25, 2018, The New York Times published the exposé, “ How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android ‘ ”. The party subsequently announced that “ 48 employees have been fired over the last two years ” for sexual wrongdoing. [ 94 ] On November 1, 2018, more than 20,000 Google employees and contractors staged a ball-shaped walk-out to protest the company ‘s handle of sexual harassment complaints. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] CEO Sundar Pichai was reported to be in confirm of the protests. [ 97 ] by and by in 2019, some workers accused the ship’s company of retaliating against inner activists. [ 93 ] On March 19, 2019, Google announced that it would enter the video game marketplace, launching a cloud gaming platform called Google Stadia. [ 98 ] On June 3, 2019, the United States Department of Justice reported that it would investigate Google for antimonopoly violations. [ 99 ] This led to the filing of an antimonopoly lawsuit in October 2020, on the grounds the company had abused a monopoly side in the search and research advertise markets. [ 100 ] In December 2019, early PayPal chief operating officeholder Bill Ready became Google ‘s modern commerce headman. Ready ‘s function will not be directly involved with Google Pay. [ 101 ] In April 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Google announced several cost-cutting measures. such measures included slowing down hiring for the end of 2020, except for a small total of strategic areas, recalibrating the stress and tempo of investments in areas like datum centers and machines, and non-business essential marketing and travel. [ 102 ] The 2020 Google services outage disrupted Google services : one in August that affected Google Drive among others, another in November affecting YouTube, and a third in December affecting the entire suite of Google applications. All three outages were resolved within hours. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] In January 2021, the australian Government proposed legislation that would require Google and Facebook to pay media companies for the right to use their subject. In reply, Google threatened to close off access to its search engine in Australia. [ 106 ] In March 2021, Google reportedly paid $ 20 million for Ubisoft ports on Google Stadia. [ 107 ] Google spend “ tens of millions of dollars ” on getting major publishers such as Ubisoft and Take-Two to bring some of their biggest games to Stadia. [ 108 ] In April 2021, The Wall Street Journal reported that Google ran a years-long plan called ‘Project Bernanke ‘ that used data from past advertise bids to gain an advantage over competing for ad services. This was revealed in documents concerning the antimonopoly lawsuit filed by ten-spot US states against Google in December. [ 109 ] In September 2021, the australian politics announced plans to curb Google ’ south capability to sell target ads, claiming that the caller has a monopoly on the market harming publishers, advertisers, and consumers. [ 110 ]

Products and services

Search locomotive

Google index billions of web pages to allow users to search for the information they desire through the use of keywords and operators. [ 111 ] According to comScore market research from November 2009, Google Search is the dominant search engine in the United States commercialize, with a market share of 65.6 %. [ 112 ] In May 2017, Google enabled a newfangled “ Personal ” yellow journalism in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts ‘ diverse services, including electronic mail messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Google launched its Google News servicing in 2002, an automated avail which summarizes news articles from versatile websites. [ 115 ] Google besides hosts Google Books, a service which searches the text found in books in its database and shows limited previews or and the wide book where allowed. [ 116 ]

advertise

Google on ad-tech London, 2010 Google generates most of its revenues from advertise. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on Google and YouTube, Android and license and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. forty-six percentage of this profit was from clicks ( monetary value per clicks ), amounting to US $ 109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob, AdSense ( such as AdSense for Content, AdSense for Search, etc. ) and DoubleClick AdExchange. [ 117 ] In addition to its own algorithm for understanding search requests, Google uses technology its acquisition of DoubleClick, to project drug user interest and target advertising to the search context and the exploiter history. [ 118 ] [ 119 ] In 2007, Google launched “ AdSense for Mobile “, taking advantage of the emerging mobile ad market. [ 120 ] Google Analytics allows web site owners to track where and how people use their web site, for case by examining suction stop rates for all the links on a page. [ 121 ] Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a bipartite program. Google Ads allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through a cost-per-click schema. [ 122 ] The sister military service, Google AdSense, allows web site owners to display these advertisements on their web site and earn money every time ads are clicked. [ 123 ] One of the criticisms of this program is the hypothesis of chatter fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being matter to in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percentage of clicks were deceitful or invalid. [ 124 ] Google Search Console ( rebranded from Google Webmaster Tools in May 2015 ) allows webmasters to check the sitemap, crawl rate, and for security issues of their websites, vitamin a well as optimize their web site ‘s visibility .

consumer services

Web-based services

Google offers Gmail for electronic mail, [ 125 ] Google Calendar for time-management and scheduling, [ 126 ] Google Maps for function, navigation and satellite imagination, [ 127 ] Google Drive for obscure storage of files, [ 128 ] Google Docs, Sheets and Slides for productivity, [ 128 ] Google Photos for photograph repositing and sharing, [ 129 ] Google Keep for note-taking, [ 130 ] Google Translate for terminology translation, [ 131 ] YouTube for video recording screening and communion, [ 132 ] Google My Business for managing public business information, [ 133 ] and Duo for social interaction. [ 134 ] In March 2019, Google unveiled a overcast gaming servicing named Stadia. [ 98 ] A job search product has besides existed since before 2017, [ 135 ] [ 136 ] [ 137 ] Google for Jobs is an enhanced search feature that aggregates listings from job boards and career sites. [ 138 ] Some Google services are not web-based. Google Earth, launched in 2005, allowed users to see high-definition satellite pictures from all over the worldly concern for dislodge through a node software downloaded to their computers. [ 139 ]

software

Google develops the Android mobile operating system, [ 140 ] arsenic well as its smartwatch, [ 141 ] television, [ 142 ] cable car, [ 143 ] and Internet of things -enabled ache devices variations. [ 144 ] It besides develops the Google Chrome web browser, [ 145 ] and Chrome OS, an operate system based on Chrome. [ 146 ]

hardware

Google Pixel smartphones on display in a shop In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own stigmatize. [ 147 ] It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the “ Nexus “ branding [ 148 ] until its eventual discontinuance in 2016, replaced by a new trade name called Pixel. [ 149 ] In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, which runs on Chrome OS. [ 150 ] In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, which allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions. [ 151 ] [ 152 ] In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simpleton cardboard viewer that lets drug user place their smartphone in a limited front compartment to view virtual reality ( VR ) media. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] other hardware products include :

enterprise services

Google Workspace ( once G Suite until October 2020 [ 157 ] ) is a monthly subscription offer for organizations and businesses to get entree to a collection of Google ‘s services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with extra administrative tools, unique sphere names, and 24/7 support. [ 158 ] On September 24, 2012, [ 159 ] Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely nonprofit organization occupation incubator providing startups with co-working spaces known as Campuses, with aid to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships. [ 160 ] Presently, there are seven Campus locations : Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw. On March 15, 2016, Google announced the introduction of Google Analytics 360 Suite, “ a determine of desegregate data and market analytics products, designed specifically for the needs of enterprise-class marketers ” which can be integrated with BigQuery on the Google Cloud Platform. Among other things, the suite is designed to help “ enterprise class marketers ” “ see the complete customer travel “, generate “ useful insights ”, and “ deliver engaging experiences to the right people ”. [ 161 ] Jack Marshall of The Wall Street Journal wrote that the suite competes with existing marketing mottle offerings by companies including Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, and IBM. [ 162 ]

Internet services

In February 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project, with experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband net for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more american cities. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] Following Google ‘s corporate restructure to make Alphabet Inc. its parent company, Google Fiber was moved to Alphabet ‘s Access division. [ 165 ] [ 166 ] In April 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual net operator, that combines Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different telecommunication providers in an effort to enable seamless connectivity and fast Internet signal. [ 167 ] [ 168 ]

corporate affairs

Stock price performance and quarterly earnings

Google ‘s initial public offering ( IPO ) took home on August 19, 2004. At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $ 85 per share. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] The sale of $ 1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $ 23 billion. [ 59 ] The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $ 350 for the first time on October 31, 2007, [ 169 ] primarily because of hard sales and earnings in the on-line advertising market. [ 170 ] The surge in stock price was fueled chiefly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and common funds. [ 170 ] GOOG shares split into GOOG class C shares and GOOGL class A shares. [ 171 ] The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock certificate exchange under the ticker symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the watch symbol GGQ1. These heart symbols immediately refer to Alphabet Inc., Google ‘s holding company, since the fourth quarter of 2015. [ 172 ] In the third quarter of 2005, Google reported a 700 % addition in net income, largely due to large companies shifting their advertise strategies from newspapers, magazines, and television receiver to the Internet. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] [ 175 ] For the 2006 fiscal year, the caller reported $ 10.492 billion in sum ad revenues and entirely $ 112 million in license and other revenues. [ 176 ] In 2011, 96 % of Google ‘s gross was derived from its advertising programs. [ 177 ] Google generated $ 50 billion in annual tax income for the first time in 2012, generating $ 38 billion the former year. In January 2013, then-CEO Larry Page commented, “ We ended 2012 with a strong quarter … Revenues were up 36 % year-on-year, and 8 % quarter-on-quarter. And we hit $ 50 billion in revenues for the beginning time last year – not a regretful accomplishment in merely a decade and a half. ” [ 178 ] Google ‘s consolidate tax income for the third base quarter of 2013 was reported in mid-october 2013 as $ 14.89 billion, a 12 percentage increase compared to the previous quarter. [ 179 ] Google ‘s Internet business was creditworthy for $ 10.8 billion of this total, with an addition in the number of users ‘ clicks on advertisements. [ 180 ] By January 2014, Google ‘s market capitalization had grown to $ 397 billion. [ 181 ]

Tax avoidance strategies

Google uses assorted tax avoidance strategies. On the list of the largest information technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of beginning of its revenues. Google between 2007 and 2010 saved $ 3.1 billion in taxes by shuttling non-U.S. profits through Ireland and the Netherlands and then to Bermuda. such techniques lower its non-U.S. tax rate to 2.3 per cent, while normally the corporate tax rate in, for example, the UK is 28 per cent. [ 182 ] This has reportedly sparked a french investigation into Google ‘s transfer pricing practices. [ 183 ]

Google said it overhauled its controversial global tax structure and consolidated all of its intellectual property holdings back to the US. [ 184 ] Google Vice-President Matt Brittin testified to the Public Accounts Committee of the UK House of Commons that his UK sales team made no sales and therefore owed no sales taxes to the UK. [ 185 ] In January 2016, Google reached a settlement with the UK to pay £130m in back taxes plus higher taxes in future. [ 186 ] In 2017, Google channeled $ 22.7 billion from the Netherlands to Bermuda to reduce its tax bill. [ 187 ] In 2013, Google ranked 5th in lobbying spend, up from 213th in 2003. In 2012, the company ranked 2nd in campaign donations of technology and Internet sections. [ 188 ]

bodied identity

Google ‘s logo from 2013 to 2015 The name “ Google ” originated from a misspell of “ googol “, [ 189 ] [ 190 ] which refers to the total represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. page and Brin write in their original paper on PageRank : [ 27 ] “ We chose our systems name, Google, because it is a coarse spell of googol, or 10100 and fits well with our goal of building very large-scale search engines. ” Having found its manner increasingly into casual lyric, the verb “ google “ was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning “ to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet. ” [ 191 ] [ 192 ] Google ‘s deputation argument, from the beginning, was “ to organize the world ‘s information and make it universally accessible and utilitarian ”, [ 193 ] and its unofficial motto is “ Do n’t be evil “. [ 194 ] In October 2015, a relate motto was adopted in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase : “ Do the correct thing ”. [ 195 ] The original motto was retained in the code of lead of Google, nowadays a subordinate of Alphabet. The original Google logo was designed by Sergey Brin. [ 196 ] Since 1998, Google has been designing special, temp alternate logos to place on their home page intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] The scribble was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in font the servers crashed. subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an external contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then- intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point ahead, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed “ Doodlers ”. [ 199 ] Google has a custom of creating April Fools ‘ Day jokes. Its first on April 1, 2000, was Google MentalPlex which allegedly featured the manipulation of mental ability to search the web. [ 200 ] In 2007, Google announced a loose Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their gutter. [ 201 ] Google ‘s services contain easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef ‘s “ Bork bork bork, ” Pig Latin, “ Hacker ” or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as lyric selections for its search engine. [ 202 ] When searching for the son “ anagram, ” meaning a rearrangement of letters from one bible to form other valid words, Google ‘s hypnotism feature displays “ Did you mean : nag a aries ? ” [ 203 ]

workplace culture

On Fortune magazine ‘s number of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012, [ 204 ] [ 205 ] [ 206 ] and one-fourth in 2009 and 2010. [ 207 ] [ 208 ] Google was besides nominated in 2010 to be the populace ‘s most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction exponent. [ 209 ] Google ‘s bodied philosophy includes principles such as “ you can make money without doing evil, ” “ you can be good without a lawsuit, ” and “ work should be challenging and the challenge should be playfulness. ” [ 210 ] As of September 30, 2020, Alphabet Inc. had 132,121 employees, [ 211 ] of which more than 100,000 worked for Google. [ 9 ] Google ‘s 2020 diverseness reputation states that 32 percentage of its work force are women and 68 percentage are men, with the ethnicity of its work force being predominantly blank ( 51.7 % ) and Asian ( 41.9 % ). [ 212 ] Within technical school roles, 23.6 percentage were women ; and 26.7 percentage of leadership roles were held by women. [ 213 ] In addition to its 100,000+ full-time employees, Google used about 121,000 impermanent workers and contractors, as of March 2019. [ 9 ] Google ‘s employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range “ from entry-level data center workers at horizontal surface one to managers and experienced engineers at degree six. ” [ 214 ] As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy known as Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20 % of their work time on projects that sake them. Some of Google ‘s services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. [ 215 ] In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google ‘s Vice-President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new intersection launches in the second half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off. [ 216 ] In 2005, articles in The New York Times [ 217 ] and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil doctrine. [ 218 ] [ 219 ] [ 220 ] In an attempt to maintain the company ‘s alone culture, Google designated a foreman Culture Officer whose aim was to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep on-key to the kernel values that the caller was founded on. [ 221 ] Google has besides faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees. [ 222 ] [ 223 ] In 2013, a class natural process against several Silicon Valley companies, including Google, was filed for alleged “ no cold call ” agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees. [ 224 ] In a lawsuit filed January 8, 2018, multiple employees and job applicants alleged Google discriminated against a class defined by their “ button-down political views [, ] male gender [, ] and/or [ … ] Caucasian or asian raceway ”. [ 225 ] On January 25, 2020, the formation of an external workers union of Google employees, Alpha Global, was announced. [ 226 ] The alliance is made up of “ 13 unlike unions representing workers in 10 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Switzerland. ” [ 227 ] The group is affiliated with UNI Global Union, which represents closely 20 million external workers from versatile unions and federations. The formation of the union is in answer to persistent allegations of mistreatment of Google employees and a toxic workplace culture. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 225 ] Google had previously been accused of surveilling and firing employees who were suspected of organizing a workers union. [ 229 ] In 2021 court documents revealed that between 2018 and 2020 Google ran an anti-union campaign called Project Vivian to “ convince them ( employees ) that unions suck ”. [ 230 ]

Office locations

Google ‘s New York City office construct houses its largest advertise sales team. Google ‘s headquarters in Mountain View, California is referred to as “ the Googleplex “, a play on words on the act googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries. [ 231 ] In 2006, Google moved into about 300,000 square feet ( 27,900 m2 ) of function space at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan, New York City. The office was designed and built specially for Google, and houses its largest ad sales team. [ 232 ] In 2010, Google bought the build house the headquarter, in a deal that valued the property at around $ 1.9 billion. [ 233 ] [ 234 ] In March 2018, Google ‘s parent company Alphabet bought the nearby Chelsea Market build for $ 2.4 billion. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive veridical estate transactions for a unmarried building in the history of New York. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] [ 237 ] [ 238 ] In November 2018, Google announced its plan to expand its New York City function to a capacity of 12,000 employees. [ 239 ] The lapp December, it was announced that a $ 1 billion, 1,700,000-square-foot ( 160,000 m2 ) headquarters for Google would be built in Manhattan ‘s Hudson Square region. [ 240 ] [ 241 ] Called Google Hudson Square, the modern campus is projected to more than double the count of Google employees working in New York City. [ 242 ] By late 2006, Google established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan. [ 243 ] In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon ‘s campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related ad cryptography and smartphone applications and programs. [ 244 ] [ 245 ] other function locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia ; Austin, Texas ; Boulder, Colorado ; Cambridge, Massachusetts ; San Francisco, California ; Seattle, Washington ; Kirkland, Washington ; Birmingham, Michigan ; Reston, Virginia, Washington, D.C., [ 246 ] and Madison, Wisconsin. [ 247 ] Google ‘s Dublin Ireland office, headquarters of Google Ads for Europe It besides has product inquiry and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney ( birthplace placement of Google Maps ) [ 248 ] and London ( separate of Android development ). [ 249 ] In November 2013, Google announced plans for a newfangled London headquarter, a 1 million square foot position able to accommodate 4,500 employees. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial place acquisitions at the time of the deal ‘s announcement in January, [ 250 ] Google submitted plans for the modern headquarter to the Camden Council in June 2017. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] In May 2015, Google announced its purpose to create its own campus in Hyderabad, India. The newly campus, reported to be the company ‘s largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13,000 employees. [ 253 ] [ 254 ] Google ‘s Global Offices sum a total of 85 Locations cosmopolitan, [ 255 ] with 32 offices in North America, 3 of them in Canada and 29 in United States Territory, California being the submit with the most Google ‘s offices with 9 in total including the Googleplex. In the Latin America Region Google counts with 6 offices, in Europe 24 ( 3 of them in UK ), The Asia Pacific area counts with 18 offices chiefly in India and China, and the Africa Middle East region counts 5 offices .

North America

Latin America

  1. Belo Horizonte  Brazil
  2. Bogota  Colombia
  3. Buenos Aires  Argentina
  4. Mexico City  Mexico
  5. Santiago  Chile
  6. Sao Paulo  Brazil

Europe

Asia Pacific

Africa & Middle East

infrastructure

Google datum centers are located in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. [ 256 ] There is no official data on the number of servers in Google datum centers ; however, research and advisory firm Gartner estimated in a July 2016 reputation that Google at the clock had 2.5 million servers. [ 257 ] Traditionally, Google relied on parallel computing on commodity hardware like mainstream x86 computers ( alike to home PCs ) to keep costs per question moo. [ 258 ] [ 259 ] [ 260 ] In 2005, it started developing its own designs, which were alone revealed in 2009. [ 260 ] Google built its own individual submarine communications cables ; the first, named Curie, connects California with Chile and was completed on November 15, 2019. [ 261 ] [ 262 ] The irregular in full Google-owned submarine cable television, named Dunant, connects the United States with France and is planned to begin operation in 2020. [ 263 ] Google ‘s third subsea cable, Equiano, will connect Lisbon, Portugal with Lagos, Nigeria and Cape Town, South Africa. [ 264 ] The ship’s company ‘s one-fourth cable, named Grace Hopper, connects landing points in New York, US, Bude, UK and Bilbao, Spain, and is expected to become functional in 2022. [ 265 ]

environment

In October 2006, the ship’s company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 Megawatt of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30 % of the campus ‘ energy needs. [ 266 ] [ 267 ] The system is the largest rooftop photovoltaic exponent place constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate web site in the world. [ 266 ] Since 2007, Google has aimed for carbon disinterest in attentiveness to its operations. [ 268 ] Google disclosed in September 2011 that it “ endlessly uses adequate electricity to office 200,000 homes ”, about 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear baron plant. total carbon emissions for 2010 were just under 1.5 million metric tons, by and large due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the datum centers. Google said that 25 percentage of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An median search uses only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all ball-shaped searches are only 12.5 million watt or 5 % of the sum electricity pulmonary tuberculosis by Google. [ 269 ] In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $ 38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The party announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of ability, adequate to supply 55,000 homes. [ 270 ] In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authority to buy and sell energy at market rates. [ 271 ] The corporation exercised this authority in September 2013 when it announced it would purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt felicitous Hereford wind farm. [ 272 ] In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind grow to buy 114 megawatt of ability for 20 years. [ 273 ] In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it would purchase enough renewable energy to match 100 % of the energy use of its data centers and offices. The committedness will make Google “ the worldly concern ‘s largest corporate buyer of renewable exponent, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts ( 2,600 megawatts ) of hoist and solar department of energy ”. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] [ 276 ] In November 2017, Google bought 536 megawatts of wind might. The leverage made the firm reach 100 % renewable energy. The wind energy comes from two power plants in South Dakota, one in Iowa and one in Oklahoma. [ 277 ] In September 2019, Google ‘s head executive announced plans for a $ 2 billion hoist and solar investment, the biggest renewable energy manage in bodied history. This will grow their green energy profile by 40 %, giving them an extra 1.6 gigawatt of clean energy, the company said. [ 278 ] In September 2020, Google announced it had retroactively offset all of its carbon emissions since the company ‘s foundation in 1998. [ 279 ] It besides committed to operating its data centers and offices using entirely carbon-free energy by 2030. [ 280 ] In October 2020, the company pledged to make the box for its hardware products 100 % plastic-free and 100 % reclaimable by 2025. It besides said that all its concluding assembly fabrication sites will achieve a UL 2799 Zero Waste to Landfill documentation by 2022 by ensuring that the huge majority of consume from the manufacture process is recycled rather of ending up in a landfill. [ 281 ] Google donates to politicians who deny climate change, including Jim Inhofe, and sponsors climate change defense political groups including the State Policy Network and the Competitive Enterprise Institute. [ 282 ] [ 283 ] [ 284 ]

philanthropy

In 2004, Google formed the nonprofit organization beneficent Google.org, with a start-up fund of $ 1 billion. [ 285 ] The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its beginning projects was to develop a feasible circuit board loanblend electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program ‘s administrator director in 2004 [ 286 ] and Megan Smith has since replaced him as director. [ 287 ] In March 2007, in partnership with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute ( MSRI ), Google hosted the first Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at its headquarters in Mountain View. [ 288 ] In 2011, Google donated 1 million euro to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads ( 2011–2015 ). [ 289 ] [ 290 ] In July 2012, Google launched a “ Legalize Love “ campaign in documentation of gay rights. [ 291 ] In 2008, Google announced its “ undertaking 10100 ” which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. [ 292 ] After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, [ 293 ] Google revealed the winners of the visualize, giving a sum of ten million dollars to versatile ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a web site that intends to make all legal documents public and on-line. [ 294 ] Responding to the humanist crisis after the russian invasion of Ukraine, Google announced a $ 15 mln contribution to support ukrainian citizens. [ 295 ] The company besides decided to transform its office in Warsaw into a help center for refugees. [ 296 ]

criticism and controversies

San Francisco activists protest privately owned shuttle buses that transport workers for technical school companies such as Google from their homes in San Francisco and Oakland to corporate campuses in Silicon Valley. Google ‘s market dominance has led to big media coverage, including criticism of Google over issues such as aggressive tax avoidance, [ 297 ] search neutrality, copyright, censoring of search results and contentedness, [ 298 ] and privacy. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] other criticisms include alleged misapply and manipulation of research results, its manipulation of others ‘ intellectual place, concerns that its compilation of data may violate people ‘s privacy, and the department of energy consumption of its servers, a well as concerns over traditional clientele issues such as monopoly, restraint of trade, anti-competitive practices, and patent violation. Google once complied with Internet censoring policies of the People ‘s Republic of China, [ 301 ] enforced by means of filters colloquially known as “ The Great Firewall of China “, but no long does thus. As a solution, all Google services except for chinese Google Maps are blocked from access within mainland China without the care of virtual private networks ( VPNs ), proxy servers, or other similar technologies. In August 2018, The Intercept reported that Google is developing for the People ‘s Republic of China a ban version of its search engine ( known as Dragonfly ) “ that will blacklist websites and search terms about homo rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest ”. [ 302 ] [ 303 ] however, the undertaking had been withheld due to privacy concerns. [ 304 ] Following media reports about PRISM, the NSA ‘s massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Google. [ 305 ] According to nameless sources, Google joined the PRISM course of study in 2009, as did its wholly owned subordinate YouTube in 2010. [ 306 ] Google has worked with the United States Department of Defense on drone software through the 2017 Project Maven that could be used to improve the accuracy of drone strikes. [ 307 ] In April 2018, thousands of Google employees, including senior engineers, signed a letter urging Google CEO Sundar Pichai to end this controversial sign with the Pentagon. [ 308 ] Google ultimately decided not to renew this DoD compress, which was set to expire in 2019. [ 309 ] In July 2018, Mozilla program director Chris Peterson accused Google of intentionally slowing down YouTube performance on Firefox. [ 310 ] [ 311 ] In April 2019, early Mozilla administrator Jonathan Nightingale accused Google of intentionally and systematically sabotaging the Firefox browser over the past ten in holy order to boost adoption of Google Chrome. [ 312 ] In 2019, a hub for critics of Google dedicated to abstaining from using Google products coalesced in the Reddit online community /r/degoogle. [ 313 ] The DeGoogle grassroots campaign continues to grow as privacy activists highlight information about Google products, and the associate penetration on personal privacy rights by the company. In November 2019, the Office for Civil Rights of the United States Department of Health and Human Services began investigation into Project Nightingale, to assess whether the “ mass collection of individuals ’ aesculapian records ” complied with HIPAA. [ 314 ] According to The Wall Street Journal, Google secretively began the stick out in 2018, with St. Louis -based healthcare company Ascension. [ 315 ] In a 2022 National Labor Relations Board opinion, court documents suggested that Google sponsored a close project — Project Vivian to advocate its employees and to discourage them from forming unions. [ 316 ]

Anti-trust, privacy, and other litigation

The european Commission, which imposed three fines on Google in 2017, 2018, and 2019 Google has been involved in a number of lawsuits including the High-Tech Employee Antitrust Litigation which resulted in Google being one of four companies to pay a $ 415 million settlement to employees. [ 317 ] On June 27, 2017, the company received a record finely of € 2.42 billion from the European Union for “ promoting its own shop comparison service at the top of search results. ” [ 318 ] Commenting on the punishment, New Scientist magazine said :

“ The brawny summarize – the largest always doled out by the EU ‘s competition regulators – will sting in the short term, but Google can handle it. Alphabet, Google ’ s parent company, made a net income of $ 2.5 billion ( €2.2 billion ) in the first six weeks of 2017 alone. The real affect of the rule is that Google must stop using its dominance as a search engine to give itself the border in another market : on-line price comparisons. ”

Google ( Alphabet ) disputed the rule. [ 319 ] The hear at the General Court of Luxembourg was scheduled for 2020. The court is going to deliver the ultimate judgment by the end of the year. [ 320 ] On July 18, 2018, [ 321 ] the european Commission fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antimonopoly rules. The pervert of dominant side has been referred to Google ‘s constraint applied to Android device manufacturers and network operators to ensure that traffic on Android devices goes to the Google search locomotive. On October 9, 2018, Google confirmed [ 322 ] that it had appealed the fine to the General Court of the European Union. [ 323 ] On October 8, 2018, a class action lawsuit was filed against Google and Alphabet due to “ non-public ” Google+ bill data being exposed as a result of a bug that allowed app developers to gain access to the individual information of users. The litigation was settled in July 2020 for $ 7.5 million with a payout to claimants of at least $ 5 each, with a maximum of $ 12 each. [ 324 ] [ 325 ] [ 326 ] On January 21, 2019, French data regulator CNIL imposed a read €50 million fine on Google for breaching the European Union ‘s General Data Protection Regulation. The judgment claimed Google had failed to sufficiently inform users of its methods for collecting data to personalize ad. Google issued a statement saying it was “ profoundly committed ” to transparency and was “ studying the decision ” before determining its reaction. [ 327 ] On March 20, 2019, the european Commission imposed a €1.49 billion ( $ 1.69 billion ) fine on Google for preventing rivals from being able to “ compete and innovate fairly ” in the on-line advertise market. [ 328 ] European Union competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google had violated EU antimonopoly rules by “ imposing anti-competitive contractual restrictions on third-party websites ” that required them to exclude search results from Google ‘s rivals. Kent Walker, Google ‘s senior vice-president of ball-shaped affairs, said the company had “ already made a wide range of changes to our products to address the Commission ’ s concerns, ” and that “ we ‘ll be making farther updates to give more visibility to rivals in Europe. ” [ 329 ] After U.S. Congressional hearings in July 2020, [ 330 ] and a composition from the U.S. House of Representatives ‘ antimonopoly subcommittee released in early October, [ 331 ] the United States Department of Justice filed an antimonopoly lawsuit against Google on October 20, 2020, asserting that it has illegally maintained its monopoly status in vane search and search advertising. [ 332 ] [ 333 ] The lawsuit alleged that Google engaged in anticompetitive demeanor by paying Apple between $ 8 billion and $ 12 billion to be the default search engine on iPhones. [ 334 ] Ken Paxton, the Texas Attorney General leading the suit, stated that “ Google is a trillion-dollar monopoly brazenly abusing its monopolistic power, going so far as to induce aged Facebook executives to agree to a contractual schema that undermines the heart of [ the ] competitive march. ” In separate, the suit challenges Alphabet ‘s capacity to reasonably compete with the company in on-line advertising. No democratic politicians joined Mr. Paxion in the suit. The majority of the accusations against Google involve their ad-tech software, of which Google owns the dominant tool at every connection in the chain connecting on-line publishers and advertisers. [ 335 ] Later that month, both Facebook and Alphabet agreed to “ cooperate and assist one another ” in the confront of probe into their on-line advertising practices. [ 336 ] [ 337 ] On January 6, 2022, France ‘s data privacy regulative soundbox CNIL fined Alphabet ‘s Google a 150 million euro ( US $ 169 million ) for not allowing its internet users an easy refusal of Cookies along with Facebook. [ 338 ]

private browse lawsuit

In early June 2020, a $ 5 billion class-action lawsuit was filed against Google by a group of consumers, alleging that Chrome ’ s Incognito browsing manner distillery collects their exploiter history. [ 339 ] [ 340 ] The lawsuit became known in March 2021 when a federal judge denied Google ‘s request to dismiss the lawsuit, ruling that they must face the group ’ mho charges. [ 341 ] [ 342 ] Reuters reported that the lawsuit alleged that Google ‘s CEO Sundar Pichai sought to keep the users unaware of this consequence. [ 343 ]

See besides

Notes

  1. ^[1][2][3] The shift in dates reportedly happened to celebrate index-size milestones in tandem with the birthday.[4] Google was incorporated on September 4, 1998, however, since 2002, the company has celebrated its anniversaries on respective days in September, most frequently on September 27.The shift in dates reportedly happened to celebrate index-size milestones in tandem with the birthday .

References

farther read

  • Business data for Google, Inc.:
    • Bloomberg
    • Reuters
    • SEC filings
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