What this handout is about
This handout can help you revise your papers for word-level clearness, eliminate prolixity and debar clichés, find the words that best express your ideas, and choose words that suit an academic hearing .
Writing is a series of choices. As you work on a newspaper, you choose your topic, your approach, your sources, and your dissertation ; when it ’ second time to write, you have to choose the words you will use to express your ideas and decide how you will arrange those words into sentences and paragraph. As you revise your conscription, you make more choices. You might ask yourself, “ Is this truly what I mean ? ” or “ Will readers understand this ? ” or “ Does this sound well ? ” Finding words that capture your meaning and bring that meaning to your readers is challenging. When your instructors write things like “ awkward, ” “ dim, ” or “ long-winded ” on your draft, they are letting you know that they want you to work on word choice. This handout will explain some common issues related to give voice choice and give you strategies for choosing the best words as you revise your drafts .
As you read further into the handout, keep in take care that it can sometimes take more prison term to “ save ” words from your original sentence than to write a trade name new sentence to convey the like meaning or idea. Don ’ thymine be excessively attached to what you ’ ve already written ; if you are will to start a prison term fresh, you may be able to choose words with greater clarity.
For tips on making more substantial revisions, take a look at our handouts on reorganizing drafts and revising drafts .
“Awkward,” “vague,” and “unclear” word choice
therefore : you write a paper that makes perfect sense to you, but it comes bet on with “ awkward ” scribbled throughout the margins. Why, you wonder, are instructors so affectionate of terms like “ awkward ” ? Most instructors use terms like this to draw your attention to sentences they had trouble understanding and to encourage you to rewrite those sentences more clearly .
Difficulties with give voice choice aren ’ t the only induce of awkwardness, vagueness, or early problems with clearness. Sometimes a sentence is hard to follow because there is a grammatical trouble with it or because of the syntax ( the way the words and phrases are put together ). here ’ s an exemplar : “ Having finished with study, the pizza was quickly eaten. ” This conviction international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine hard to understand because of the words I chose—everybody knows what studying, pizza, and eating are. The problem here is that readers will naturally assume that inaugural moment of the prison term “ ( Having finished with studying ” ) goes with the adjacent noun that follows it—which, in this case, is “ the pizza ” ! It doesn ’ t make a distribute of feel to imply that the pizza was studying. What I was actually trying to express was something more like this : “ Having finished with study, the students quickly ate the pizza. ” If you have a conviction that has been marked “ awkward, ” “ obscure, ” or “ ill-defined, ” try to think about it from a proofreader ’ s point of view—see if you can tell where it changes management or leaves out significant information .
sometimes, though, problems with clarity are a count of word choice. See if you recognize any of these issues:
- Misused words—the word doesn’t actually mean what the writer thinks it does.
Example: Cree Indians were a monotonous culture until French and British settlers arrived.
Revision: Cree Indians were a homogenous culture.
- Words with unwanted connotations or meanings.
Example: I sprayed the ants in their private places.
Revision: I sprayed the ants in their hiding places.
- Using a pronoun when readers can’t tell whom/what it refers to.
Example: My cousin Jake hugged my brother Trey, even though he didn’t like him very much.
Revision: My cousin Jake hugged my brother Trey, even though Jake doesn’t like Trey very much.
- Jargon or technical terms that make readers work unnecessarily hard. Maybe you need to use some of these words because they are important terms in your field, but don’t throw them in just to “sound smart.”
Example: The dialectical interface between neo-Platonists and anti-disestablishment Catholics offers an algorithm for deontological thought.
Revision: The dialogue between neo-Platonists and certain Catholic thinkers is a model for deontological thought.
- Loaded language. Sometimes we as writers know what we mean by a certain word, but we haven’t ever spelled that out for readers. We rely too heavily on that word, perhaps repeating it often, without clarifying what we are talking about.
Example: Society teaches young girls that beauty is their most important quality. In order to prevent eating disorders and other health problems, we must change society.
Revision: Contemporary American popular media, like magazines and movies, teach young girls that beauty is their most important quality. In order to prevent eating disorders and other health problems, we must change the images and role models girls are offered.
sometimes the trouble international relations and security network ’ thyroxine choosing precisely the right parole to express an idea—it ’ sulfur being “ long-winded, ” or using words that your proofreader may regard as “ extra ” or inefficient. Take a look at the follow list for some examples. On the entrust are some phrases that use three, four, or more words where fewer will do ; on the correct are some inadequate substitutes :
|I came to the realization that||I realized that|
|She is of the opinion that||She thinks that|
|Concerning the matter of||About|
|During the course of||During|
|In the event that||If|
|In the process of||During, while|
|Regardless of the fact that||Although|
|Due to the fact that||Because|
|In all cases||Always|
|At that point in time||Then|
Keep an eye out for long-winded constructions in your writing and see if you can replace them with more concise words or phrases .
In academic write, it ’ s a good mind to limit your use of clichés. Clichés are attention-getting little phrases sol frequently used that they have become banal, bromidic, or annoying. They are debatable because their overuse has diminished their impact and because they require several words where precisely one would do .
The main way to avoid clichés is first to recognize them and then to create shorter, fresher equivalents. Ask yourself if there is one give voice that means the lapp matter as the cliché. If there isn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate, can you use two or three words to state the estimate your own room ? Below you will see five common clichés, with some alternatives to their right. As a challenge, see how many alternatives you can create for the final examination two examples .
|Agree to disagree||Disagree|
|Dead as a doornail||Dead|
|Last but not least||Last|
|Pushing the envelope||Approaching the limit|
|Up in the air||Unknown/undecided|
Try these yourself :
|Play it by ear||_____?_____|
|Let the cat out of the bag||_____?_____|
Writing for an academic audience
When you choose words to express your ideas, you have to think not entirely about what makes sense and sounds best to you, but what will make smell and audio best to your readers. Thinking about your consultation and their expectations will help you make decisions about word option .
Some writers think that academic audiences expect them to “ sound smart ” by using boastful or technical words. But the most important goal of academic publish is not to sound smart—it is to communicate an argument or information intelligibly and convincingly. It is true that academic writing has a certain style of its own and that you, as a scholar, are beginning to learn to read and write in that manner. You may find yourself using words and grammatical constructions that you didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate use in your high school write. The danger is that if you consciously set out to “ voice smart ” and habit words or structures that are identical unfamiliar to you, you may produce sentences that your readers can ’ thyroxine understand .
When writing for your professors, think chasteness. Using simple words does not indicate simple thoughts. In an academic argumentation paper, what makes the thesis and argument sophisticated are the connections presented in elementary, authorize language .
Keep in mind, though, that simple and pass doesn ’ t inevitably intend casual. Most instructors will not be please if your paper looks like an blink of an eye message or an e-mail to a friend. It ’ mho normally best to avoid slang and colloquialism. Take a expect at this model and ask yourself how a professor would probably respond to it if it were the dissertation statement of a paper : “ Moulin Rouge very bite because the sing sucked and the costume colors were nasty, KWIM ? ”
Selecting and using key terms
When writing academic papers, it is much helpful to find samara terms and use them within your newspaper arsenic well as in your thesis. This section comments on the crucial difference between repetition and redundancy of terms and works through an exemplar of using key terms in a thesis statement .
Repetition vs. redundancy
These two phenomena are not necessarily the same. repetition can be a good thing. sometimes we have to use our key terms respective times within a newspaper, particularly in topic sentences. sometimes there is merely no substitute for the key terms, and selecting a weaker terminus as a synonym can do more damage than good. Repeating key terms emphasizes important points and signals to the reader that the argument is placid being supported. This kind of repetition can give your wallpaper cohesion and is done by conscious choice .
In contrast, if you find yourself frustrated, tiredly repeating the lapp nouns, verbs, or adjectives, or making the lapp point over and over, you are probably being pleonastic. In this case, you are swimming aimlessly around the same points because you have not decided what your argument truly is or because you are sincerely fatigued and clearness escapes you. Refer to the “ Strategies ” section below for ideas on revising for redundancy .
Building clear thesis statements
Writing clear sentences is authoritative throughout your write. For the purposes of this handout, let ’ s concentrate on the thesis statement—one of the most important sentences in academic argument papers. You can apply these ideas to early sentences in your papers.
A common problem with writing good dissertation statements is finding the words that best capture both the crucial elements and the significance of the essay ’ south argument. It is not always slowly to condense respective paragraphs or respective pages into concise key terms that, when combined in one sentence, can efficaciously describe the argument .
however, taking the clock time to find the right words offers writers a significant boundary. Concise and allow terms will help both the writer and the subscriber keep track of what the try will show and how it will show it. Graders, in particular, like to see clearly stated dissertation statements. ( For more on dissertation statements in general, please denote to our handout. )
Example : You ’ ve been assigned to write an try that contrasts the river and shore scenes in Mark Twain ’ mho Huckleberry Finn. You work on it for several days, producing three versions of your dissertation :
Version 1 : There are many important river and shore scenes in Huckleberry Finn .
Version 2 : The contrasting river and shore scenes in Huckleberry Finn suggest a return to nature .
Version 3 : Through its contrast river and prop up scenes, Twain ’ randomness Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “ educate ” company and go back to nature .
Let ’ s consider the bible option issues in these statements. In Version 1, the discussion “ significant ” —like “ interesting ” —is both overuse and obscure ; it suggests that the author has an opinion but gives identical little indication about the framework of that impression. As a leave, your proofreader knows only that you ’ re going to talk about river and prop up scenes, but not what you ’ re going to say. Version 2 is an improvement : the words “ return to nature ” give your reviewer a better idea where the newspaper is headed. On the other hand, she silent does not know how this tax return to nature is crucial to your understand of the novel .
ultimately, you come up with Version 3, which is a stronger thesis because it offers a sophisticate controversy and the key terms used to make this argument are open. At least three key terms or concepts are apparent : the contrast between river and prop up scenes, a return to nature, and American democratic ideals .
By itself, a key term is merely a topic—an element of the controversy but not the argument itself. The argument, then, becomes clean to the lector through the room in which you combine key terms .
Strategies for successful word choice
- Be careful when using words you are unfamiliar with. Look at how they are used in context and check their dictionary definitions.
- Be careful when using the thesaurus. Each word listed as a synonym for the word you’re looking up may have its own unique connotations or shades of meaning. Use a dictionary to be sure the synonym you are considering really fits what you are trying to say.
- Don’t try to impress your reader or sound unduly authoritative. For example, which sentence is clearer to you: “a” or “b”?
- Under the present conditions of our society, marriage practices generally demonstrate a high degree of homogeneity.
- In our culture, people tend to marry others who are like themselves. (Longman, p. 452)
- Before you revise for accurate and strong adjectives, make sure you are first using accurate and strong nouns and verbs. For example, if you were revising the sentence “This is a good book that tells about the Revolutionary War,” think about whether “book” and “tells” are as strong as they could be before you worry about “good.” (A stronger sentence might read “The novel describes the experiences of a soldier during the Revolutionary War.” “Novel” tells us what kind of book it is, and “describes” tells us more about how the book communicates information.)
- Try the slash/option technique, which is like brainstorming as you write. When you get stuck, write out two or more choices for a questionable word or a confusing sentence, e.g., “questionable/inaccurate/vague/inappropriate.” Pick the word that best indicates your meaning or combine different terms to say what you mean.
- Look for repetition. When you find it, decide if it is “good” repetition (using key terms that are crucial and helpful to meaning) or “bad” repetition (redundancy or laziness in reusing words).
- Write your thesis in five different ways. Make five different versions of your thesis sentence. Compose five sentences that express your argument. Try to come up with four alternatives to the thesis sentence you’ve already written. Find five possible ways to communicate your argument in one sentence to your reader. (We’ve just used this technique—which of the last five sentences do you prefer?)Whenever we write a sentence we make choices. Some are less obvious than others, so that it can often feel like we’ve written the sentence the only way we know how. By writing out five different versions of your thesis, you can begin to see your range of choices. The final version may be a combination of phrasings and words from all five versions, or the one version that says it best. By literally spelling out some possibilities for yourself, you will be able to make better decisions.
- Read your paper out loud and at… a… slow… pace. You can do this alone or with a friend, roommate, TA, etc. When read out loud, your written words should make sense to both you and other listeners. If a sentence seems confusing, rewrite it to make the meaning clear.
- Instead of reading the paper itself, put it down and just talk through your argument as concisely as you can. If your listener quickly and easily comprehends your essay’s main point and significance, you should then make sure that your written words are as clear as your oral presentation was. If, on the other hand, your listener keeps asking for clarification, you will need to work on finding the right terms for your essay. If you do this in exchange with a friend or classmate, rest assured that whether you are the talker or the listener, your articulation skills will develop.
- Have someone not familiar with the issue read the paper and point out words or sentences he/she finds confusing. Do not brush off this reader’s confusion by assuming he or she simply doesn’t know enough about the topic. Instead, rewrite the sentences so that your “outsider” reader can follow along at all times.
- Check out the Writing Center’s handouts on style, passive voice, and proofreading for more tips.
Questions to ask yourself
- Am I sure what each word I use really means? Am I positive, or should I look it up?
- Have I found the best word or just settled for the most obvious, or the easiest, one?
- Am I trying too hard to impress my reader?
- What’s the easiest way to write this sentence? (Sometimes it helps to answer this question by trying it out loud. How would you say it to someone?)
- What are the key terms of my argument?
- Can I outline out my argument using only these key terms? What others do I need? Which do I not need?
- Have I created my own terms, or have I simply borrowed what looked like key ones from the assignment? If I’ve borrowed the terms, can I find better ones in my own vocabulary, the texts, my notes, the dictionary, or the thesaurus to make myself clearer?
- Are my key terms too specific? (Do they cover the entire range of my argument?) Can I think of specific examples from my sources that fall under the key term?
- Are my key terms too vague? (Do they cover more than the range of my argument?)
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive examination list of resources on the handout ’ s subject, and we encourage you to do your own research to find extra publications. Please do not use this list as a exemplary for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation vogue you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips sporadically and welcome feedback .
Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers, 6th erectile dysfunction. New York : Longman .
Cook, Claire Kehrwald. 1985. Line by line : How to Improve Your own Writing. Boston : Houghton Mifflin .
Grossman, Ellie. 1997. The Grammatically Correct Handbook : A Lively and Unorthodox Review of Common English for the Linguistically Challenged. New York : hyperion .
Houghton Mifflin. 1996. The american Heritage Book of English Usage : A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English. Boston : Houghton Mifflin .
O ’ Conner, Patricia. 2010. Woe Is I : The Grammarphobe ’ s Guide to Better English in Plain English, 3rd erectile dysfunction. New York : Penguin Publishing Group .
Tarshis, Barry. 1998. How to Be Your own Best editor program : The Toolkit for Everyone Who Writes. New York : Three Rivers Press.
Williams, Joseph, and Joseph Bizup. 2017. manner : Lessons in Clarity and Grace, 12th erectile dysfunction. Boston : Pearson .
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