Pete Townshend – Wikipedia

british musician

musical artist
Peter Dennis Blandford Townshend ( bear 19 May 1945 ) is an english musician, singer and songwriter. He is co-founder, leader, guitarist, junior-grade lead singer and principal songwriter of the Who, one of the most influential rock bands of the 1960s and 1970s. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

Townshend has written more than 100 songs for 12 of the Who ‘s studio albums. These include concept albums, the rock candy operas Tommy and Quadrophenia, plus popular rock ‘n’ roll radio receiver staples such as Who’s Next ; ampere well as dozens more that appeared as non-album singles, bonus tracks on reissues, and tracks on rarities compilations such as Odds & Sods ( 1974 ). He has besides written more than 100 songs that have appeared on his solo albums, a well as radio receiver jingles and television theme songs. As an musician, although known primarily as a guitarist, Townshend besides plays keyboards, banjo, accordion, harmonica, uke, mandolin, violin, synthesizer, bass guitar, and drums. He is self-taught on all of these instruments. He plays on his own solo albums, several Who albums, and as a guest contributor to an align of early artists ‘ recordings. Townshend has besides contributed to and authored many newspaper and cartridge holder articles, book reviews, essays, books, and scripts, and he has collaborated as a lyricist and composer for many early musical acts. due to his aggressive play style and innovative songwriting techniques, Townshend ‘s works with the Who and in other projects have earned him critical acclaim. In 1983, Townshend received the Brit Award for Lifetime Achievement and in 1990 he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Who. Townshend was ranked No. 3 in Dave Marsh ‘s 1994 list of Best Guitarists in The New Book of Rock Lists. [ 4 ] In 2001, he received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award as a penis of the Who ; and in 2008 he received Kennedy Center Honors. He was ranked No. 10 in ‘s 2011 list of the top 50 guitarists, [ 5 ] and No. 10 in Rolling Stone ‘s update 2011 list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all clock time. [ 6 ] He and Roger Daltrey received The George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement at UCLA on 21 May 2016. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]

early animation and education [edit ]

Townshend was born in Chiswick, west London at the Chiswick Hospital, Netheravon Road. He came from a musical syndicate : his church father, Cliff Townshend, was a professional alto saxophonist in the Royal Air Force ‘s dance band the Squadronaires and his mother, Betty ( née Dennis ), was a singer with the Sydney Torch and Les Douglass Orchestras. The Townshends had a volatile marriage, as both drink heavily and possess fiery tempers. Cliff Townshend was often away from his family touring with his ring while Betty carried on affairs with other men. The two cleave when Townshend was a toddler and he was sent to live with his enate grandma Emma Dennis, whom Pete late described as “ clinically insane ”. The biennial interval ended when Cliff and Betty purchased a house together on Woodgrange Avenue in middle-class Acton, and the young Pete was happily reunited with his parents. His neighborhood was one-third polish, and a dear jewish family upstairs shared their house with them and cooking with them—many of his church father ‘s closest friends were jewish. [ 11 ] Townshend says he did not have many friends growing up, so he spent much of his boyhood take adventure novels like Gulliver’s Travels and Treasure Island. He enjoyed his kin ‘s frequent excursions to the seaside and the Isle of Man. It was on one of these trips in the summer of 1956 that he repeatedly watched the 1956 film Rock Around the Clock, sparking his captivation with american rock ‘n’ roll and roll. not retentive thereafter, he went to see Bill Haley perform in London, Townshend ‘s first concert. At the clock, he did not see himself pursuing a career as a professional musician ; alternatively, he wanted to become a journalist. Upon passing the eleven-plus examination, Townshend was enrolled at Acton County Grammar School. At Acton County, he was frequently bullied because he had a big nose, an feel that profoundly affected him. His grandma Emma purchased his beginning guitar for Christmas in 1956, an cheap spanish model. Though his beget taught him a couple of chords, Townshend was largely self-taught on the instrument and never learned to read music. Townshend and school friend John Entwistle formed a ephemeral trad jazz group, the Confederates, featuring Townshend on banjo and Entwistle on horns. The Confederates played gigs at the Congo Club, a youth club run by the Acton Congregational Church, and covered Acker Bilk, Kenny Ball, and Lonnie Donegan. however, both became influenced by the increasing popularity of rock candy ‘n ‘ scroll, with Townshend particularly admiring Cliff Richard ‘s debut single, “ Move It “. Townshend left the Confederates after getting into a fight with the group ‘s drummer, Chris Sherwin, and purchased a “ reasonably commodity czech guitar ” at his mother ‘s antique shop class. Townshend ‘s brothers Paul and Simon were born in 1957 and 1960, respectively. Lacking the necessity screen scores to attend university, Pete was faced with the decision of art school, music school, or getting a caper. He ultimately chose to study graphic design at Ealing Art College, enrolling in 1961. At Ealing, Townshend studied aboard future Rolling Stones guitarist Ronnie Wood. noteworthy artists and designers gave lectures at the college such as auto-destructive art pioneer Gustav Metzger. Townshend dropped out in 1964 to focus on music full-time .

musical career [edit ]

1961–1964 : the Detours [edit ]

In late 1961, Entwistle joined the Detours, a skiffle / rock and cast band, led by Roger Daltrey. The new bass player then suggested Townshend connect as an extra guitarist. In the early days of the Detours, the band ‘s repertoire consisted of instrumentals by the Shadows and the Ventures, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as pop and trad jazz covers. Their batting order coalesced around Roger Daltrey on lead guitar, Townshend on rhythm guitar, Entwistle on bass, Doug Sandom on drums and Colin Dawson as singer. Daltrey was considered the leader of the group and, according to Townshend, “ ran things the means he wanted them. ” Dawson leave office in 1962 after arguing excessively much with Daltrey, who subsequently moved to lead singer. As a solution, Townshend, with Entwistle ‘s encouragement, became the sole guitarist. Through Townshend ‘s mother, the group obtained a management contract with local promoter Robert Druce, who started booking the ring as a support act for bands including Screaming Lord Sutch, Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers, Shane Fenton and the Fentones, and Johnny Kidd and the Pirates. In 1963, Townshend ‘s father arranged an amateurish recording of “ It Was You ”, the foremost song his son ever wrote. The Detours became mindful of a group of the lapp identify in February 1964, forcing them to change their name. Townshend ‘s roommate Richard Barnes came up with “ The Who ”, and Daltrey decided it was the best option .

1964–1982 : The Who [edit ]

Townshend ( with Moon, rear right ) wing before a gig at Friedrich-Ebert-Halle in Ludwigshafen, Germany on 12 April 1967 not long after the appoint variety, drummer Doug Sandom was replaced by Keith Moon, who had been drumming semi-professionally with the Beachcombers for several years. The ring was soon taken on by a mod publicist named Peter Meaden who convinced them to change their identify to the high Numbers to give the band more of a mod find. After bringing out one failed individual ( “ I ‘m the Face/Zoot Suit ” ), they dropped Meaden and were signed on by two new managers, Chris Stamp and Kit Lambert, who had paired up with the purpose of finding new talent and creating a documentary about them. The band anguished over a name that all felt represented the band best, and dropped the high Numbers mention, reverting to the Who. In June 1964, during a performance at the Railway Tavern, Townshend incidentally broke the top of his guitar on the moo ceiling and proceeded to destroy the entire instrument. The on-stage destruction of instruments soon became a regular part of the Who ‘s live shows. With the aid of Lambert, the Who caught the ear of american phonograph record producer Shel Talmy, who had the band signed to a phonograph record abridge. Townshend wrote a song, “ I Ca n’t Explain “, as a deliberate sound-alike of the Kinks, another group Talmy produced. Released as a unmarried in January 1965, “ I Ca n’t Explain ” was the Who ‘s first hit, reaching number eight on the british charts. A follow-up single ( “ anyhow, Anyhow, Anywhere “ ), credited to both Townshend and Daltrey, besides reached the top 10 in the UK. however, it was the handout of the Who ‘s third single, “ My Generation “, in November that, according to Who biographer Mark Wilkerson, “ cemented their repute as a hardheaded band who reflected the feelings of thousands of pissed-off adolescents at the time. ” The Townshend-penned one reached number two on the UK charts, becoming the Who ‘s biggest hit. The sung and its celebrated credit line “ I hope I die before I get old ” was “ very much about trying to find a topographic point in club ”, Townshend stated in an consultation with David Fricke. To capitalise on their recent single success, the Who ‘s debut album My Generation ( The Who Sings My Generation in the US ) was released in late 1965, containing original material written by Townshend and several James Brown covers that Daltrey favoured. [ 45 ] Townshend continued to write respective successful singles for the dance band, including “ Pictures of Lily “, “ Substitute “, “ I ‘m a Boy “, and “ glad Jack “. Lambert encouraged Townshend to write longer pieces of music for the next album, which became “ A Quick One, While He ‘s away “. The album was subsequently titled A Quick One and reached No. 4 in the charts upon its release in December 1966. In their stage shows, Townshend developed a guitar stunt in which he would swing his right arm against the guitar strings in a style evocative of the vanes of a windmill. He developed this stylus after watching Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards warm up before a indicate. [ 50 ] Townshend ‘s “ windmill ” proficiency The Who commenced their inaugural US tour on 22 March 1967. Townshend took to trashing his hotel suites, though not to the extent of his bandmate Moon. He besides began experimenting with LSD, though stopped taking the drug after receiving a potent reach after the Monterey Pop Festival on 18 June. Released in December, their future album was The Who Sell Out —a concept album based on commandeer radio receiver, which had been instrumental in raising the Who ‘s popularity. It included several humorous jingles and mock commercials between songs, and the Who ‘s biggest uranium single, “ I Can See for Miles “. Despite the success of “ I Can See for Miles “, which reached No. 9 on the american english charts, Townshend was surprised it was not a smash hit, as he considered it the best birdcall he had written up to that point. By 1968, Townshend became concern in the teachings of Meher Baba. He began to develop a musical part about a deaf, speechless, and blind male child who would experience sensations musically. The patch would explore the tenets of Baba ‘s philosophy. The result was the rock opera Tommy, released on 23 May 1969 to critical and commercial achiever. In support of Tommy, the Who launched a enlistment that included a memorable appearance at the Woodstock Festival on 17 August. While the Who were playing, Yippie leader Abbie Hoffman jumped the phase to complain about the catch of John Sinclair. Townshend promptly knocked him offstage with his guitar, cheering, “ Fuck off my bally stage ! ” In 1970, the Who released Live at Leeds, which several music critics cite as the best populate album of all time. [ 61 ] Townshend began writing material for another rock candy opera. Dubbed Lifehouse, it was designed to be a multi-media plan that symbolised the kinship between a musician and his audience. The respite of the band were confused by its convoluted plot and just wanted another album. Townshend began to feel alien, and the plan was abandoned after he suffered a skittish dislocation. much of the material intended for Lifehouse was released as a traditional studio apartment album, Who’s Next. It became a commercial smash, reaching act one in the UK, and spawned two successful hit singles, “ Baba O’Riley “ and “ Wo n’t Get Fooled Again “, that featured pioneer practice of the synthesist. “ Baba O’Riley ” in particular was written as Townshend ‘s ode to his two heroes at the time, Meher Baba and composer Terry Riley. [ 65 ] Townshend acting in Hamburg, Germany in August 1972 Townshend began writing songs for another rock opera in 1973. He decided it would explore the mod subculture and its clashes with Rockers in the early 1960s in the UK. Entitled Quadrophenia, it was the only Who album written wholly by Townshend, and he produced the album a well due to the souring of relations with Lambert. It was released in November, and became their highest charting cross-Atlantic success, reaching No. 2 in the UK and US. NME reviewer Charles Shaar Murray called it “ prime cut Who ” and “ the most reinforce musical experience of the year. ” On go, the ring played the album along to pre-recorded second tapes, causing much clash. The tapes malfunctioned during a performance in Newcastle, prompting Townshend to drag soundman Bob Pridden onstage, shout at him and kick over all the amplifiers, partially destroying the malfunctioning tapes. On 14 April 1974, Townshend played his first solo concert, a benefit to raise funds for a London residential district center. A movie version of Tommy was directed by Ken Russell, and starred Roger Daltrey in the title role, Ann-Margret as his mother, Oliver Reed as his step-father, with cameo by Tina Turner, Elton John, Eric Clapton and other rock notables ; the film premiered on 18 March 1975. Townshend was nominated for an Academy Award for scoring and adapting the music in the film. The Who by Numbers came out in November of that year and peaked at No. 7 in the UK and 8 in the US. It featured introspective songs, often with a negative lean. The album spawned one hit single, “ Squeeze Box “, that was written after Townshend learned how to play the accordion. After a 1976 enlistment, Townshend took a year-long break from the band to focus on outgo time with his family. The Who continues despite the deaths of two of the original members ( Keith Moon in 1978 and John Entwistle in 2002 ). The ring is regarded by many rock critics as one of the best [ 77 ] [ 78 ] live bands [ 79 ] [ 80 ] from the 1960s to the 2000s. The Who continues to perform critically acclaim sets into the twenty-first hundred, including highly involve performances at The Concert For New York City in 2001, the 2004 Isle of Wight Festival, Live 8 in 2005 and the 2007 Glastonbury Festival. Townshend remained the elementary songwriter and leader of the group, writing over 100 songs which appeared on the band ‘s football team studio albums. Among his creations is the rock opera, Quadrophenia. Townshend revisited album-length storytelling throughout his career and remains associated with the rock opera form. many studio recordings besides feature Townshend on piano or keyboards, though keyboard-heavy tracks increasingly featured guest artists in the studio, such as Nicky Hopkins, John Bundrick or Chris Stainton. [ 81 ] Townshend is one of the key figures in the development of feedback in rock ‘n’ roll guitar. When asked who first used feedback, Deep Purple guitarist Ritchie Blackmore said :

Pete Townshend was decidedly the first base. But not being that dear a guitarist, he used to just sort of crash chords and let the guitar feedback. He did n’t get into twiddling with the dials on the amplifier until much former. He ‘s overrated in England, but at the same time you find a lot of people like Jeff Beck and Hendrix getting recognition for things he started. Townshend was the beginning to break his guitar, and he was the beginning to do a lot of things. He ‘s very beneficial at his harmonize fit, besides. [ 82 ]

similarly, when Jimmy Page was asked about the development of guitar feedback, he said :

I do n’t know who very did feedback foremost ; it just classify of happened. I do n’t think anybody consciously nicked it from anybody else. It was just going on. But Pete Townshend obviously was the one, through the music of his group, who made the function of feedback more his stylus, and so it ‘s related to him. Whereas the other players like Jeff Beck and myself were playing more individual note things than chords. [ 83 ]

many rock guitarists have cited Townshend as an influence, among them Slash, [ 84 ] Alex Lifeson [ 85 ] and Steve Jones. [ 86 ]

1972–present : solo career [edit ]

In summation to his work with the Who, Townshend has been sporadically active as a solo recording artist. between 1969 and 1971 Townshend, along with early devotees to Meher Baba, recorded a trio of albums devoted to his teachings : Happy Birthday, I Am, and With Love. In answer to bootleg of these, he compiled his personal highlights ( and “ development ”, a collaboration with Ronnie Lane ), and released his first major-label solo title, 1972 ‘s Who Came First. It was a control success and have show of Who songs american samoa well as a case of his acoustic guitar talents. He collaborated with the Faces ‘ bassist and fellow Meher Baba fan Ronnie Lane on a duet album ( 1977 ‘s Rough Mix ). In 1979 Townshend produced and performed guitar on the freshness single “ Peppermint Lump ” by Angie on Stiff Records, featuring 11-year-old Angela Porter on lead vocals. [ 87 ] Townshend made respective solo appearances during the 1970s, two of which were captured on criminal record : Eric Clapton ‘s Rainbow Concert [ 88 ] in January 1973 ( which Townshend organized to revive Clapton ‘s career after the latter ‘s heroin addiction ), [ 89 ] and the Paul McCartney -sponsored Concerts for the People of Kampuchea in December 1979. The commercially available video of the Kampuchea concert shows the two rock icons duelling and clowning [ 90 ] through Rockestra mega-band versions of “ Lucille ”, “ Let It Be ” and the “ Rockestra Theme ” ; Townshend closes the proceedings with a feature split-legged leap. [ 91 ] Townshend ‘s solo breakthrough, following the death of Who drummer Keith Moon, was the 1980 free Empty Glass, which included a top-10 single, “ Let My Love Open the Door “ and “ Rough Boys “. This release was followed in 1982 by All the Best Cowboys Have Chinese Eyes, which included the popular radio chase “ Slit Skirts “. While not a huge commercial success, noted music critic Timothy Duggan listed it as “ Townshend ‘s most dependable and introspective work since Quadrophenia. ” Through the rest of the 1980s and early 1990s Townshend would again experiment with the rock opera and related formats, releasing respective story-based albums including White City: A Novel ( 1985 ), The Iron Man: A Musical ( 1989 ), and Psychoderelict ( 1993 ). Townshend besides got the prospect to play with his hero Hank Marvin for Paul McCartney ‘s “ Rockestra “ sessions, along with early rock musicians such as David Gilmour, John Bonham and Ronnie Lane .
Townshend in concert, 2008 Townshend has besides recorded respective concert albums, including one featuring a supergroup he assembled called Deep End, with David Gilmour on guitar, who performed good three concerts and a television read school term for The Tube, to raise money for his Double-O charity, supporting drug addicts. [ 92 ] In 1993 he and Des McAnuff wrote and directed the Broadway adaptation of the Who album Tommy, american samoa well as a less successful degree melodious based on his solo album The Iron Man, based upon the reserve by Ted Hughes. McAnuff and Townshend subsequently co-produced the animated film The Iron Giant, besides based on the Hughes story. A production described as a Townshend rock opera and titled The Boy Who Heard Music debuted as depart of Vassar College ‘s Powerhouse Summer Theater broadcast in July 2007. On 2 September 2017 in Lenox, Massachusetts, Townshend embarked with colleague singer and musician Billy Idol, tenor Alfie Boe and an orchestra on a inadequate ( 5-date ) “ classic Quadrophenia ” US tour which ended on 16 September 2017 in Los Angeles, California. [ 93 ] [ 94 ]

1996–present : latest Who work [edit ]

From the mid-1990s through the present, Townshend has participated in a series of tours with the surviving members of the Who, including a 2002 go that continued despite Entwistle ‘s death. [ 95 ] In February 2006, a major world enlistment by the Who was announced to promote their first new album since 1982. Townshend published a semi-autobiographical story The Boy Who Heard Music as a serial on a blog beginning in September 2005. [ 96 ] The blog closed in October 2006, as noted on Townshend ‘s web site. It is now owned by a different drug user and does not relate to Townshend ‘s workplace in any way. On 25 February 2006, he announced the emergence of a mini-opera inspired by the novelette for June 2006. In October 2006 the Who released their first album in 24 years, Endless Wire. The Who performed at the Super Bowl XLIV half-time show on 7 February 2010, playing a medley of songs that included “ Pinball Wizard ”, “ Who Are You “, “ Baba O’Riley ”, “ See Me, Feel Me “ and “ Wo n’t Get Fooled Again ”. [ 97 ] In 2012, the Who announced they would tour the rock opera Quadrophenia. The Who were the final performers at the 2012 Summer Olympics close ceremony in London, performing a medley of “ Baba O’Riley ”, “ See Me, Feel Me ” and “ My genesis ”. [ 98 ] On 22 March 2018, Townshend stated that a new Who album should feature original songs by Roger Daltrey a well as him. [ 99 ] That album, just titled Who, was released on 6 December 2019. It was the band ‘s second base album as a couple, and their first in thirteen years. [ 100 ]

Unfinished solve [edit ]

The Age of Anxiety, once Floss The Musical, [ 101 ] is the identify given to a work-in-progress by Townshend. [ 102 ] The musical has been a bring in progress at least since 2009 with an original estimate liberation of 2011. [ 103 ] On 24 January 2012 Townshend sold the rights to all of his back catalogue and much of his future work including Floss The Musical if it is ever completed. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] He summarized the sour in an consultation with Sirius Satellite Radio published February 2010. [ 106 ] In a 2015 interview Townshend stated that the make was intended to be an art initiation. [ 107 ] In March 2019 it was announced that a work entitled The Age of Anxiety would be published as a novel, with an opera to follow. [ 108 ]

musical influences [edit ]

Townshend was born ten-spot days after Nazi Germany surrendered in the second World War and grew up in the shadow of reconstruction in and around London. According to Townshend, postwar trauma was the repel military unit behind the rock music revolution in the UK. “ Trauma is passed from generation to generation ”, he said, “ I ‘ve unwittingly inherited what my father experienced. ” [ 109 ] Townshend notes that growing up in this period produced the narrative that runs through his music of a son lost in the stresses and pressures of postwar liveliness. [ 110 ] In his autobiography, he wrote :

I was n’t trying to play beautiful music. I was confronting my audience with the nasty, intuitive sound of what we all knew was the single absolute of our frail existence—one day an airplane would carry the bombard that would destroy us all in a flash. It could happen at any time. [ 111 ]

Although he grew up in a family with jazz musicians, Townshend absorbed many of his ideas about operation and rock music themes during art school. Townshend ‘s roommate at Ealing Art College, Tom Wright, had a big record collection, and Townshend listened to and became influenced by R & B and rock & seethe artists like Howlin ‘ Wolf, John Lee Hooker, Bo Diddley, Booker T. & the MGs, Little Walter, and Chuck Berry. He was besides strongly influenced by cellist Malcolm Cecil, who frequently damaged his cello during performances, along with Gustav Metzger, initiate of auto-destructive artwork. In light of these influences, guitar crush became not barely an expression of youthful angst, but besides a entail of conveying ideas through musical performance. “ We advanced a newfangled concept ”, he writes. “ Destruction is art when set to music. ” [ 111 ]

equipment [edit ]

Guitars [edit ]

Townshend leaping into tune in concert Throughout his solo career and his career with the Who, Townshend has played a large variety of guitars – by and large diverse Fender, Gibson, and Rickenbacker models. He has besides used Guild, [ 113 ] Takamine [ 114 ] and Gibson J-200 acoustic models, with the J-200 providing his signature recorded acoustic sound in such songs as “ Pinball Wizard “. [ 115 ] In the early days with the Who, Townshend played an Emile Grimshaw SS De Luxe and 6-string and 12-string Rickenbacker semi-hollow electric guitars primarily ( peculiarly the Rose-Morris UK-imported models with special f-holes ). When the aroused audience responded enthusiastically after he incidentally broke the head off his guitar on a low ceiling during a concert at the Railway Hotel public house in Wealdstone, west London, he incorporated the eventual smash of his legal document into the band ‘s performances. [ 116 ] however, as instrument-smashing became increasingly integrated into the Who ‘s concert sets, he switched to more durable and resilient ( and, importantly, cheaper ) guitars for smashing, such as the Fender Stratocaster, Fender Telecaster and assorted Danelectro models. [ 117 ] On the Who ‘s The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour appearance in 1967, Townshend used a Vox Cheetah guitar, [ 118 ] which he only used for that operation ; the guitar was destroyed by Townshend and Moon ‘s cram explosion. In the late 1960s, Townshend began playing Gibson SG Special models about entirely. He used this guitar at the Woodstock [ 119 ] and Isle of Wight shows in 1969 and 1970, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Live at Leeds performance in 1970. By 1970 Gibson changed the design of the SG Special which Townshend had been using previously, and he began using other guitars. For much of the 1970s, he used a Gibson Les Paul Deluxe, some with only two mini- humbucker pick-ups and others modified with a third base pick-up in the “ middle position ” ( a DiMarzio Superdistortion / Dual Sound ). He can be seen using several of these guitars in the documentary The Kids Are Alright, although in the studio he often played a ’59 Gretsch 6120 guitar ( given to him by Joe Walsh ), [ 118 ] most notably on the albums Who’s Next and Quadrophenia. [ 120 ] During the 1980s, Townshend chiefly used Fenders, Rickenbackers and Telecaster-style models built for him by Schecter and diverse other luthiers. Since the late-1980s, Townshend has used the Fender Eric Clapton Signature Stratocaster, with Lace Sensor pick-ups, [ 118 ] both in the studio and on enlistment. Some of his Stratocaster guitars feature a Fishman PowerBridge piezo pick-up system to simulate acoustic guitar tones. This piezo system is controlled by an extra volume control behind the guitar ‘s bridge. During the Who ‘s 1989 Tour Townshend played a Rickenbacker guitar that was ironically smashed unintentionally when he tripped over it. alternatively of throwing the bankrupt parts away, Townshend reassembled the pieces as a sculpture. [ 121 ] The sculpture was featured at the Rock Stars, Cars And Guitars 2 exhibit during the summer of 2009 at The Henry Ford museum .
There are respective Gibson Pete Townshend touch guitars, such as the Pete Townshend SG, the Pete Townshend J-200, and three different Pete Townshend Les Paul Deluxes. The SG was distinctly marked as a Pete Townshend limited edition model and came with a special case and certificate of authenticity, signed by Townshend himself. There has besides been a Pete Townshend signature Rickenbacker limited version guitar of the model 1998, which was his main 6-string guitar in the Who ‘s early days. The run featured 250 guitars which were made between July 1987 – March 1988, and according to Rickenbacker CEO John Hall, the entire run sold out before serious advertise could be done. He besides used the Gibson ES-335, one of which he donated to the Hard Rock Cafe. Townshend besides used a Gibson EDS-1275 double-neck very concisely circa belated 1967, and both a Harmony Sovereign H1270 [ 122 ] and a Fender Electric XII for the studio sessions for Tommy for the 12-string guitar parts. He besides occasionally used Fender Jazzmasters on stage in 1967 and 1968 [ 123 ] and in the studio for Tommy. In 2006 Townshend had a pedalboard designed by long-time gear guru Pete Cornish. The board apparently comprises a compressor, an honest-to-god Boss OD-1 overuse pedal point, ampere well as a T-Rex Replica delay pedal .

Amps [edit ]

Over the years, Townshend has used many types of amplifier, including Vox, [ 124 ] Selmer, Fender, Marshall, and Hiwatt, sticking to using Hiwatt amps for most of four decades. Around the prison term of Who’s Next, he used a flannel Fender Bandmaster adenosine monophosphate ( besides given to him by Joe Walsh in 1970 [ 125 ] ), which he besides used for Quadrophenia and The Who by Numbers. While recording Face Dances and the collaborative album Rough Mix, Townshend made use of a Peavey Vintage 4×10 amplifier in the studio. Since 1989, his rig consisted of four Fender Vibro-King stacks and a Hiwatt capitulum driving two custom made 2×12 ” Hiwatt/Mesa Boogie speaker cabinets. however, since 2006, he has only three Vibro-King stacks, one of which is a backing. Townshend figured prominently in the development of what is widely known in rock circles as the “ Marshall stack “. He ordered several loudspeaker cabinets that contained eight 12 ” speakers in a house standing closely six feet in height with the crown one-half of the cabinet slanted slenderly up. These were besides big to move well, so Jim Marshall cut the massive loudspeaker cabinet in half, at the suggestion of Townshend, with each cabinet containing four 12-inch speakers. One of the cabinets had one-half of the loudspeaker baffle slanted upwards and Marshall made these two cabinets stackable. The Marshall batch was born, and Townshend used these angstrom well as Hiwatt stacks. He has constantly regarded his instruments as being merely tools of the trade [ 126 ] and has, in latter years, kept his most prize instruments well away from the concert phase. These instruments include a few vintage and reissue Rickenbackers, the Gretsch 6120, an original 1952 Fender Telecaster, [ 127 ] Gibson Custom Shop ‘s artist limited version reissues of Townshend ‘s Les Paul DeLuxe models 1, 3 and 9 a well his touch SG Special reissue .

Keyboards [edit ]

Townshend played keyboards on several Who songs. On Who’s Next, he began to work with analogue synthesizers, using the ARP 2600 model that he inaugural encountered at Cambridge University. He had this to say about the instrument : “ I like synthesizers because they bring into my hands things that are n’t in my hands : the sound of an orchestra, french horns, strings. There are gadgets on synthesizers that enable one to become a virtuoso on the keyboard. You can play something slowly and you press a switch and it plays it back at double speed. Whereas on the guitar you ‘re stuck with angstrom fast as you can play and I do n’t play fast, I fair play hard. so when it goes to playing something firm I go to the synth. ” The synths Townshend was referring to include the EMS VCS3, the ARP Instruments, Inc. ARP 2600, some of which modified a Lowrey TBO Berkshire organ. Current photograph of his home studio apartment besides show an arp 2500. Townshend was featured in ARP promotional materials in the early 1970s. [ 130 ] Since the late 1980s Townshend has predominantly used Synclavier Digital Audio systems for keyboard constitution, particularly alone albums and projects. He presently owns three systems, one large Synclavier 9600 Tapeless Studio organization, primitively installed in his riverside Oceanic Studio, subsequently transferred to a seagoing barge moored alongside the studio on the River Thames, and presently based in his family studio. He besides uses a particular adjust smaller Synclavier 3200 system which can be transported, enabling him to carry on working away from his main studio apartment. This 3200 system was modified to be of similar specification to the 9600, including the accession internally of FM voices, stereo Poly voices and with the large VPK keyboard. This is the only Synclavier 3200 system of this specification in universe, custom-designed and built for Townshend by Steve Hills. The one-third system Townshend owns is one of the inaugural Synclavier II systems always built. The ORK ( original smaller ) keyboard of which is on display in his company ‘s head office alongside a pinko Vespa scoter .

literary work [edit ]

Although known for his musical compositions and musicianship, Townshend has been extensively involved in the literary universe for more than three decades, writing newspaper and magazine articles, book reviews, essays, books, and scripts. An early model of Townshend ‘s writing came in August 1970 with the first of nine instalments of “ The Pete Townshend Page ”, a monthly column written by Townshend for the british music newspaper Melody Maker. The column provided Townshend ‘s perspective on an align of subjects, such as the media and the state of US concert halls and public address systems, ampere well as providing valuable insight into Townshend ‘s mentality during the evolution of his Lifehouse project. Townshend besides wrote three goodly essays for Rolling Stone magazine, the first of which appeared in November 1970. In Love With Meher Baba described Townshend ‘s spiritual leanings. “ Meaty, Beaty, Big and Bouncy ”, a blow-by-blow score of the Who compilation album of the same identify, followed in December 1971. The third base article, “ The Punk Meets the Godmother ”, appeared in November 1977.

besides in 1977, Townshend founded Eel Pie Publishing, which specialised in children ‘s titles, music books, and respective Meher Baba-related publications. He besides opened a bookshop named Magic Bus ( after the democratic Who song ) in London. The Story of Tommy, a book written by Townshend and his art school acquaintance Richard Barnes ( now the Who ‘s official biographer ) about the write of Townshend ‘s 1969 rock ‘n’ roll opera and the make of the 1975 Ken Russell -directed film, was published by Eel Pie the same year. In July 1983, Townshend took a position as an acquisitions editor for London publisher Faber and Faber. celebrated projects included editing Animals frontman Eric Burdon ‘s autobiography, Charles Shaar Murray ‘s award-winning Crosstown Traffic: Jimi Hendrix and Post-War Pop, Brian Eno and Russell Mills ‘s More Dark Than Shark, and working with Prince Charles on a volume of his collect speeches. Townshend commissioned Dave Rimmer ‘s Like Punk Never Happened, and was commissioning editor program for free radical dramatist Steven Berkoff. Two years after joining Faber and Faber, Townshend decided to publish a book of his own. Horse’s Neck, issued in May 1985, was a solicitation of inadequate stories he ‘d written between 1979 and 1984, tackling subjects such as childhood, stardom and spiritualty. As a result of his position with Faber and Faber, Townshend developed friendships with both Nobel prize-winning writer of Lord of the Flies, Sir William Golding, and british Poet Laureate Ted Hughes. His friendship with Hughes led to Townshend ‘s melodious interpretation of Hughes ‘s children ‘s floor The Iron Man, six years by and by, as The Iron Man: The Musical by Pete Townshend, released in 1989. Townshend has written respective scripts spanning the breadth of his career, including numerous drafts of his elusive Lifehouse project, the last of which, co-written with radio dramatist Jeff Young, was published in 1999. In 1978, Townshend wrote a script for Fish Shop, a bid commissioned but not completed by London Weekend Television, and in mid-1984 he wrote a script for White City: A Novel which led to a short film. In 1989 Townshend began bring on a fresh entitled Ray High & The Glass Household, a draft of which was by and by submitted to his editor program. While the original novel remains unpublished, elements from this report were used in Townshend ‘s 1993 solo album Psychoderelict. In 1993, Townshend authored another script, The Who’s Tommy, a history of the development of the award-winning Broadway adaptation of his rock opera. The open of his personal web site and his department of commerce site, both in 2000, gave Townshend another release for literary work. ( was closed polish in 2010. ) Several of Townshend ‘s essays have been posted on-line, including “ Meher Baba—The Silent victor : My own secrecy ” in 2001, and “ A Different Bomb ”, an indictment of the child pornography diligence, the comply year. In September 2005, Townshend began posting a novelette on-line entitled The Boy Who Heard Music as background for a musical of the same name. He posted a chapter each workweek until it was completed, and novelette was available to read at his web site for several months. Like Psychoderelict, it was so far another extrapolation of Lifehouse and Ray High & The Glass Household. In 1997 Townshend signed a deal with Little, Brown and Company publication to write his autobiography, reportedly titled Pete Townshend: Who He? Townshend ‘s creative vagaries and conceptual machinations have been chronicled by Larry David Smith in his bible The Minstrel’s Dilemma ( Praeger 1999 ). After a drawn-out delay, Townshend ‘s autobiography, now titled Who I Am, was released 8 October 2012. [ 131 ] The koran ranked in the top 5 of The New York Times best seller list in October 2012. [ 132 ] On 5 March 2019, Townshend announced that his introduction novel, titled The Age of Anxiety, would be published on 5 November 2019 by Hodder & Stoughton imprint Coronet. Townshend called the work an “ stretch meditation on frenzied genius and the dark artwork of creativity. ” The novel will be accompanied by an opera, which is presently in development, with an art initiation to follow. [ 108 ]

Spirituality [edit ]

In 1967 Townshend had begun to explore spiritualty. [ 133 ] Townshend swiftly absorbed all of Meher Baba ‘s writings that he could find ; by April 1968, he announced himself Baba ‘s disciple. At about this time, Townshend, who had been searching the past two years for a basis for a rock opera, created a fib inspired by the teachings of Baba and other writings and expressing the enlightenment he believed that he had received from them, which ultimately became Tommy. [ 134 ] In interviews Townshend was more open about his belief, penning an article on Baba for Rolling Stone magazine in 1970 and stating that following Baba ‘s teachings, he was opposed to the manipulation of all psychedelic drugs, making him one of the first rock stars with counterculture credibility to turn against their use. [ 135 ]

personal life [edit ]

Relationships [edit ]

Townshend met Karen Astley, daughter of film composer Edwin Astley, while in art school. They married on 20 May 1968 and moved into a three-bedroom townhouse in Twickenham in forbidden southwest London that overlooked the Thames. They have three children : Emma ( bear 1969 ), who is a garden columnist, Aminta ( natural 1971 ), who works in film production, and Joseph ( yield 1989 ), who studied graphic design at Central St. Martins. [ 137 ] Townshend and his wife separated in 1994. He has since been in a romanticist relationship with arranger and musician Rachel Fuller. Townshend lived at The Wick, Richmond, London, England, but sold the family in August 2021 for more than £15 million. [ 138 ] He besides owns a family in Churt, Surrey, and in 2010 purchased a lease of part of the National Trust property Ashdown House in Oxfordshire. [ 139 ] According to The Sunday Times Rich List his assets were worth £40 million as of 2009. [ 140 ]

sex [edit ]

In a 1989 interview with radio receiver host Timothy White, Townshend apparently acknowledged his bisexuality, referencing the song “ rough in Boys ” on his 1980 album, Empty Glass. He called the birdcall a “ coming out, an acknowledgment of the fact that I ‘d had a gay life, and that I understood what gay sex was about. ” [ 141 ] however, in a 1994 interview for Playboy, he said, “ I did an interview about it, saying that ‘Rough Boys ‘ was about being brave, and in the interview I besides talked about my ‘gay life ‘, which—I meant—was actually about the friends I ‘ve had who are cheery. So the interviewer kind of dotted the thyroxine ‘s and crossed the one ‘s and assumed that this was a coming out, which it was n’t at all. ” [ 142 ] Townshend late wrote in his 2012 autobiography Who I Am that he is “ probably bisexual ”. [ 143 ] Townshend besides stated that he once felt sexually attracted to the Rolling Stones lead singer, Mick Jagger. [ 143 ]

Legal issues [edit ]

Townshend accepted a caution from the Metropolitan Police ( the Met ) as part of Operation Ore, a major investigation on child pornography conducted in 2002–2003. The Met stated that “ it was established that Mr Townshend was not in possession of any download child pervert images ”. Townshend was placed on the arouse offenders register for five years in 2003 after admitting he had used his credit tease to entree a child pornography web site. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] Townshend initially claimed that he accessed the images as research in a crusade against child sexual pervert ; [ 146 ] in 2012, he wrote in his autobiography, Who I Am, that he had accessed the illegal images to prove that british banks were complicit in channelling the profits from pedophile rings. [ 147 ] An article by fact-finding reporter Duncan Campbell that was published in PC Pro magazine revealed that patrol had no evidence that the web site accessed by Townshend byzantine children and nothing accuse was found on his personal calculator. [ 148 ]

Hearing personnel casualty [edit ]

Townshend suffers from partial deafness and tinnitus, believed to be the result of noise-induced earshot loss from his extensive exposure to loud music. The Who were renowned as a very brassy band in their alive performances ; some particular incidents include a Who concert at the Charlton Athletic Football Club, London, on 31 May 1976 that was listed as the “ Loudest Concert Ever ” by the Guinness Book of Records, where the bulk flat was measured at 126 decibels 32 metres from the stage. Townshend has besides attributed the starting signal of his hear loss to Keith Moon ‘s celebrated exploding drum set during the Who ‘s 1967 appearance on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. [ 149 ] In 1989, Townshend gave the initial fund to allow the formation of the non-profit earshot advocacy group H.E.A.R. ( Hearing Education and Awareness for Rockers ). After the Who performed at half-time at Super Bowl XLIV, Townshend stated that he is concerned that his tinnitus has grown to such a point that he might be forced to discontinue performing with the dance band wholly. He told Rolling Stone, “ If my earshot is going to be a problem, we ‘re not delaying shows. We ‘re finished. I ca n’t in truth see any means around the publish. ” Neil Young introduced him to an audiologist who suggested he use an in-ear monitor, and although they cancelled their spring 2010 tour schedule, Townshend used the device at their one remaining London concert on 30 March 2010, to ascertain the feasibility of Townshend continuing to perform with the Who. [ 150 ] In March 2011, Roger Daltrey said in an interview with the BBC that Townshend had recently experienced gradual but severe hear loss and was nowadays trying to save what remained of his hearing : “ Pete ‘s having atrocious trouble with his hearing. He ‘s got in truth, truly bad problems with it … not tinnitus, it ‘s deterioration and he ‘s badly now worry about actually losing his hear ”. Referring to that, in July 2011, Townshend wrote at his web log : “ My listen is actually better than ever because after a feedback frighten at the indigO2 in December 2008 I am taking good wish of it. I have computer systems in my studio apartment that have helped me do my mastermind sour on the forthcoming Quadrophenia passing. I have had aid from younger forensic engineers and mastering engineers to help me clean up the high gear frequencies that are out of my stove. The lapp calculator systems work wonderfully well on stage, proving to be perfect for me when the Who performed at the Super Bowl and doing Quadrophenia for TCT at the Royal Albert Hall in 2010. I ‘m 66, I do n’t have arrant hearing, and if I listen to loud music or go to gigs I do tend to get tinnitus ” .

political views [edit ]

In 1998, Townshend was named in a tilt of the biggest private fiscal donors to the UK Labour Party. [ 151 ] He refused to let Michael Moore consumption “ Wo n’t Get Fooled Again “ in Fahrenheit 9/11, saying that he watched Bowling for Columbine and was not convinced. [ 152 ] In 1961 while in art school, Townshend joined the Young Communist League and was a big calculate in their 1966 “ Trend ” recruitment campaign. In a 1974 Penthouse consultation he stated that he recognised in exercise he was a capitalist who was rewarded well for his solve, but that his ideals were communist. [ 153 ] In a wide reported 2012 interview with ABC, Townshend described himself facetiously as being “ a spot of a neoconservative “ stating that, “ I like the idea of America as the world ’ south patrol push. then we don ’ t have to do it. You guys sort it out. ” [ 154 ] In a 2019 interview with The Times, Townshend revealed he was in favor of the UK remaining in the European Union, stating, “ I ‘m a Remainer, he [ Roger Daltrey ] is a Brexiteer. I believe in God, he doesn ’ thymine. ” [ 155 ]

Charity cultivate [edit ]

Townshend has woven a long history of involvement with diverse charities and other beneficent efforts throughout his career, both as a solo artist and with the Who. His first solo concert, for exemplar, was a 1974 benefit usher which was organised to raise funds for the Camden Square Community Play Centre. The earliest public example of Townshend ‘s interest with charitable causes was in 1968, when Townshend donated the use of his early Wardour Street apartment to the Meher Baba Association. The following class, the association was moved to another Townshend-owned apartment, the Eccleston Square former residency of his wife Karen. Townshend sat on a committee which oversaw the operation and finances of the center. “ The committee sees to it that it is open a couple of days a week, and keeps the bills paid and the library wax ”, he wrote in a 1970 Rolling Stone article. In 1969 and 1972, Townshend produced two limited-release albums, Happy Birthday and I Am, for the London-based Baba association. This led to 1972 ‘s Who Came First, a more widespread publish, 15 percentage of the gross of which went to the Baba association. A further limited release, With Love, was released in 1976. A limited-edition boxed fit of all three specify releases on certificate of deposit, Avatar, was released in 2000, with all profits going to the Avatar Meher Baba Trust in India, which provided funds to a dispensary, school, hospital and pilgrimage center. In July 1976, Townshend opened Meher Baba Oceanic, a London bodily process center for Baba followers, which featured movie dub and editing facilities, a film and a record studio apartment. In accession, the center served as a regular meet stead for Baba followers. Townshend offered very economical ( reportedly £1 per night ) lodge for american followers who needed an nightlong stay on their pilgrimages to India. Townshend wrote in a 1977 Rolling Stone article :

For a few years, I had toyed with the theme of opening a London theater dedicated to Meher Baba. In the eight years I had followed him, I had donated only coppers to foundations set up around the earth to carry out the victor ‘s wishes and decided it was about time I put myself on the channel. The Who had set up a strong charitable believe of its own which appeased, to an extent, the feel I had that Meher Baba would rather have seen me give to the poor than to the establishment of however another alleged ‘spiritual center ‘ .

Townshend besides embarked on a project dedicated to the collection, renovation and sustenance of Meher Baba-related films. The project was known as MEFA, or Meher Baba European Film Archive .

Children ‘s charities [edit ]

Townshend has been an active champion of children ‘s charities. The introduction of Townshend ‘s stage version of Tommy took place at San Diego ‘s La Jolla Playhouse in July 1992. The show was earmarked as a benefit for the London-based Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy Foundation, an organization which helps children with autism and intellectual disability. Townshend performed at a 1995 benefit organised by Paul Simon at Madison Square Garden ‘s Paramount Theatre for the Children ‘s Health Fund. The following year, Townshend performed at a benefit for the annual Bridge School Benefit, a California facility for children with austere address and physical impairments, with concerts organised by Neil and Pegi Young. In 1997, Townshend established a kinship with Maryville Academy, a Chicago area children ‘s charity. between 1997 and 2002, Townshend played five benefit shows for Maryville Academy, raising at least $ 1,600,000. His 1998 album A Benefit for Maryville Academy was made to support their activities and proceeds from the sales of his turn were donated to them. As a member of the Who, Townshend has besides performed a series of concerts, beginning in 2000 to benefit the Teenage Cancer Trust in the UK, which raised several million pounds. In 2005, Townshend performed at New York ‘s Gotham Hall for Samsung ‘s Four Seasons of Hope, an annual children ‘s charity fundraiser. In the same year, he donated a crush guitar to the Pediatric Epilepsy Project. [ 156 ] On 4 November 2011, Roger Daltrey and Townshend launched the Daltrey/Townshend Teen and Young Adult Cancer Program at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles, to be funded by the Who ‘s jacob’s ladder Who Cares. The launching, followed on 5 November by a fund-raise event, was besides attended by Robert Plant and Dave Grohl. [ 157 ]

drug rehabilitation [edit ]

Townshend has besides advocated for drug reclamation. In a 1985 radio interview, he said :

What I ‘m most active agent in doing is raising money to provide beds in clinics to help people that have become victims of drug misuse. In Britain, the facilities are very, very, very tend indeed … although we have a national health service, a loose aesculapian system, it does nothing particularly for course A drug addicts – cocaine abusers, heroin abusers … we ‘re making a distribute of build up … the british government embarked on an anti-heroin campaign with advertising, and I was co-opted by them as a kind of figurehead, and then the versatile early people co-opted me into their own campaigns, but my main work is raising money to try and open a large clinic .

The “ bombastic clinic ” Townshend was referring to was a plan he and drug reclamation experimenter Meg Patterson had devised to open a drug discussion adeptness in London ; however, the plan failed to come to fruition. Two early 1979 concerts by the Who raised £20,000 for Patterson ‘s Pharmakon Clinic in Sussex. further examples of Townshend ‘s drug rehabilitation activism took station in the form of a 1984 profit concert ( by the way the first exist operation of Manchester band the Stone Roses ), an article he wrote a few days former for Britain ‘s Mail on Sunday urging better care for the nation ‘s growing number of drug addicts, and the formation of a charitable arrangement, Double-O Charities, to raise funds for the causes he ‘d recently championed. Townshend besides personally sold fund-raise anti-heroin T-shirts at a series of UK Bruce Springsteen concerts and reportedly financed a slip for former Clash drummer Topper Headon to undergo drug rehabilitation treatment. Townshend ‘s 1985–86 isthmus, Deep End, played two benefits at Brixton Academy in 1985 for Double-O Charities .

Amnesty International [edit ]

In 1979 Townshend donated his services to the homo rights constitution Amnesty International when he performed three songs for its benefit show The Secret Policeman’s Ball – performances that were released on record and seen in the film of the indicate. Townshend ‘s acoustic performances of three of his songs ( “ Pinball Wizard “, “ Drowned ”, and “ Wo n’t Get Fooled Again “ ) were subsequently cited as forerunners and inhalation for the “ unplug “ phenomenon in the 1990s. [ 158 ] Townshend had been invited to perform for Amnesty by Martin Lewis, the producer of The Secret Policeman’s Ball, who stated late that Townshend ‘s participation had been the key to his securing the subsequent engagement for Amnesty ( in the 1981 sequel show ) of Sting, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Phil Collins and Bob Geldof. early performers inspired to support Amnesty International in future Secret Policeman’s Ball shows and other benefits because of Townshend ‘s early on commitment to the administration include Peter Gabriel, Bruce Springsteen, David Gilmour and U2 ‘s go singer Bono who in 1986 told Rolling Stone magazine : “ I saw The Secret Policeman’s Ball and it became a separate of me. It sowed a seed …. ”

discography [edit ]

solo albums [edit ]

Townshend besides released several albums dedicated to his apparitional mentor Meher Baba, listed on the discography page .

Guest appearances [edit ]

In 1968 Townshend helped assemble a band called Thunderclap Newman consisting of three musicians he knew. Pianist Andy Newman ( an erstwhile art school friend ), drummer John “ Speedy ” Keen ( who had written “ Armenia City in the Sky ” for the Who to record for their 1967 album The Who Sell Out ) and adolescent guitarist Jimmy McCulloch ( late to join Wings ). Townshend produced the isthmus and played bass on their recordings under the facetiously pseudonym “ Bijou Drains ”. Their first record was the single “ Something in the Air “, which became a number one shoot in the UK and a substantial hit elsewhere in the global. Following this success, Townshend produced their sole album, Hollywood Dream. [ citation needed ] In 1971 Townshend, along with Keith Moon and Ronnie Lane, backed Mike Heron ( of the Incredible String Band ) on one song “ ardent Heart Pastry ” from Heron ‘s inaugural solo LP, Smiling Men with Bad Reputations. On the album notes, they are listed as “ Tommy and the Bijoux ”. besides present on the track was John Cale on viola. [ citation needed ] In 1984 Townshend contributed lyrics to the chase “ I ‘m the Answer ” on his brother Simon ‘s debut solo album Sweet Sound which was released as a single and features Townshend and Simon on an interview that wrongly names that the track was by “ Peter Townshend ”. [ citation needed ] In 1984 Townshend contributed two songs ( “ Love on the Air ” and “ All Lovers are Deranged ” ) to David Gilmour ‘s solo album About Face. [ citation needed ] Through much of 2005, Townshend recorded and performed alongside his girlfriend Rachel Fuller, a classically train pianist and singer-songwriter. [ citation needed ] In 2006 Townshend opened a web site for execution of The Lifehouse Method based on his 1971 Lifehouse concept. This web site was in collaboration with composer Lawrence Ball and software developer David Snowden, with instrumentation by Steve Hills. Applicants at the web site could input data to compose a musical “ portrayal ” which the musical team could then develop into larger compositions for a plan concert or series of concerts. [ citation needed ] other appearances include :

bibliography [edit ]

Awards [edit ]

other life honours [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

  • Giuliano, Geoffrey (2002). Behind Blue Eyes: The Life of Pete Townshend. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-1-46173-196-2.
  • Howard, David (2004). Sonic Alchemy: Visionary Music Producers and Their Maverick Recordings. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-05560-7.
  • Marsh, Dave (1983). Before I Get Old: The Story of The Who. Plexus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85965-083-0.
  • Neill, Andrew; Kent, Matthew (2009). Anyway Anyhow Anywhere: The Complete Chronicle of The Who 1958–1978. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7535-1217-3.
  • Wilkerson, Mark (2006). Amazing Journey: The Life of Pete Townshend. ISBN 978-1-411-67700-5.[ self-published source ?]
  • Wooldridge, Max (2002). Rock ‘n’ Roll London. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-30442-3.

further reading [edit ]

  • Horses Neck by Pete Townshend Mariner Books 1985, new edition, (21 May 1998) ISBN 0-395-90559-1 ISBN 978-0-395-90559-3
  • The Who: Maximum R&B by Pete Townshend and Richard Barnes Plexus Publishing; 5th edition (27 September 2004) ISBN 0-85965-351-X ISBN 978-0-85965-351-0
  • Pete Townshend: A Minstrel’s Dilemma by Larry David Smith Praeger Publishers (30 March 1999) ISBN 0-275-96472-8, ISBN 978-0-275-96472-6
  • Who Are You: The Life of Pete Townshend by Mark Ian Wilkerson Omnibus Press; 1st edition (30 November 2008) ISBN 1-84772-243-1 ISBN 978-1-84772-243-0
informant :
Category : Social

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai.