Geography of Bahrain – Wikipedia

Map of Bahrain topography persian Gulf Enlargeable, detail map of Bahrain, with most features marked in both English and Arabic

The Kingdom of Bahrain [ 1 ] consists of Bahrain Island and 33 of the p37 Bahrain Islands, lying in the Persian Gulf ‘s Gulf of Bahrain off the north shore of Asia ‘s arabian Peninsula. Bahrain ‘s capital city is Manama. The islands are about 24 kilometers ( 15 secret intelligence service ) off the east seashore of Saudi Arabia and 28 kilometers ( 17 secret intelligence service ) from Qatar. [ 2 ] The sum area of the country is about 694 square kilometers ( 268 sq nautical mile ), about four times the size of the District of Columbia. [ 2 ] Bahrain Island accounts for about 78 % of the kingdom ‘s kingdom sphere, comprising 604 squarely kilometers ( 233 sq mi ). It is 48 kilometers ( 30 nautical mile ) long from north to south and at its widest point stretches 16 kilometers ( 10 mile ) from east to west. The island is surrounded by several of the Middle East ‘s big petroleum fields and commands a strategic situation amid the Persian Gulf ‘s transport lanes .

geographic rig and islands [edit ]

Following the render of Janan to Qatar in March 2001, that state of Bahrain consists of 33 natural islands in the Bahrain Islands archipelago. Around most of Bahrain is a relatively shallow intake of the Persian Gulf known as the Gulf of Bahrain. [ 2 ] The ocean floor adjacent to Bahrain is rocky and, chiefly off the northern separate of the island, covered by extensive coral reefs. [ 2 ] Most of the island is low-lying and barren abandon. [ 2 ] Outcroppings of limestone class low rolling hills, stubby cliffs, and shallow ravines. [ 2 ] The limestone is covered by assorted densities of saline solution backbone, adequate to of supporting only the hardiest desert vegetation – chiefly spine trees and scrub. [ 2 ] There is a fertile deprive five kilometers wide along the northerly coast on which date, almond, fig, and pomegranate trees grow. [ 2 ] The inside contains an escarpment that rises to 134 meters, the highest point on the island, to form Jabal alabama Dukhan ( Mountain of Smoke ), named for the mists that often wreathe the acme. [ 2 ] Most of the state ‘s oil wells are situated in the vicinity of Jabal alabama Dukhan. [ 2 ] One author writes about the geology of the nation : “ Bahrein lies on a parcel of the ancient Tethys Ocean geosynclinal belt represented today by the Persian Gulf. The formation of the principal island is the consequence of pressure from the mountain masses of Persia against the crystalline platform of central Asia, the thrust being absorbed by gentle fold in the geosynclines. The structure of Bahrein is that of a big, single, closed attic covering the entire blame ”. Rocks exposed at the surface consist of :

  • Recent sands and coquinas forming flat, raised beaches surrounding the island from which the surface rises gradually to an elevation 150 to 200 feet above sea level. At this point it breaks away into inward-facing cliffs eighty to one hundred feet high completely surrounding an oval central depression about twelve miles long and four wide.
  • Pleistocene sands, cross bedded and probably wind deposited, lying in the canyon.
  • Miocene silicious clay covering a very limited area.
  • Eocene limestone covering most of the island, the central region of which, known as “Jabal Dukhān “Mountain of Smoke”, rises to a point 439 feet above sea level. The limestone is very porous and is the source of most of the water in the northern half of the island.[3]

In accession to Bahrain Island, other islands of meaning include Nabih Saleh, which is northwest of Sitrah ; Jidda Island and Umm as Sabaan, to the north of Umm an Nasan ; and a group of islands, the largest of which is Hawar, near the coast of Qatar. [ 2 ] Nabih Saleh contains several fresh water springs that are used to irrigate the island ‘s across-the-board date handle groves. [ 2 ] The rough isle of Jiddah once housed the state prison [ 2 ] but has now been converted to a vacation fall back. [ citation needed ] Hawar and the fifteen minor islands near it are the subject of a territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar. [ 2 ] Hawar is nineteen kilometers long and about one and one one-half kilometers wide. [ 2 ] The other islands ( such as the Al Garum Islands ) are uninhabited and are nesting sites for a kind of migratory birds. [ 2 ]

climate [edit ]

Bahrain features an arid climate. [ 2 ] Bahrain has two seasons : an highly hot summer and a relatively balmy winter. [ 2 ] During the summer months, from April to October, good afternoon temperatures average 40 °C ( 104 °F ) and can reach 46 °C ( 114.8 °F ) during May, June and July. [ 2 ] The combination of intense estrus and high humidity makes this temper uncomfortable. [ 2 ] In addition, a hot, dry southwest wind instrument, known locally as the qaws, sporadically blows sandpaper clouds across the barren southern end of Bahrain toward Manama in the summer. [ 2 ] Temperatures moderate in the winter months, from November to March, when the range is between 10 and 20 °C ( 50 and 68 °F ). [ 2 ] however, humidity much rises above 90 % in the winter. [ 2 ] From December to March, prevailing winds from the northwest, known as the shamal, bring dampen breeze over the islands. [ 2 ] Regardless of the season, daily temperatures are fairly uniform throughout the archipelago. [ 2 ] Bahrain receives little haste. [ 2 ] The average annual rain is 172 millimeters ( 6.8 in ), normally confined to the winter months. [ 2 ] No permanent wave rivers or streams exist on any of the islands. [ 2 ] The winter rains tend to fall in abbreviated, torrential downpour, flooding the shallow wadi that are dry the rest of the year and clogging transportation. [ 2 ] Little of the rain is saved for irrigation or drink. [ 2 ] however, there are numerous natural springs in the northerly separate of Bahrain and on adjacent islands. [ 2 ] Underground fresh water deposits besides extend beneath the Persian Gulf to the Saudi Arabian seashore. [ 2 ] Since ancient times, these springs have attracted settlers to the archipelago. [ 2 ] Despite increasing salinization, the springs remain an authoritative reservoir of drink urine for Bahrain. [ 2 ] Since the early 1980s, however, desalination plants, which render seawater suitable for domestic and industrial use, have provided about 60 % of day by day water consumption needs. [ 2 ]

Climate data for Bahrain International Airport (1961–1990, extremes 1946–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
34.7
(94.5)
40.0
(104.0)
41.7
(107.1)
46.7
(116.1)
46.6
(115.9)
47.4
(117.3)
45.7
(114.3)
45.0
(113.0)
42.8
(109.0)
37.2
(99.0)
30.6
(87.1)
47.4
(117.3)
Average high °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.7
(76.5)
29.1
(84.4)
34.1
(93.4)
36.4
(97.5)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
36.5
(97.7)
33.1
(91.6)
27.7
(81.9)
22.3
(72.1)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
17.9
(64.2)
21.0
(69.8)
25.0
(77.0)
29.8
(85.6)
32.4
(90.3)
33.9
(93.0)
34.0
(93.2)
32.4
(90.3)
29.2
(84.6)
24.3
(75.7)
19.2
(66.6)
26.3
(79.4)
Average low °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.8
(64.0)
21.5
(70.7)
26.0
(78.8)
28.8
(83.8)
30.4
(86.7)
30.5
(86.9)
28.6
(83.5)
25.5
(77.9)
21.2
(70.2)
16.2
(61.2)
23.0
(73.3)
Record low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
7.2
(45.0)
7.8
(46.0)
14.2
(57.6)
18.7
(65.7)
22.7
(72.9)
25.2
(77.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.5
(74.3)
18.8
(65.8)
12.1
(53.8)
6.4
(43.5)
2.7
(36.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.5
(0.57)
16.2
(0.64)
14.0
(0.55)
10.0
(0.39)
1.1
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
3.8
(0.15)
10.9
(0.43)
71
(2.79)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 1.6 9.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 226.3 221.2 238.7 255.0 306.9 339.0 331.7 331.7 312.0 303.8 261.0 226.3 3,353.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.3 7.9 7.7 8.5 9.9 11.3 10.7 10.7 10.4 9.8 8.7 7.3 9.2
Source: Meteorological Directorate (Ministry of Transportation),[4] NOAA[5][6]

Area and boundaries [edit ]

Area:
total:780 km2
country comparison to the world: 188

  • land:780 km2
  • water: 0 km2

Area comparative

  • USA – 3.5 times the size of Washington D.C.

Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:

  • territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)
  • contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi)
  • continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Elevation extremes:

  • lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  • highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Resources and land use [edit ]

Natural resources:

  • oil, associated and non associated natural gas, fish, pearls

Land use:

  • arable land: 2.11%
  • permanent crops: 3.95%
  • other: 93.95% (2012)

Irrigated land: 40.15 km2 ( 2003 ) Total renewable water resources: 0.12 m³ ( 2011 ) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

  • total: 0.36 km³/yr (50%/6%/45%)
  • per capita: 386 m³/yr (2003)

environmental concerns [edit ]

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts ; dust storms Environment – current issues:
desertification resulting from the abasement of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms ; coastal abasement ( damage to coastlines, coral witwatersrand, and ocean vegetation ) resulting from vegetable oil spills and other discharges from big tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations ; lack of fresh water resources ( groundwater and seawater are the merely sources for all water needs ) Environment – international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change- Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

farther read [edit ]

Coordinates :

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