Mexico can be divided into nine major physiographic regions : Baja California, the Pacific Coastal Lowlands, the Mexican Plateau, the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Southern Highlands, and the Yucatán Peninsula.
The Baja California peninsula in northwestern Mexico is an isolated leach of highly arid estate extending between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California ( Sea of Cortez ). unevenly divided between the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur, the peninsula is about 800 miles ( 1,300 km ) long but rarely more than 100 miles ( 160 kilometer ) across-the-board. The cardinal core of the peninsula is a flinty fault block with peaks of more than 9,000 feet ( 2,700 metres ) above ocean level in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir and Sierra de Juárez. The gently sloping western side of these batch ranges is in contrast to the exorbitant eastern escarpment, which makes access from the Gulf of California extremely difficult. The Sonoran Desert extends onto the peninsula along the northerly end of the gulf. The Pacific Coastal Lowlands begin near Mexicali and the Colorado River delta in the north and end near Tepic, some 900 miles ( 1,450 kilometer ) to the south. For most of that distance, they face the Gulf of California while traversing the states of Sonora, Sinaloa, and Nayarit. Bounded on the east by the steep-sided Sierra Madre Occidental, the lowlands are a series of coastal terraces, mesa, and small basins interspersed with riverine deltas and restricted coastal strips. Although the huge Sonoran Desert dominates their northerly section, parts of the lowlands have been irrigated and transformed into highly generative cultivated land. The largest and most densely populate region is the inland Mexican Plateau, which is flanked by the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. The tableland consists of the huge Mesa del Norte ( Northern Plateau ) and the smaller but heavily populated Mesa Central ( Mesa de Anáhuac ). The Mesa del Norte begins near the U.S. boundary line ; covers big stretches of the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Aguascalientes ; and ends cheeseparing San Luis Potosí city. From there the Mesa Central stretches to a point fair south of Mexico City. The tableland tilts lightly upward from the union toward the south ; at its northern end, the Mesa del Norte is about 4,000 feet ( 1,200 metres ) above sea flush. Throughout the region, relatively compressed intermontane basins and bolsones ( ephemeron department of the interior drain basins ) are interrupted by cragged outcrops. In the north the Chihuahuan Desert covers a section of the tableland that is more across-the-board than the U.S. state of California. The Mesa Central covers large parts of Michoacán, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, and México states and the Federal District ( Mexico City ). Its southerly end rises 7,000–9,000 feet ( 2,100–2,700 metres ) in the vicinity of Mexico City. The Mesa Central, damp and generally flatter than the Mesa del Norte, is divided into a series of fairly charge intermontane basins separated by eroded volcanic peaks. The largest valleys rarely exceed 100 square miles ( 260 square kilometer ) in area, and many others are quite small. Among the broadly fat basins is the Bajío ( El Bajío, or the Basin of Guanajuato ), the traditional breadbasket of the country, which is located in the northern part of the Mesa Central. Many of the basins were once sites of major lakes that were drained to facilitate european and mestizo settlement. Around Mexico City the weak, structurally mentally ill soils that remain have caused the colonial-era Metropolitan Cathedral and other buildings to shift on their foundations and, over many years, to list or sink unevenly into the reason. The largely volcanic Sierra Madre Occidental, which forms the westerly edge of the Mexican Plateau, has an average elevation of 8,000–9,000 feet ( 2,400–2,700 metres ) and extends approximately 700 miles ( 1,100 kilometer ) from north to south. It has been highly incised by westward-flowing streams that have formed a series of gorges, or barrancas, the most spectacular of which is the complex known as Copper Canyon ( Barranca del Cobre ) in southwest Chihuahua submit .Copper Canyon, Chihuahua state, Mexico copper Canyon ( Barranca del Cobre ) in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in Chihuahua department of state, Mexico .© Kerrick James The Sierra Madre Oriental, a compass of fold mountains formed of shales and limestones, is situated on the eastern english of the Mexican Plateau. Often considered an extension of the Rocky Mountains ( which are cut by the Rio Grande but continue in New Mexico and western Texas ), it runs roughly 700 miles ( 1,100 kilometer ) from north to south before merging with the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica. Its average elevations are similar to those of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but some peaks rise above 12,000 feet ( 3,650 metres ). The mountains have major deposits of bull, lead, and zinc.
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The Cordillera Neo-Volcánica, besides called the Neo-Volcanic Axis or Trans-Volcanic Axis, is a geologically active agent mountain stove whose smoldering cinder cones link the Sierra Madre Occidental with the Sierra Madre Oriental at the southern edge of the Mesa Central. As it crosses Mexico from Cape Corrientes on the west seashore to Xalapa and Veracruz on the easterly coast, it forms a cragged backdrop to the states of Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, México, Morelos, and Puebla deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Federal District. This volcanic range includes the dramatic peaks Citlaltépetl, Popocatépetl, and Iztaccíhuatl ( Ixtacihuatl ), among others. One of the populace ’ mho youngest volcanoes, Parícutin emerged violently from the fields of Michoacán between 1943 and 1952. The region is rich in argent, leash, zinc, copper, and can deposits. The hot, dry Balsas Depression, which takes its name from the major river draining the region, is immediately south of the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica. T
he natural depression is formed of little, irregular basins interrupted by cragged outcrops, which give the sphere a classifiable physical landscape .Citlaltépetl, Veracruz state, Mexico Citlaltépetl ( Orizaba Peak ), the highest period in Mexico, located in western Veracruz country .© Digital Vision/Getty Images The Gulf Coastal Plain, which is much wider than its Pacific coast counterpart, extends some 900 miles ( 1,450 kilometer ) along the Gulf of Mexico from Tamaulipas state ( on the Texas margin ) through Veracruz and Tabasco states to the Yucatán Peninsula ; it includes the Tabasco Plain in its southeastern incision. The triangular northerly helping of the obviously, which is characterized by lagoons and low-lying boggy areas, reaches a width of more than 100 miles ( 160 kilometer ) near the U.S. frame but tapers toward the south. North of the port of Tampico, an outlier of the Sierra Madre Oriental reaches the ocean and interrupts the continuity of the Gulf Coastal Plain. South from there the plain is narrow and atypical, widening at the northerly end of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Southern Highlands are a series of highly dissected batch ranges and tableland, including the Sierra Madre del Sur, Mesa del Sur, and the Chiapas Highlands, besides called the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. On their southwest side, approximately from Puerto Vallarta to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, are a series of relatively depleted ranges known jointly as the Sierra Madre del Sur. The crystalline mountains, which achieve elevations of 7,000–8,000 feet ( 2,100–2,400 metres ), frequently reach the ocean to create a furrowed coastal margin, region of which is known as the Mexican Riviera. respective coastal sites, such as Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Acapulco, and Puerto Escondido, have become alluring tourist destinations. however, the less-hospitable inland basins provide a unmanageable environment for traditional peasant farmers. Farther northeasterly is the Mesa del Sur, with numerous stream-eroded ridges and humble detached valleys some 4,000–5,000 feet ( 1,200–1,500 metres ) above ocean level. The picturesque Oaxaca Valley is the largest and most densely settled of these, with a predominantly autochthonal population. It is one of the poorest areas of Mexico .Acapulco, Mexico Panoramic watch of the coastal fall back of Acapulco, Mexico .Jeremy Woodhouse—Digital Vision/Getty Images Bisecting the southerly Highlands is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, a low-lying, narrow-minded constriction of land that reaches an acme of less than 900 feet ( 275 metres ). Its cragged cardinal area descends to narrow coastal plains on the south and to the Tabasco Plain on the north. The Chiapas Highlands are an extension of the mountain ranges of Central America. Within the highlands the moo, crystalline Sierra de Soconusco range lies along the Pacific coast. To the northwest and paralleling the coast is the Grijalva River valley. A group of highly dissected, folded, and blame mountains is located between the valley and the Tabasco Plain, a southeast elongation of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Among the active volcanic peaks of the region is El Chichón, which destroyed respective villages in 1982. The Yucatán Peninsula lies to the northeast of the Tabasco Plain and extends northbound, forming a divider between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. The peninsula ’ s limestone ( karst ) terrain is broadly pockmarked and mismatched but rarely exceeds 500 feet ( 150 metres ) in elevation. There is little open drain, and subterranean erosion has produced caverns and sinkholes ( cenotes ), the latter being formed when cavern ceiling crash. The islands of Cozumel and Mujeres lie off the peninsula ’ s northeastern tip, near the repair boomtown of Cancún.
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