8 Observations | Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade | The National Academies Press

Style of Observation

An observation can be taken for many different purposes. An exploratory observation is one taken in the intent of exploration—no tauten scientific rationale can be given for it because there are not adequate data to make a scientific controversy for a measurement. such observations are very hard to come by ( it is about impossible for an research worker to propose such a measurement ), so far all cognition begins with exploratory measurements and every inquiry plan should include them. There are regions of the ocean that have never been measured, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as parts of the upper atmosphere, and the land come on .
A critical measurement is one that tests a particular guess. While common in particle physics, in which most accelerator experiments are specifically designed to test aspects of the stream theory, these measurements are relatively rare in geophysics and tied more rarely successful. confounding as it may seem, a course of study of observations can be hypothesis drive, evening though a critical measurement may not exist .
A measurement can be made to document the profane change of some relevant climatic quantity, such as ball-shaped surface temperature or upper-tropospheric humidity, for the aim of documenting some aspect of ball-shaped change and for providing the data to compare to models. Such a measurement could be critical if a prediction of such changes has been precise and unequivocal, but this rarely happens in geophysics because it is barely possible to control the surroundings of a measurement.

Measurements can be taken as function of a forecast-analysis cycle, and these would broadly be classified as an operational measurement. These measurements tend to be taken in a regular and taxonomic manner as input signal to an ongoing prediction arrangement. While not performed ( or funded ) as research, such measurements can be extremely valuable since they make available to the inquiry residential district observations that could ( or would ) not be supported through research—the upper-air detect network is a full exemplar of this .
Some measurements are taken chiefly to validate other measurements. Examples are measurements of SST from drifting buoys taken to calibrate the operational AVHRR satellite measurements of surface radiance. Because the satellite measurements are topic to cloud obscurations and are affected by aerosols in the air, which are not carefully measured, the in situ measurement of SST provides an absolute measure from which the satellites can derive global SST on a even basis .
Some measurements are taken in a regular and systematic manner and, while serving the purpose for which they are taken, do not have the accuracy or dependability for some different function. An exercise is the upper-air net, which by itself has been incapable of documenting small temperature changes in the upper standard atmosphere. Increasing the accuracy or dependability of such measurements leaves

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