From Dust to Riches: An Introduction to the UAE
Enriched by petroleum revenues, the United Arab Emirates ( UAE ) has undergone a meteoric economic ascend over the past decades that transformed the nation from a little, backwater desert nation of 279,000 people in 1971 into a rich, vibrant economic center of more than nine million today .
As a kind of testimony to this drastic transformation, most of the UAE ’ s stream residents are foreign-born. Alongside early oil-rich Persian Gulf monarchies like Qatar and Kuwait, the UAE is one of identical few countries in the world where migrant workers outnumber the native-born population .
In fact, the UAE immediately has the sixth-largest migrant stock in the populace : in full 90 percentage of the area ’ second populations are migrants, most of them male laborers from South asian countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The economic draw from the small Persian Gulf nation has proved thus irresistible that the migration corridor between India and the UAE has become the largest such corridor cosmopolitan. Indians now make up more than 25 percentage of the sum population of the Emirates.
An independent nation since 1971, the UAE is a confederation of seven familial monarchies or emirates that, combined, is smaller than the U.S. state of Maine. The most populous of these emirates is presently Dubai—a sprawling global city whose cosmopolitan resident population has more than doubled since 2006. sometimes referred to as “ Hong Kong in the abandon, ” Dubai is now home to about three million people. It has the world ’ mho tall build and one of the busiest airports on the globe. strikingly, amply 70 percentage of the population is male. About 37 percentage of Dubai ’ s residents come from India and Pakistan ; native Emiratis make up merely 8.2 percentage of the population .
While Dubai is the most big city in the Emirates, the UAE capital is Abu Dhabi, the principal city of the emirate of the same diagnose. With 2.9 million people, Abu Dhabi has a marginally smaller population than Dubai, but the sheikdom makes up more than 80 percentage of the UAE ’ s geographic area, and, crucially, sits on the huge majority of the UAE ’ s petroleum and gas fields .
It is these hydrocarbon resources—estimated to be the seventh-largest in the world—that elevated the UAE to a highly develop area with a GDP per caput that is higher than Italy ’ sulfur or South Korea ’ second. At give, the UAE is one of the top-performing economies in the arab universe and is among the world ’ s 10 largest petroleum producers .
That said, the meaning of “ bootleg gold ” for the country ’ randomness economy has decreased over the decades. anoint revenues as a plowshare of GDP have fallen to around 30 percentage nowadays and are expected to further decrease to 20 percentage by 2021 .
Since vegetable oil and gasoline reserves won ’ thymine last constantly, the Emirates, most notably Dubai, have pursued a systematic economic diversification scheme. Dubai is now the most significant fiscal kernel and deal hub in the Middle East, going far beyond gasoline capital. The UAE now boasts an excellent infrastructure, logistics, and investor-friendly business environment. Sectors like foreign deal, tourism, and bank are expanding cursorily. The real number estate of the realm marketplace has recently slowed, but over the past two decades, construction in major cities boomed to the extent that reportedly 2 percentage of the populace ’ sulfur cranes were in Dubai alone. The city is now endowed with a sparkle skyline of high-rise buildings and lavishness hotels .
On the downside, much of this structure boom was achieved on the backs of migrant laborers, who frequently worked under abusive conditions. Human Rights Watch has described the exploitation of guest workers in the UAE as systemic, since the country ’ s visa system ties migrant workers to their employers. “ Those who leave their employers can face punishment for ‘ abscond, ’ including fines, prison, and deportation, ” according to Human Rights Watch .
While construction workers often toil under hazardous conditions, domestic workers face “ … a range of abuses, from amateur wages, confinement to the house, workdays up to 21 hours with no breaks, to forcible or sexual attack by employers. ” A modern law, passed in 2017, seeks to curb abuses of domestic workers, but the extent to which this legislation will improve conditions remains to be seen .
Despite all the modern flashiness and flash of Dubai, the UAE silent has an archaic and authoritarian monarchal political government in which the dynastic rulers of the seven emirates have largely unlimited executive, legislative, and judicial authority. political parties and tug unions are banned ; media and social media are censored. The judicial arrangement of the Muslim nation incorporates elements of Sharia law—offences like adultery and alcohol consumption by Muslims are punished by flogging or even stoning .
affluent with gasoline cash to redistribute among its native population, the UAE is among a little group of countries worldwide—many of them oil-rich “ rentier states ” 1 in the Persian Gulf region—that have, thus army for the liberation of rwanda, resisted democratization despite achieving the status of a high-income economy. The monarchal regimes in the Persian Gulf region survived the arab leap of the early 2010s largely unharmed .
photograph by Miroslav Petrasko .
Education Is a Top Priority in the UAE
To enable further economic growth outside the hydrocarbons sector and create a competitive knowledge-based economy, the politics of the UAE has treated education as a top priority for some time. It has used its gasoline dollars effectively to increase educational skill rates and establish a relatively high-quality department of education system—more or less from the grind up. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the UAE ’ s first president of the united states, envisioned education as a key chemical element of economic modernization, noting that the “ greatest function that can be made of wealth is to invest it in creating generations of educated and trained people… [ T ] he prosperity and success of the people are measured by the standard of their education ” .
This prioritization is reflected in the UAE ’ s current strategic education design for 2017–2021, which seeks to raise the upper-secondary commencement rate to 98 percentage ( from an already high pace of 96.7 percentage in 2016 ). ambitiously, the government besides seeks to improve the UAE ’ s ranking in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA ) discipline, to score among the top 20 countries. The politics ’ s National Higher Education Strategy 2030 seeks to strengthen accreditation standards, increase research end product, establish a qualifications model, and develop course of study more gear toward employment in consultation with the business sector .
The UAE besides pursues a highly effective internationalization strategy and has become one of the leading multinational department of education hub in the world. In a late comparative study of 38 education systems worldwide, the british Council ranked the UAE highly favorably in terms of regulative frameworks for student mobility, openness to multinational education, and recognition procedures for extraneous degrees. Underscoring that assessment, the UAE has witnessed quickly increasing outbound and inbound scholar flows over the past ten. Inbound mobility in particular has been rising precipitously .
Outbound Student Mobility Is Growing Fast
By international standards, the UAE has a high outbound scholar mobility ratio : The share of Emirati nationals studying in tertiary academic degree programs abroad was 7.1 in 2016, compared with only 1.9 in China and 0.9 in India, the universe ’ s two top-sending countries of international students in terms of volume, according to UNESCO. The sum number of Emirati students enrolled in degree programs afield more than doubled between 2004 and 2016, from 4,835 to 11,249. between 2012 and 2016 alone, the numeral of outbound students increased by 31 percentage .
The most popular destination countries among Emirati degree-seeking students are the U.K. and the U.S. : In 2016, enrollments in these two countries accounted for amply 30 percentage and 27.5 percentage, respectively. India was a distant third with 13 percentage, followed by Australia, Oman, and Germany, according to UNESCO .
Data from the Institute of International Education ’ s clear Doors show that the number of Emirati students in the U.S. has fluctuated over the past 15 years, while generally trending up. There were 2,753 Emirati students in the U.S. in the 2016/17 academic year, compared with only 1,653 in 2009/10. however, these numbers have most recently dropped again : After solid growth throughout the first half of the 2010s, the number of Emirati students declined by 5.7 percentage between 2015/16 and 2016/17 .
stream scholar visa data provided by the Department of Homeland Security show that students from the Emirates are about entirely male ( 90.6 percentage ). The submerge majority ( 74.2 percentage ) survey at the undergraduate grade with 45 percentage of students enrolled in STEM fields .
The growing outbound mobility in the UAE is likely driven by rising third registration rates and an increasing scholar population, angstrom well as by mounting interest in pursuing a high-grade foreign education as a means of improving employment prospects. Emirati employers reportedly prefer external graduates over graduates of local private institutions. Some employers besides sponsor students ’ oversea study in fields like technology with funds and job offers upon gradation. Government bodies and academic institutions similarly facilitate students ’ outbound mobility with a wide-eyed range of scholarship programs, many of them granted to students at public universities heading to countries like the U.S. and Canada .
Growing interest in alien education is besides reflected in the increase necessitate for international elementary and secondary schools in the Emirates. signally, the UAE presently has the highest issue of international schools worldwide after China, most of them teaching british and U.S. course of study in English. There were 624 external schools with 627,800 enroll students in the UAE as of January 2018 ( up from 548 schools with 545,074 students in 2016 ). The huge majority of these schools are located in urban centers like Dubai, but international schools are spreading elsewhere a well .
While these schools largely cater to the UAE ’ s surging expatriate population, the phone number of Emirati nationals enrolling in them is rising and made up 17 percentage of all enrollments in 2014/15. By some accounts, more than 90 percentage of students at external schools intend to study abroad after graduation, so this drift will most probable accelerate tertiary mobility .
The lookout for outbound mobility, frankincense, is favorable and underpin by the growing demand for education overall. The UAE is presently riding the tail end of a youth bulge phase with more than 30 percentage of the native population hush under the age of 25. The nation ’ s tertiary crying registration proportion ( GER ) jumped from 17.4 percentage in 2007 to 36.8 percentage in 2016, while the total issue of tertiary students grew from 113,648 in 2011 to 159,553 in 2016, according to UNESCO. Although about half of these students are foreign nationals, further increases in enrollments among the native-born population are likely in the years ahead. By some estimates, the number of students at all levels of education in the UAE will rise at an annual growth pace of more than 4 percentage until 2020 alone .
Inbound Student Mobility: One of the Highest Mobility Ratios in the World
Inbound student mobility to the UAE is enormous and growing at high speed. As a small country, the UAE has lower total international scholar numbers than major international study destinations like the United States, the United Kingdom, or Australia. But its inbound mobility proportion of 48.6 percentage is well one of the highest in the world and shadow that of all major destinations. The number of international degree-seeking students in the UAE recently spiked from 48,653 in 2011 to 77,463 in 2016, according to data from UNESCO. Illustrative of this development, the American University of Sharjah, a reputable UAE institution, is nowadays said to be the university with the largest share of foreign students in the entire universe : 84 percentage of its student consistency consists of international students .
possibly unsurprisingly, given current trends in labor movement migration, India is by far the largest area of lineage of foreign degree-seeking students in the UAE : The number of Indians enrolled in degree programs in the Emirates has increased by 50 percentage since 2011. As per UNESCO, Indians now make up 17 percentage ( 13,370 students in 2016 ) of all international students. other top-sending countries are Middle Eastern, like Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Oman ( all sending more than 5,000 students ), followed by Pakistan .
use opportunities for highly skilled workers in its diversifying economy make the UAE an attractive study destination for students from other countries. besides turning the UAE into a attraction for alien students is the country ’ s issue of high-quality universities included in international rankings, such as United Arab Emirates University and the University of Sharjah, equally well as a range of outgrowth campuses of top universities globally, including New York University, Sorbonne-Université, and Australia ’ s University of Wollongong ( see besides the multinational education segment below ) .
This puts the UAE in a good stead to accommodate surfeit demand for education in youth-bulging countries in the Middle Eastern area, many of which are presently suffering from high young person unemployment rates. The UAE is now the clear study address of external students from arab countries like Egypt, Jordan, and Oman .
This swerve persists despite the fact that the UAE is anything but a low-cost cogitation finish. Mindful of this barrier, the government seeks to attract students by offering generous visa policies. Since 2016, alien students have been allowed to work part fourth dimension for delegate employers. In 2018, the politics besides drastically extended its annual residency visa for extraneous university graduates : exceptionally talented students will nowadays “ be eligible for a 10-year residency, while other students can get a five-year visa, and dependents [ of guest workers ] will receive a visa propagation to help them get started on their career after graduating. ” Universities and politics institutions besides offer an increasing assortment of scholarships for international students .
however, despite such opportunities and a broad assortment of high-quality study options, the UAE ’ s international student stock is, as of now, not excessively divers. aside from India, a Hindu country with a bombastic Muslim minority, the huge majority of international students in the UAE come from Muslim-majority countries ( more than 66 percentage in 2016 ). The act of students from nearby China, the largest sender of international students worldwide, and other East asian countries is still bare. China is presently not even represented among the top 25 sending countries to the UAE. It remains to be seen if recent “ strategic partnership ” agreements between the UAE and China will result in greater scholar inflows from China in the years ahead .
Transnational Education in the UAE: A Hub of Global Scale
The UAE is a major hub for multinational education ( TNE ). Until 2015, when it was overtaken by China, the UAE hosted the largest count of extraneous arm campuses in the world. Most of these campuses are located in alleged free zones like the Dubai International Academic City and the Dubai Knowledge Village. These are release trade zones with state-of-the art infrastructure specifically dedicated to department of education and homo resources exploitation. They were created beginning in the early 2000s to incentivize alien providers to set up patronize in the UAE .
As of 2017, Dubai alone had 10 exempt zones with 39 institutions, including 24 alien arm campuses from 12 different countries. The latest extraneous university to open a campus in a Dubai release zone was the british University of Birmingham in 2018 .
early foreign institutions operating in the UAE include the New York Institute of Technology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Canadian University Dubai, Heriot-Watt University, Middlesex University, the swiss École Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, indian institutions like the Birla Institute of Technology and Science and the Institute of Management Technology, Iran ’ s Islamic Azad University, and several early providers .
While private universities operating outside of these zones are bound by mandatary UAE accreditation requirements, foreign-owned institutions in dislodge zones have more freedom. They are besides excuse from corporate and income taxes and can fully repatriate their profits. Unlike in countries like China, where the government pushes partnerships with chinese universities and imposes a phone number of restrictions on TNE providers, the UAE prefers TNE providers to autonomously offer the same academic programs in the Emirates as on their home campuses. early forms of TNE, like joint and dual degree programs, are less common in the UAE. 2
A issue of ramify campuses are located outside of free zones, and several providers even within the free zones have voluntarily obtained accreditation of their programs by the UAE ’ s federal Commission for Academic Accreditation ( CAA ). quality oversight in the zones, however, varies by emirate. While arm campuses in the release zone of the emirate Ras Al Khaimah faced few regulations until identical recently, Dubai has required providers to be authorized and licensed by its Knowledge and Human Development Authority ( KHDA ) for some time .
KHDA conducts quality inspections in the loose zones and has shut down a number of foreign institutions in holocene years. The chief quality criterion is that academician programs on arm campuses are the lapp as accredit programs taught on home plate campuses .
The majority of students at TNE institutions are expatriates and international students. fully 40 percentage of Dubai ’ s international students study at branch campuses in free zones. That said, the number of Emiratis studying at these institutions is besides growing—more than 30 percentage of students enrolled at institutions in Dubai ’ s release zones were Emiratis in 2017. The fact that degrees from KHDA-authorized institutions in spare zones have been treated as recognized academic qualifications in Dubai since 2012 has greatly increased the utility program of these degrees for Emiratis .
Despite growing demand, however, the overcrowd TNE market in the UAE can sometimes be bad and competitive for alien providers with increasing numbers of institutions vying for students. Institutions like the University of Michigan were forced to close down their campuses when Dubai experienced an economic crisis and student numbers dwindled following the global fiscal meltdown of the late 2000s .
In Brief: The Education System of the UAE
The education arrangement of the UAE is young and like the state as a wholly has undergo massive changes over the past 50 years. historically, education in the region was strongly influenced by Islam and took topographic point in mosques or learn circles led by Imams. More modern forms of schooling started to lento appear in the sheikhdoms in the first half of the twentieth century, but department of education was calm limited to a little number of formal schools, most of which catered to male students .
It was not before the discovery of oil and independence from Britain in 1971 that the Emirates started to build a modern, mass-scale education system. newly found gasoline wealth enabled the UAE to create a populace education system akin to westerly systems within just a few decades—essentially at deflection speed. nowadays, the structure of the education organization closely resembles that of the U.S. : It features a K-12 school system, biennial associate degrees, four-year bachelor ’ s degrees, biennial overlord ’ second degrees, and doctoral degrees .
build up in improving education has been rapid and extensive. The area ’ s adult literacy rate jumped from 32 percentage among women and 57 percentage among men in 1975 to above 90 percentage for both in 2005, according to UNESCO. The female young literacy rate in that year stood at 97 percentage, far higher than the current ball-shaped average of 86 percentage .
The Administration of the Education System
The UAE is a confederation of seven autonomous states that vary well in their population size and economic development. aside from Abu Dhabi and Dubai, they include the smaller emirates of Ajman, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain located in the north of the area .
The ruling monarch of the seven sheikhdoms form the Federal Supreme Council, the UAE ’ s core decision-making consistency that elects the country ’ s president and prime minister. The president is elected for a term of five years, but the position is delaware facto familial and has been held by the emir of Abu Dhabi, the independent anoint producer of the UAE, since its origin .
All emirates have a high degree of political autonomy in a variety show of areas, including education—a fact that presents considerable challenges to the standardization of education between the different sheikhdoms. That said, the harmonization of department of education systems is presently a gamey priority, and the state is on its room to establishing a more uniform, nationally system directed by federal institutions .
In the smaller, northern emirates, the union Ministry of Education ( MOE ) already supervises all forms of department of education, from elementary school to university, and sets curricula, admissions standards, and gradation requirements in the school system. however, the emirates besides have their own regulative authorities, such as Dubai ’ south KHDA, the Dubai Education Council, or Abu Dhabi ’ s Department of Education and Knowledge ( ADEK ). significant variances consequently still exist between some of the emirates. notably, the school course of study of Abu Dhabi differed from the national course of study, but it was announced in 2017 that course of study would in 2018 be harmonized in a new Emirati School Model .
private schools in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, similarly, fall under the horizon of ADEK and KHDA, while they are oversee by the federal MOE in the other emirates. private institutions are broadly not under calculate politics control, but are however bound by guidelines set forth by the federal ministry and local authorities .
The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, a separate federal ministry, until recently oversaw higher education, but that ministry was folded into the MOE in 2016. The MOE is frankincense immediately the area ’ south dedicated authority of developing policies related to higher department of education and inquiry. It licenses higher education institutions ( HEIs ) and regulates the administration of federal public institutions, which the MOE funds. That said, the person emirates can besides set up public institutions that they fund through their local emirate governments. Abu Dhabi ’ sulfur ADEK has the correct to “ establish academic institutes and educational bodies in Abu Dhabi, in coordination with MOE and with approval from the Executive Council. ”
The MOE ’ mho CAA is tasked with licensing non-federal HEIs and accrediting individual discipline programs at non-federal populace and secret institutions nationally. choice assurance in Technical and Vocational Education and Training ( TVET ), on the other hand, has recently been shifted to a union Vocational Education and Training Awards Council ( VETAC ). however, local anesthetic authorities like the KHDA and the Abu Dhabi Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training ( ACTVET ) are besides authorized to regulate TVET within their respective jurisdictions .
Compulsory Education Age, Language of Instruction and the Academic Calendar
School education is a constitutionally guaranteed correct of every Emirati citizen and provided dislodge of charge at populace schools. education is compulsory for all children from the historic period of six to completion of grad 12 ( or the old age of 18 ). The language of teaching at Emirati public schools is Arabic in most subjects, although the numerous private schools and universities in the Emirates besides teach in English and other languages. In higher education, English is the main language of direction .
The academic year in the UAE runs from September to June at public schools and HEIs alike. Since 2010, the school year has been divided into three semesters comprising 180 days of education in total. There is a three-week dampen in December and a two-week respite in March. Schools are closed for most of July and August. As in several other Muslim countries, Friday and Saturday are hebdomadally days off, while Sunday is a unconstipated day for school and work .
In contrast to public schools, private international schools normally follow a two-semester system ( besides running from September to June ), while some private schools in Dubai have an all in all unlike semester schedule that runs from April to March. Universities typically have full-length form and fall semesters and a shorter summer semester in-between. Most international providers accommodate the local system, but some may have different semester schedules .
Elementary and Lower-Secondary Education (Basic and Intermediate Cycles)
elementary education is open to all children that are at least six years of senesce. Non-Emirati nationals may attend public schools but have to pay fees, whereas public education is dislodge for Emiratis. Before entering school, children can attend two years of kindergarten ( ages four and five ) ; preschool education is not mandate in the UAE .
elementary education ( basic education ) lasts five years ( grades one to five ). The linguistic process of instruction is Arabic, which is teach aboard english starting in the foremost grad under the fresh national course of study. other subjects taught in the elementary cycle include Islamic education, integrated social studies, mathematics, skill, music, and physical department of education. At populace schools, boys and girls are instructed individually in segregate classes in all grades. promotion and commencement are earned based on results of continual assessments and semester- and year-end examinations .
Lower-secondary education ( intercede education ) follows elementary education and lasts four years ( grades six to nine ). Students must graduate from mark five to be admitted—there are no branch entrance examinations at public schools at this stage. The subjects studied are by and large the same as in the elementary cycle, although subjects like health sciences or commercial enterprise management may be introduced, while subjects like music may no retentive be offered. As in the elementary cycle, promotion and gradation are earned based on continual assessments and semester- and year-end examinations. Upon completion of class nine, students have the option of enrolling in technical secondary schools or continuing their studies in the academic track .
Technical Upper-Secondary Education
While it may be possible for students to transfer into the vocational track early on in the intercede cycle, this is not the overriding model in the UAE. Study at technical foul secondary schools typically begins after grad nine for three extra years of upper-secondary school ( grades 10 to 12 ). technical schools offer programs that are more gear toward use, and normally involve study in vocational specialization subjects in addition to core academic subjects like mathematics, science, Arabic, and English. Some schools require students to pass an entrance examen to be admitted .
vocational specializations offered at technical secondary schools include a assortment of business-related majors ( account and finance, human resources management, etc. ), vitamin a well as engineering, calculator engineering, tourism, foreign languages, health sciences, air travel management, and others. Upon passing the concluding graduation examen at the end of grade 12, students are awarded the Secondary Technical School Certificate, a certificate that qualifies students for third education. At some institutions, such as technical secondary schools that Abu Dhabi ’ s ACTVET oversees, students may besides concurrently earn a recognized australian vocational trade certificate. These programs are presently in high gear necessitate .
General Upper-Secondary Education
Upper-secondary education in the general academic lead is presently undergoing a number of changes. Until recently, students had the option of choosing between a scientific and a literary stream ; however, since 2015 these streams have been eliminated. Students are immediately placed into either a general or an advance racetrack based on their academic performance in grade nine .
Students in the advanced track receive more in-depth teaching in mathematics and science, to better prepare them for university sketch in disciplines like engineering, medicine, and the natural sciences. The change is partially of the government ’ s drive to nurture twenty-first century skills and foster “ cognition consolidation in skill, engineering, engineering, mathematics and other fields ” with the goal of strengthening the country ’ s cognition economy .
Upper-secondary department of education lasts three years ( grades 10 to 12 ), during which students typically receive six hours of teaching each school day. Subjects include Arabic, English, Islamic education, mathematics, social sciences, data technology, health sciences, physical department of education, and the arts and science subjects ( which differ between the two tracks ). Although the terminology of teaching is Arabic, mathematics and skill are taught in English under the Emirati School Model course of study presently being phased in .
At the end of the program, all students in public schools and secret schools that follow the national course of study sit for a nationally external examination. Graduates are awarded the General Secondary Education Certificate ( known in Arabic as Tawjihiyya or Thanawiyya Al-A ’ ama ) .
In summation to the grade 12 graduation examinations, students at populace schools and private schools that follow the national course of study must, since 2017, sit for the Emirates Standardized Test ( EmSAT ), which is a prerequisite for entrance fee into most public universities and colleges .
EmSAT is a series of exchangeable computer-based tests that replaces the Common Educational Proficiency Assessment ( CEPA ), the test previously used to determine eligibility for college entree. EmSAT is besides administered in lower grades to measure overall student and school performance. In grade 12, students must take the EmSAT in mathematics, physics, English, and Arabic, with students in the advance track besides required to take the test in chemistry .
stream reforms, including the introduction of EmSAT, are a passing from previous admissions practices at public HEIs. Admission to public universities and colleges in the UAE is highly selective—institutions normally require high gear minimum scores in exit examinations ( CEPA, now EmSAT ). 3 Since English is the main language of education, they besides require minimum scores in English proficiency tests like the TOEFL or IELTS. beyond that, some institutions may impose extra entrance examinations.
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Until now, students who did not meet these requirements had to complete a foundation program before being admitted. Depending on the academician readiness of the student, initiation programs lasted between one and four semesters and traverse subjects like Arabic and mathematics, but its foremost emphasis was English, since English is the main speech of instruction at HEIs and students frequently lack proficiency. merely 10 percentage of students were eligible for lineal entrance in 2010, although that count improved to a still moo 23 percentage in 2016 .
Despite these low entry rates, the basis course of study is being phased out beginning in 2018, and will be wholly shut down by 2021. One cause for ending the basis platform is price : It has been estimated that foundation programs took up some 30 percentage of higher education outgo. Emirati authorities besides believe that the new national school course of study with its vehemence on English language direction will greatly increase students ’ readiness, and that about all students will be eligible for direct introduction at public institutions in the years ahead .
Failing that, abolishing the initiation year might further increase enrollments at private institutions despite the fact that private HEIs are much more expensive compared with tuition-free public schools. Admissions standards at individual HEIs can be lower, even though english language proficiency needs to be demonstrated at most of those institutions adenine well ( via the TOEFL, IELTS and other tests ). however, students at private HEIs can take advantage of foundation-like bridge courses offered by many of these institutions, or be admitted conditionally .
overall, admissions requirements at individual institutions vary widely, but at the very minimum the General Secondary Education Certificate is required, as are, about constantly, demonstrated english language skills. many private universities have more necessitate requirements, including entrance examinations or SAT or EmSAT scores .
Scrapping the foundation year may besides increase the already smash demand for study at external senior high school schools that offer English-taught course of study. Holders of foreign high school qualifications like a U.S. high school diploma, the british IGCSE ( International General Certificate of Secondary Education ), or the International Baccalaureate ( IB ) are eligible for admission at populace Emirati institutions, but they may have to submit SAT or ACT scores and fulfill extra requirements at person institutions .
Private Schools in the K-12 System
The partake of individual sector enrollments in the UAE ’ s school system is high. In 2015, 71 percentage of all elementary and secondary students studied in individual schools. A majority of these students are enrolled in elementary schools, but enrollments in individual upper-secondary schools besides accounted for more than 61 percentage in 2016, according to UNESCO .
This partake is likely to increase flush far since secret enrollments are growing fast. between 2009 and 2014, the count of students enrolled in individual schools in the K-12 system grew by about 7 percentage per annum, far outpacing emergence rates at public schools. The professional services firm PricewaterhouseCoopers estimated in 2016 that 175,000 extra educate seats would be required in the UAE by 2020, and 90 percentage of them are expected to be created in the private sector. In Dubai, fully 90 percentage of students studied at private schools in the 2015/16 academician class. 4
The private sector is dominated by for-profit international schools. In Dubai, for example, secret schools following the national UAE course of study accounted for entirely 5.6 percentage of enrollments in 2015/16, while schools offering U.K., U.S., amerind, french, and IB course of study enrolled more than 86 percentage of all 265,299 secret sector students in the emirate. other course of study available at international schools include those of Germany, the Philippines, and Pakistan. Overall, 17 different curricula are offered at private schools in Dubai, with the indian, U.K., and U.S. course of study being the most democratic. In Abu Dhabi, private schools offered 14 unlike course of study in 2015 .
The huge majority of students in international schools are expatriates ; Emiratis accounted for alone 17 percentage of students in 2015/16. But as mentioned before, the number of Emiratis studying at these schools is growing quickly : between 2003 and 2010, the total of Emiratis enrolled at individual schools in Dubai alone increased by 75 percentage .
International schools are licensed and overseen by the KHDA in Dubai, ADEK in Abu Dhabi, and the federal MOE in the northern Emirates. private providers undergo timbre audits, most notably in Dubai, where KHDA ’ s Dubai School Inspection Bureau conducts annual locate visits. Low-performing schools may be penalized with admission freezes and tuition caps. beyond that, individual providers face few curricular restrictions except that they must offer Arabic and Islamic Studies classes for Muslims. however, stream reform initiatives could curtail these freedoms soon. Emirati authorities intend to align private educate course of study, including those of external schools, with the new national course of study after a biennial grace period .
individual educate in the UAE is immediately a multi-billion dollar industry, partially because of precipitously rising tuition fees over the past years. In Dubai alone, private providers raked in more than USD $ 2 billion in revenues in 2017/18 ( up from USD $ 1.28 billion in 2013/14 ). tuition fees in Dubai presently range anywhere from USD $ 675 to USD $ 32,711 annually, with IB schools tending to be the most expensive. Some schools recently hiked fees sol drastically that the KDHA in 2018 enacted a freeze on tuition fees for the 2018/19 academic class .
The first base higher department of education initiation founded in the UAE was the United Arab Emirates University in Abu Dhabi, which was established in 1976. Since 1990, when there were five HEIs, the issue of institutions has grown at a rapid pace to more than 70 today. The award higher education landscape is reasonably transient with new institutions opening, while others are closing or merging. As of March 2018, the MOE listed 72 license HEIs, while the CAA presently lists 76 institutions .
The total total of third students in the UAE doubled between 2007 and 2016, from 80,296 to 159,553. According to the latest UNESCO datum ( 2016 ), students are enrolled predominantly at the undergraduate level—only 13.6 percentage and less than 1 percentage of students studied at the master ’ sulfur and doctoral levels, respectively. The population-rich emirates of Dubai and Abu Dhabi have about 60 percentage of all students. The field of study most pursued in the UAE by far is commercial enterprise and economics, followed by engineer and education .
Public Higher Education Institutions
There are three federal institutions under direct master of the MOE : the UAE University, Zayed University, and the Higher Colleges of Technology ( HCT ), a group of 17 colleges located across the UAE. Founded in 1988, HCT is the largest HEI in the nation with 23,509 students in 2016/17. Its colleges are segregated by sex ; HCT comprises nine colleges for women and eight for men, and is only overt to Emirati nationals. Women now make up more than 60 percentage of the scholar body ( see besides the sidebar on women in education ). The institution offers programs geared toward employment that lead to diplomas, higher diploma, applied bachelor ’ mho degrees, and more recently, chief ’ randomness degrees .
On the other hired hand, UAE University, considered one of the UAE ’ randomness best research universities, awards degrees in all education cycles, including doctoral degrees. Zayed University was primitively a women ’ s university, but it now besides admits men equally well as external applicants. It offers bachelor ’ mho and master ’ second programs, but no doctoral programs .
In accession to these three federal universities, there are a issue of HEIs founded by governments in the unlike emirates, including Al Qasimia University and Khalifa University ( which in 2017 merged with the Petroleum Institute and Masdar Institute of Science and Technology into the Khalifa University of Science and Technology ). These types of institutions are difficult to classify ; respective need to be considered not populace but semi-public, since bombastic parts of their revenues are derived from private sources .
Private Higher Education Institutions
The prominence of private HEIs in the UAE has been discussed elsewhere in this article. suffice it to say, the huge majority of HEIs in the Emirates are privately owned ; many are for-profit institutions. More than 70 percentage of all individual institutions are located in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, a majority of them in barren zones, including a large numeral of extraneous ramify campuses. Emirati authorities in holocene years lobbied intensively, specially esteemed schools, to attract these ramify campuses. Abu Dhabi, for case, bankrolled in its entirety “ the best campus that money can buy ” for New York University ’ s overseas venture in the UAE .
In light of such developments, the growth of enrollments at private institutions has outpaced that of populace HEIs by meaning margins in recent years. As of 2016, fully 70 percentage of all third students in the UAE were enrolled in private institutions, according to UNESCO. Most of these students are expatriates and international students—only 37.5 percentage of secret sector students in Dubai, for case, were Emirati nationals in 2017. however, the total number of Emiratis studying at private institutions is growing : In Dubai, there were 22,618 UAE nationals enrolled in secret HEIs in 2015/16, compared with only 10,943 students in 2011 .
One remarkable feature of Emirati internationalization, and one not often seen in other countries, is the fact that the nation ’ s third teach staff is now about entirely foreign-born, even at public institutions : 98 percentage and 92 percentage of instructors in secret and populace institutions were expatriates in 2014, according to a report by the Islamic investment deposit GFH. While the government has imposed a taxonomic Emiratization policy that seeks to increase the percentage of Emirati employees with quotas in both the public and private sectors, the policy doesn ’ metric ton appear to be enforced in the education arrangement. Foreign instructors are lured to the UAE with tax-exempt salaries comparable to those paid in western countries. other generous benefits include detached housing and health policy, and 60 days of paid vacation every year .
however, the employment of foreign teachers is not without conflict, since instructors from westerly countries, in particular, are used to academic freedom and a more permissive academic environment. In holocene years, a number of incidents occurred involving professors having their visas denied for undisclosed reasons—though political motives were suspected. As an italian research worker noted in an interview with Al-Fanar Media in 2017, “ It is very arduous … to have lecturers speak in the classroom about sensitive topics, whether that is regional politics, compress exemption, the U.S. travel ban, or other exchangeable topics … and things became much more sensitive in the awaken of the arabian spring. ”
Female Participation in Education: Women Now Outnumber Men
As in early bourgeois male-dominated societies, women in the UAE have traditionally been discriminated against in a variety show of ways. They encounter barriers to labor military unit participation, and have only limited social, economic, and cultural rights. domestic violence, for case, remains legal, and in marriage wives have an inferior condition and fewer rights than husbands .
however, the UAE has made significant strides over the past decades and now ranks relatively favorably in terms of sex equality by regional standards ( ahead of countries like Turkey, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia ) .
One area in which great build up has been made is female engagement in education. While registration rates among women in both school and higher education were abysmal in the 1970s, they now graduate from secondary school in higher numbers than men ( at a ratio of 6 to 4 ). In higher department of education, similarly, women now outnumber men : between 2012 and 2014, the share of tertiary enrollments by women shot up from 42 percentage to 58 percentage .
Looking at public Emirati institutions in isolation, this asymmetry is even more assume : not less than 80 percentage to 90 percentage of students at the UAE ’ s three federal HEIs are women. At UAE University, for exemplify, the share of female students reportedly increased from 38 percentage in 1977 to 82 percentage in 2016. In contrast to many other countries, women even outnumber men in STEM disciplines .
yet, while the female participation pace in third education is much higher than in western countries like the U.S. or Germany, it is, at the same clock time, a expression of relatively moo employment rates among women in the UAE. The labor engagement pace among women stood at 42 percentage in 2016, an enormous increase from only 2.2 percentage in 1975, but far below the participation pace of 91 percentage among men .
This asymmetry belies the fact that women outperform men in secondary coil school, and a majority of female workers are highly skilled professionals. One argue why there are so few men in higher education is merely the fact that Emirati men find it much easier than women to find employment opportunities right after high school. While the Emirati government encourages women to pursue education and promotes their socioeconomic inclusion, women still remain importantly underrepresented in the british labour party market and in leadership positions .
Quality Assurance and Accreditation
The rapid proliferation of extraneous branch campuses in the UAE has been described as a Wild West gold rush, and has raised concerns about the quality of education at these institutions. Analysts like Philip G. Altbach noted in 2010 that the programs offered at branch campuses “ rarely come close to home products in terms of width of course of study, timbre of academician staff, physical environment, learning resources and social facilities. ” In 2014, the Dubai ramify campus of the british Strathclyde Business School, for example, was likened to “ fiddling more than an administrative outpost of a foreign institution, ” offering merely one naturally out of lease offices .
To alleviate such quality concerns, about all emirates have in late years established at least some choice assurance mechanisms for foreign branch campuses. The baseline prerequisite for HEIs in most rid zones is that foreign providers need to be fully accredited in their home countries. Abu Dhabi has generally been more restrictive in the types of alien providers it invites to its free zones. It besides takes an interventionist approach, and focuses on attracting reputable providers and requires them to be federally licensed by the CAA. By contrast, Ras Al Khaimah until recently followed a release market model, imposing few restrictions on free-zone providers. however, in 2017 the emirate amped up quality controls on foreign HEIs .
Dubai in 2008 established a University and Quality Assurance International Board ( UQAIB ) under KHDA. UQAIB consists of mugwump, international higher education experts from versatile countries. It makes recommendations on the basis of which KHDA issues licenses to foreign free zone HEIs and approves programs offered by these providers. authority is granted for initial annual periods that can be extended to three and five years once HEIs graduate their beginning scholar cohorts ( for more information, see the UQAIB quality assurance manual ) .
The core choice standard for ramify campuses is that they have “ institutional policies, practices and resources in invest that are consistent with the … [ home initiation ] and that … create learn conditions for students that are similarly conducive to student achiever as the learn conditions [ of the home plate initiation ]. ” UQAIB conducts on-site audits and may place HEIs on probation or suspend their licenses. In addition, UQAIB must individually approve all cogitation programs—although the necessity that they be comparable to degree programs offered on home campuses can be waived, and singular programs may under certain circumstances be endorsed .
Whereas the quality of free zone providers is generally monitored by the person emirates, all non-federal HEIs operating outside of free zones must be federally licensed and have their degree programs accredited by the CAA. Established in 1999, the CAA is a government means under the union MOE. In order to be licensed by the CAA, HEIs must meet 11 doorsill criteria that include guileless administration structures, policies and procedures, adequate teaching facilities, support, faculty and class sizes, consistent admission policies, and internal quality assurance and report mechanisms. furthermore, HEIs must offer structured credit-bearing programs that include a general education component at the undergraduate level, and a focus on research in alumnus programs ( for more detail, see the CAA ’ sulfur Standards for Licensure and Accreditation ). Licenses need to be renewed every five years .
In order to advertise programs, enroll students, and have their degrees recognized throughout the UAE, non-federal HEIs must besides seek CAA accreditation of their individual degree programs after receiving their initial license. initially accredit programs are reviewed upon the graduation of the first student age group, after which they may be accredited for up to five years. The license of HEIs is contingent on the continue accreditation of their programs .
Institutions and individual programs can be placed on probation, during which they are not allowed to admit newly students and must rectify identified deficiencies or lose their license or accreditation. The CAA maintains public databases for both license institutions and accredit programs .
To far foster academic quality, the UAE government recently announced plans to create a national rate organization for all accredited HEIs. The ranking system is expected to be launched in deep 2018 and will rank universities using criteria like teaching timbre, reputation, and the extent of internationalization, equally well as the qualitative and quantitative shock of their research. One goal of the rankings is to boost the research end product of Emirati institutions, which is relatively low by global standards given the high flush of economic development of the UAE .
International University Rankings
Despite this lackluster research end product, the UAE is fairly well represented in external university rankings compared with other arab countries, and has advanced in these rankings over the years. There are presently four Emirati universities among the lead 30 institutions in the Times Higher Education ( THE ) Arab world rankings, including the second-ranked Khalifa University, compared with nine egyptian and five Saudi Arabian institutions. The top Emirati institutions in the current 2018 THE global ranking are the Khalifa University of Science and Technology at position 301–350 ( up from 501–600 in 2017 ), UAE University ( 501–600 ), the American University of Sharjah ( 601–800 ), and the University of Sharjah ( appearing in the THE rate for the first time in 2018 at position 801–1000 ) .
In the QS Arab Region University Rankings of 2018, seven Emirati universities are featured among the top 50 institutions, compared with nine Saudi Arabian institutions, seven egyptian universities, and seven lebanese universities. The top-ranked HEIs in the stream q 2019 global rate are largely the like as in the THE rank : Khalifa University ( position 315 ), UAE University ( 350 ), the American University of Sharjah ( 376 ), the American University in Dubai ( 561–570 ), and the University of Sharjah ( 651–700 ). No Emirati universities are featured in the current Shanghai rank, where few institutions from arabian countries appear among the exceed 1,000 .
Despite the fiscal blackmail of falling unrefined oil prices in holocene years, education outgo in the UAE is quite high. While the country soon spends entirely about 1.6 percentage of its GDP on education ( far below the OECD average of 4.5 percentage ), actual outgo per public-sector student is well above the OECD average when adjusting for the little act of Emirati students and the large size of the secret sector in the UAE. “ accountancy for these differences, the UAE ’ s public education spend exceeds that in the OECD countries with the highest levels of public education spend ( Norway, Denmark, Finland ). outgo per scholar is above $ 22,000, more than doubly as in the average OECD economy ” ( International Monetary Fund ) .
In fact, the UAE spends more of its politics budget on education than all other Persian Gulf countries except for Saudi Arabia. Reflecting the importance of education in the Emirates, 20.5 percentage of the federal politics ’ s 2017 operate budget is dedicated to education ( 10.2 billion dirham or approximately USD $ 2.78 billion ), a far higher percentage than education budgets in countries like the U.S. or Germany .
For the 2018 fiscal class, that allocation far increased to 10.4 billion dirham ( 17.1 percentage of the overall budget ). That said, the quickly growing number of students in the UAE is straining public finances, making greater fiscal allocations necessary to sustain registration growth at public universities in the years ahead. The IMF besides noted in 2017 that high spend levels in the UAE “ …have not so far translated into strong outcomes. For model, the UAE ’ s PISA scores are at the bottom of those in the OECD economies. importantly, in all subjects over 40 percentage of students are at or below level 2—a proficiency tied deemed by the OECD as necessary to participate fully in a globalize world. ” As mentioned before, the research output of Emirati universities besides remains relatively moo .
The Degree Structure
The UAE recently created a national qualifications framework ( QFEmirates ) in order to benchmark qualifications, define learn outcomes, ease the transfer between academic programs, and facilitate the international recognition of Emirati credentials. ( For more information, see KHDA, NQA and CAA ). The framework includes 10 levels of qualifications as exemplify below .
Grading scales in the UAE differ from institution to institution, but the one most normally used is a U.S.-style vitamin a to F scale. The credit rating system used by most institutions, besides, closely resembles the U.S. organization, with 30 accredit hours representing one year of full-time study at the undergraduate level .
Associate Degrees, Diplomas, and Higher Diplomas
The first standard post-secondary certificate in the UAE is the consociate degree or biennial diploma, formally pegged at degree 5 of the qualifications model. Associate degrees and diplomas are largely awarded by secret colleges and part colleges of the HCT. entrance fee to all HCT programs requires, at minimum, the General Secondary Education Certificate with a minimum score of 60 ( 70 for engineering ), american samoa well as an EmSAT English score of 1100 or equivalent. As of this compose, students who have lower scores still have to complete a basis program before they begin their studies. however, as mentioned above, the foundation year is presently being phased out .
While diploma programs may be structured as standalone programs, HCT colleges besides award these credentials as exit qualifications in incomplete bachelor ’ s degree programs. The prize of a diploma or associate degree degree normally requires at least two years of study ( 60 citation hours or more ), and a minimum accumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher. Three-year Higher Diplomas awarded by the HCT, on the other hand, require three years of study ( 90 credits, and besides a minimum accumulative GPA of 2.0 ). The course of study, like those of knight bachelor ’ s degree programs, include a general education component in summation to core courses and electives in the choose specialization. Credits earned completing a course of study toward a diploma or associate degree can much be transferred to bachelor ’ s degree programs, depending on the initiation and the major. Shorter, annual diploma alternatives besides exist, and higher/advanced diploma options may be offered as annual ( 2+1 ) programs entered on the basis of a previous diploma or associate degree .
Studying for a bachelor ’ s degree in a standard academic discipline takes four years to complete ( between 120 and 140+ credits, depending on the major ). A knight bachelor ’ mho in technology and architecture, on the other hand, normally takes five years. Curricula have a mandate general education component, along with kernel courses and electives particular to the major. Some programs include internships. Common credentials awarded by universities include the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science, whereas more vocational programs offered by the HCT and other institutions lead to the Bachelor of Applied Science. Admissions requirements vary by mental hospital, but normally include at least the General Secondary Education Certificate and proofread of English terminology competence. As outlined in the university admissions section above, however, many HEIs ’ admissions requirements are much more rigorous .
Master’s Degree and Postgraduate Diploma
Master ’ s academic degree programs are normally research-oriented. typically offered at universities, they take one to two years of study ( 30 to 48 credits ). To be admitted to the federal UAE and Zayed universities, applicants must have a bachelor ’ s degree from an accredit institution, a minimum accumulative GPA of 3.0, and demonstrated linguistic process skills. Master ’ randomness course of study are generally specialized and may involve writing a thesis or completing a inquiry project, although strictly course work-based programs besides exist .
In summation to offering master ’ s programs, some universities offer shorter term, annual courses of study that lead to a graduate student or graduate diploma. These qualifications are normally more employment-geared and are awarded largely in professional disciplines. In some instances, credits earned in these courses can be transferred to refer dominate ’ s programs .
The standard doctoral degree in the UAE is the Doctor of Philosophy ( Ph.D. ) —a terminal research academic degree that takes between three and five years to complete. UAE University requires a maestro ’ s degree with a minimal undergraduate accumulative GPA of 3.3 for admission into its doctoral programs. As in the U.S., these programs typically require the completion of approximately two years of path work followed by the preparation and oral defense of a dissertation. A number of professional doctorates like the Doctor of Business Administration are besides awarded .
Medical and Dental Education
professional entry-to-practice degrees, like the Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dental Surgery, or Bachelor of Dental Surgery, are earned after completing five- or six-year-long, single-tier degree programs after high school. Admissions requirements for these programs vary by mental hospital, but are typically competitive. UAE University, for exemplar, requires that applicants sit for the Medical College Admission Test for High School Candidates ( MCAT-H ), administered by the UK-based company Pearson. Applicants must besides have a high school average of 85 percentage .
checkup and alveolar consonant education normally requires two years of premedical study in science subjects, three to four years of professional discipline, and a evanesce score on a concluding interrogation, followed by a mandate annual clinical internship. To exercise, graduates must be licensed by the federal Ministry of Health, or in the casing of Dubai and Abu Dhabi, the Dubai Health Authority and the Abu Dhabi Department of Health. Licensure in medical and dental specialties requires another three to six years of clinical study and education, depending on the specialization. ( See besides the UAE Unified Healthcare Professional Qualification Requirements. )
Until recently, regulations for teachers in the UAE varied by jurisdiction, but teachers at all levels, from kindergarten to high school, are required to have a four-year Bachelor of Education degree. alternatively, graduates in other disciplines can earn a teaching reservation by completing a annual graduate student diploma program in education. In its efforts to improve and standardize its teacher train, the UAE in 2018 introduced a mandatary countrywide teacher license system ( TLS ). By 2021, to obtain a license all teachers in public and private schools will need to pass license examinations in teaching, English, and the subjects they teach. The licenses will be valid for one to three years, depending on test scores and feel .
Candidates who fail will be required to complete extra training. In a pilot program phase, less than 50 percentage of candidates passed the tests. Holders of alien teaching qualifications will have to apply to have their credentials attested and vetted for “ equalization. ” To obtain a license, foreign-educated teachers will besides have to pass the IELTS English terminology test at a score no lower than a specified minimum, angstrom well as crack extra examination in the subjects of ethics and professional conduct .
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
The UAE soon aims to expand its TVET sector to develop a better skilled work force. According to the Emirati government, the “ … UAE needs to produce 10 Emiratis with vocational skills for every university graduate … to achieve a sustainable and diversify knowledge-based economy. therefore, it focuses on building a national organization to ensure choice technical and vocational education and prepare ( TVET ) system. ”
To that end, the UAE created a union Vocational Education and Training Awards Council ( VETAC ) under the National Qualifications Authority ( NQA ), established in 2010. The NQA is tasked with building a comprehensive, industry-focused TVET system and providing quality operate of TVET providers. VETAC vets and approves vocational qualifications based on occupational skills standards benchmarked in the National Qualifications Framework. In 2014, VETAC authorized the Abu Dhabi Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training ( ACTVET ) to develop and award vocational credentials in Abu Dhabi and the northern emirates, and approved KHDA to do the same in Dubai. Clearly defined course of study structures and learning outcomes for specific TVET qualifications can be found on ACTVET ’ s web site. A number of approved training institutions and qualifications is provided by VETAC .
TVET credentials in the UAE scope from certificate, diploma, and advanced diploma programs to applied bachelor ’ sulfur and chief ’ s degrees. Certificate and diploma programs are offered at institutions like the Abu Dhabi Vocational Education and Training Institute, or the National Institute for Vocational Education in fields like office administration, human resources, locomotion and tourism, retail, information technology, and health and safety. Institutions like the HCT and the Emirates Aviation University offer applied vocationally geared bachelor ’ second and maestro ’ second programs in fields like aviation care mastermind or marine engineer engineering .
WES Document Requirements
examination Results ( for the General Secondary Education Certificate etc. ) – sent directly by the Ministry of Education
Academic Transcript issued in English – sent immediately by the mental hospital attended
For completed doctoral programs : a written statement confirming the award of the degree – sent directly by the initiation attended .
Click hera for a PDF file of the academic documents referred to below .
- General Secondary Education Certificate
- Two-Year Diploma
- Bachelor of Arts
- Bachelor of Civil Engineering
- Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
- Graduate Diploma
- Master of Science
- Doctor of Philosophy
1. Rentier states are countries that receive significant revenues from other countries in exchange for the rentier submit ’ s natural resources ( petroleum or other ). Rentier state economies rely heavy on external rip and have less need for a potent domestic economic sector. The politics is the main recipient role of the external rent .
2. For a comparison of TNE in the UAE and China, see the reports on the UAE and China published by the british Quality Assurance Agency for Higher education.
3. Older students who graduated before the insertion of standardize tests in 2003 may be admitted based on scores in the General Secondary Education gradation examination .
4. The share of private enrollments varies by emirate. It made up 64 percentage in Abu Dhabi, 78 percentage in Sharjah and 70 percentage in Ajman in 2014, but lone 41 percentage, 40 percentage and 28 percentage, respectively, in Umm Al Quwain, Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah .