Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky ( Ruthenian : Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи ; [ 1 ] mod ukrainian : Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький ; c. 1595 – 6 August 1657 ) was a ukrainian [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] military commanding officer and Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host, which was then under the suzerainty of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He led an rise against the Commonwealth and its magnates ( 1648–1654 ) that resulted in the creation of an independent ukrainian Cossack state of matter. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the russian Tsar and allied the Cossack Hetmanate with Tsardom of Russia, thus placing central Ukraine under Russian restraint. [ 9 ]
early animation [edit ]
Although there is no definite proof of the date of Khmelnytsky ‘s birth, russian historian Mykhaylo Maksymovych suggests that it is probably 27 December 1595 Julian ( St. Theodore ‘s [ 10 ] day ). As was the custom in the Orthodox Church, he was baptized with one of his middle names, Theodor, translated into ukrainian as Bohdan. A biography of Khmelnytsky by Smoliy and Stepankov, however, suggests that it is more probable he was born on 9 November ( feast day of St Zenoby, [ 11 ] 30 October in Julian calendar ) and was baptized on 11 November ( feast day of St. Theodore in the Catholic Church ). [ 12 ]
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Khmelnytsky was credibly born in the greenwich village of Subotiv, near Chyhyryn in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland at the estate of his father Mykhailo Khmelnytsky. [ 13 ] He was born into ukrainian lesser nobility. [ 14 ] His father was a courtier of Great Crown Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, but later joined the court of his son-in-law Jan Daniłowicz, who in 1597 became starosta of Korsuń and Chyhyryn and appointed Mykhailo as his deputy in Chyhyryn ( pidstarosta ). For his service, he was granted a comic strip of state near the town, where Mykhailo set up a khutor Subotiv. There has been controversy as to whether Bohdan and his father belonged to the szlachta ( polish term for noblemen ). [ 15 ] Some sources state of matter that in 1590 his founder Mykhailo was appointed as a sotnyk for the Korsun-Chyhyryn starosta Jan Daniłowicz, who continued to colonize the new ukrainian lands near the Dnieper river. [ 16 ] Khmelnytsky identified as a noble, and his forefather ‘s status as a pidstarosta of Chyhyryn helped him to be considered as such by others. During the Uprising, however, Khmelnytsky would stress his mother ‘s Cossack roots and his founder ‘s exploits with the Cossacks of the Sich. [ citation needed ] Khmelnytsky attended a Jesuit college, possibly in Jarosław, but more likely in Lviv in the school founded by hetman Żółkiewski. He completed his school by 1617, acquiring a across-the-board cognition of world history and learning polish and Latin. belated he learned Turkish, Tatar, and French. Unlike many of the other Jesuit students, he did not embrace Roman Catholicism but remained Orthodox. [ citation needed ]
marriage and class [edit ]
Khmelnytsky married Hanna Somkivna, a baby of a rich Pereyaslavl Cossack ; the couple settled in Subotiv. By the second half of the 1620s, they had three daughters : Stepanyda, Olena, and Kateryna. His beginning son Tymish ( Tymofiy ) was born in 1632, and another son Yuriy was born in 1640 .
Registered cossack [edit ]
Upon completion of his studies in 1617, Khmelnytsky entered into service with the Cossacks. deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as 1619, he was sent together with his beget to Moldavia, when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth entered into war against the Ottoman Empire. During the battle of Cecora ( Țuțora ) on 17 September 1620, his father was killed, and new Khmelnytsky, among many others including future hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, was captured by the Turks. He spent the adjacent two years in enslavement in Constantinople as a prisoner of an Ottoman Kapudan Pasha ( presumably Parlak Mustafa Pasha ). [ 17 ] other sources claim that he spent his slavery in Ottoman Navy on galley as an oarsman, where he picked up a cognition of Turkic languages. [ 18 ] While there is no concrete evidence as to his render to Ukraine, most historians believe Khmelnytsky either escaped or was ransomed. Sources vary as to his benefactor – his mother, friends, the polish king – but possibly by Krzysztof Zbaraski, ambassador of the Commonwealth to the Ottomans. In 1622 he paid 30,000 thalers in ransom for all prisoners of war captured at the Battle of Cecora. Upon reelect to Subotiv, Khmelnytsky took over operating his forefather ‘s estate of the realm and became a registered cossack in the Chyhyryn Regiment. He most probably did n’t take part in any of the Cossack uprisings that broke out in Ukraine at that time. His patriotic service achieved him the rank of military clerk ( pisarz wojskowy ) of the register Cossacks in 1637. It happened after the capitulation of the Pavlyuk rise in the township Borowica on 24 December 1637, when plain hetman Mikołaj Potocki appointed new Cossack eldership. He had to do it because some of the elders either joined Pavlyuk or were killed by him ( like erstwhile military clerk, Teodor Onuszkowicz ). [ 19 ] Because of his new position Khmelnytsky was the matchless who prepared and signed an act of capitulation. [ 20 ] Fighting did n’t stop in Borowica, rebel Cossacks rose up again under the new dominate of Ostryanyn and Hunia in the leap following year. Mikołaj Potocki was successful again and after a six week long siege, the rebel Cossacks were forced to capitulate on 3 August 1638. Like the class before, some registered Cossacks joined the rebels, while some of them remained loyal. Unlike the last time, Potocki decided not to punish the insurgent Cossacks, but forced all of them to swear loyalty to the king and the express and swear not to seek seek revenge against each other. The Hetman besides agreed to their request to send emissaries to the king to seek royal seemliness and preserve Cossack rights. They were elected on a council on 9 September 1638 in Kyiv. Bohdan Khmelnytsky was one of them ; the early three were Iwan Bojaryn, colonel of Kaniów, Roman Połowiec and Jan Wołczenko. [ 21 ] The emissaries did n’t achieve much, by and large because all decisions were already made by the Sejm earlier this year, when deputies accepted the stick out presented by the august Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski. [ 22 ] Cossacks were forced to accept harsh modern terms at the next council in Masłowy Staw, at the Ros river. According to one of the articles of the Ordynacya Woyska Zaporowskiego ( “ Ordinance of the Zaporozhian Army ” ) registered Cossacks lost the right to elect their own officers and a commander, called elder ( starszy ) or commissar. From now on, the elder was to be nominated by the Sejm, from the Grand Hetman ’ second recommendation. The Grand Hetman besides got the right to appoint all officers. Commissars, colonels and osauls had to be a noblemen, while sotniks and atamans had to be Cossacks, who were “ distinguished in a service for Us and the Commonwealth ”. [ 23 ] Khmelnytsky became one of the sotniks of Chyhryn regiment. In 1663 in Paris Pierre Chevalier published a bible about Cossack rise called Histoire de la guerre des Cosaques contre la Pologne, which he dedicated to Nicolas Léonor de Flesselles, count de Brégy, who was an ambassador to Poland in 1645. [ 24 ] In the dedication he described the meet de Brégy had with Khmelnytsky in France, and group of Cossacks he brought to France to fight against Spain in Flanders. [ 25 ] Chevalier besides claimed that he himself commanded Cossacks in Flanders. [ 26 ] Although in distant parts of the book Chevalier does n’t mention either Cossacks or Khmelnytsky even once. In his other write, Relation des Cosaques (avec la vie de Kmielniski, tirée d’un Manuscrit), published the same year, which besides contains a biography of Khmelnytsky, there is no citation about his or any other Cossacks quell in France or Flanders. [ 27 ] furthermore first Chevalier record is the alone source that note such an event, there is not trace of it tied in correspondence of count de Brègy. [ 28 ] Although it is true that he was conducting a recruitment of soldiers in Poland for french army in years 1646-1648. In fact he succeeded and about 3000 of them travelled via Gdańsk to Flanders and took part in fights around Dunkirk. french sources describes them as infanterie tout Poulonnois qu’Allemand. [ 29 ] They were commanded by colonels Krzysztof Przyjemski, Andrzej Przyjemski and Georges Cabray. Second recruitment that shipped off in 1647 were commanded by Jan Pleitner, Dutch military engineer in service of Władysław IV and Jan Denhoff, colonel of Royal Guard. [ 30 ] seventeenth century french historian Jean-François Sarasіn in his Histoire de siège de Dunkerque when describing engagement of polish mercenaries in fights over Dunkirk, notes that they were commanded by some “ Sirot ”. [ 31 ] Some historians identify him as Ivan Sirko, Cossack ataman. Claims that Khmelnytsky and Cossacks were actually in France are supported by some ukrainian historians, while other and most polish scholarship finds it unlikely. [ 32 ]
Czapliński Affair [edit ]
Upon the death of baron Stanisław Koniecpolski ( March 1646 ) his successor, Aleksander, redrew the maps of his possessions. He laid claim to Khmelnytsky ‘s estate of the realm, claiming it as his. Trying to find security from this catch by the brawny baron, Khmelnytsky wrote numerous appeals and letters to different representatives of the polish crown but to no avail. At the end of 1645 the Chyhyryn starosta Daniel Czapliński formally received authority from Koniecpolski to seize Khmelnytsky ‘s Subotiv estate of the realm .
 According to a 1651 message, Sultan  portrait of Bohdan Khmelnytsky ( c. 1650 ) in the District Museum in Tarnów. Khmelnytsky obtained ready-made garments from the East.According to a 1651 message, Sultan Mehmed IV sent to him “ a samite caftan, one of his ethical royal caftans. ” In the summer of 1646, Khmelnytsky arranged an audience with King Władysław IV to plead his case, as he had favorable stand at the court. Władysław, who wanted Cossacks on his slope in the wars he planned, gave Khmelnytsky a royal lease, protecting his rights to the Subotiv estate of the realm. But, because of the structure of the Commonwealth at that time and the lawlessness of Ukraine, even the King was not able to prevent a confrontation with local magnates. In the beginning of 1647, Daniel Czapliński started to harass Khmelnytsky in order to force him off the land. On two occasions the baron had Subotiv raided : considerable property wrong was done and Khmelnytsky ‘s son Yuriy was badly beaten. last, in April 1647, Czapliński succeeded in evicting Khmelnytsky from the land, and he was forced to move with his bombastic family to a relative ‘s house in Chyhyryn. In May 1647, Khmelnytsky arranged a moment hearing with the king to plead his font but found him unwilling to confront a knock-down baron. In summation to losing the estate, Khmelnytsky suffered the personnel casualty of his wife Hanna, and he was left alone with their children. He promptly remarried, to Motrona ( Helena Czaplińska ), the alleged “ Helen of the steppe ”. He was less successful in real estate of the realm, and was unable to regain the bring and property of his estate or fiscal recompense for it. During this fourth dimension, he met respective higher polish officials to discuss the Cossacks ‘ war with the Tatars, and used this juncture again to plead his case with Czapliński, still unsuccessfully. While Khmelnytsky found no support from the polish officials, he found it in his Cossack friends and subordinates. His Chyhyryn regiment and others were on his side. All through the fall of 1647 Khmelnytsky travelled from one regiment to another, and had numerous consultations with Cossack leaders throughout Ukraine. His natural process raised suspicion among the local polish authorities already used to Cossack revolts ; he was promptly arrested. Koniecpolski issued an order for his execution, but the Chyhyryn Cossack polkovnyk, who held Khmelnytsky, was persuaded to release him. not bequeath to tempt fate any far, Khmelnytsky headed for the Zaporozhian Sich with a group of his supporters .
Uprising [edit ]
While the Czapliński Affair is generally regarded as the immediate cause of the arise, it was primarily a catalyst for actions representing rising popular discontentment. [ citation needed ] [ 34 ] Religion, ethnicity, and economics factored into this discontent. While the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth remained a union of nations, a goodly population of Orthodox Ruthenians were ignored. Oppressed by the polish magnates, they took their wrath out on Poles, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Jews, who frequently managed the estates of polish nobles. The advent of the Counter-Reformation worsened relations between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. many Orthodox Ukrainians considered the Union of Brest as a threat to their Orthodox faith .
initial successes [edit ]
At the end of 1647 Khmelnytsky reached the estuary of the Dnieper river. On 7 December, his humble detachment ( 300–500 men ), with the help of register Cossacks who went over to his side, disarmed the small polish detachment guarding the area and took over the Zaporozhian Sich. [ citation needed ] The Poles attempted to retake the Sich but were decisively defeated as more file Cossacks joined the forces. At the end of January 1648, a Cossack Rada was called and Khmelnytsky was unanimously elected a hetman. A period of feverish activity followed. Cossacks were sent with hetman ‘s letters to many regions of Ukraine calling on Cossacks and Orthodox peasants to join the rebellion, Khortytsia was fortified, efforts were made to acquire and make weapons and ammunition, and emissaries were sent to the Khan of Crimea, İslâm III Giray. initially, polish authorities took the news of Khmelnytsky ‘s arrival at the Sich and reports about the rebellion lightly. The two sides exchanged lists of demands : the Poles asked the Cossacks to surrender the mutinous leader and disband, while Khmelnytsky and the Rada demanded that the Commonwealth restore the Cossacks ‘ ancient rights, stop the gain of the ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, yield the right to appoint Orthodox leaders of the Sich and of the Registered Cossack regiments, and to remove Commonwealth troops from Ukraine. [ 35 ] The polish magnates considered the demands an insult, and an united states army headed by Stefan Potocki moved in the direction of the Sich. Had the Cossacks stayed at Khortytsia, they might have been defeated, as in many other rebellions. however, Khmelnytsky marched against the Poles. The two armies met on 16 May 1648 at Zhovti Vody, where, aided by the Tatars of Tugay Bey, the Cossacks inflicted their inaugural crushing kill on the Commonwealth. It was repeated soon afterwards, with the like success, at the Battle of Korsuń on 26 May 1648. Khmelnytsky used his diplomatic and military skills : under his leadership, the Cossack army moved to struggle positions following his plans, Cossacks were proactive and decisive in their manoeuvrers and attacks, and most importantly, he gained the documentation of both big contingents of register Cossacks and the Crimean Khan, his all-important ally for the many battles to come .
administration of Cossack Hetmanate [edit ]
The Patriarch of Jerusalem Paiseus, who was visiting Kyiv at this fourth dimension, referred to Khmelnytsky as the Prince of Rus, the lead of an freelancer ukrainian state of matter, according to contemporaries. [ 36 ] In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav with a polish deputation headed by Senator Adam Kysil, Khmelnytsky declared that he was “ the lone tyrant of Rus ” and that he had “ enough power in Ukraine, Podilia, and Volhynia … in his estate and principality extend equally far as Lviv, Chełm, and Halych. ” [ 37 ]
I already did more than was thinking before, nowadays I will obtain what I revised recently. I will liberate out of the polish suffering all of the Ruthenian people ! Before I was fighting for the insults and injustice caused to me, now I will fight for our Orthodox faith. And all people will help me in that all the way to Lublin and Krakow, and I wo n’t back off from the people as they are our right bridge player. And for the purpose lest you wo n’t attack cossacks by conquering peasants, I will have two, three hundred thousands of them .(Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Prince of Ruthenia)
After the period of initial military successes, the state-building work began. His leadership was demonstrated in all areas of state-building : military, administration, finance, economics and culture. Khmelnytsky made the Zaporozhian Host the supreme might in the raw ukrainian state of matter and unified all the spheres of ukrainian society under his authority. Khmelnytsky built a raw government system and develop military and civilian administration. A new coevals of statesmen and military leaders came to the forefront : Ivan Vyhovsky, Pavlo Teteria, Danylo Nechai and Ivan Nechai, Ivan Bohun, Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky. From Cossack polkovnyks, officers, and military commanders, a new elect within the Cossack Hetman state was born. Throughout the years, the elect preserved and maintained the autonomy of the Cossack Hetmanate in the confront of Russia ‘s attack to curb it. It was besides instrumental in the attack of the time period of Ruin that followed, finally destroying most of the achievements of the Khmelnytsky earned run average .
Complications [edit ]
Bohdan Khmelnytsky ‘s banner that was taken at the battle of Berestechko. It was late taken by the Swedes in Warsaw 1655 and is now to be seen at Armémuseum, Stockholm, Sweden. Khmelnytsky ‘s initial successes were followed by a serial of setbacks as neither Khmelnytsky nor the Commonwealth had enough forte to stabilise the situation or to inflict a frustration on the enemy. What followed was a time period of intermittent war and several peace treaties, which were rarely uphold. From leap 1649 ahead, the situation turned for the worse for the Cossacks ; as polish attacks increased in frequency, they became more successful. The resulting Treaty of Zboriv on 18 August 1649 was unfavorable for the Cossacks. It was followed by another get the better of at the battle of Berestechko on 18 June 1651 in which the Tatars betrayed Khmelnytsky and held the hetman captive. The Cossacks suffered a crush frustration, with an estimated 30,000 casualties. They were forced to sign the Treaty of Bila Tserkva, which favoured the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Warfare broke open again and, in the years that followed, the two sides were about perpetually at war. now, the Crimean Tatars played a decisive character and did not allow either side to prevail. It was in their interests to keep both Ukraine and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from getting besides firm and becoming an effective exponent in the region. [ 38 ] Khmelnytsky started looking for another alien ally. Although the Cossacks had established their de facto independence from Poland, the new state of matter needed legitimacy, which could be provided by a alien sovereign. In search of a protectorate, Khmelnytsky approached the Ottoman sultan in 1651, and formal embassies were exchanged. The Turks offered vassalship, like their other arrangements with contemporary Crimea, Moldavia and Wallachia. however, the theme of a union with the Muslim sovereign was not acceptable to the general populace and most Cossacks. The other possible ally was the Orthodox czar of Moskovia. That government remained quite cautious and stayed away from the hostilities in Ukraine. In cattiness of numerous envoys and calls for help oneself from Khmelnytsky in the name of the shared Orthodox religion, the czar preferred to wait, until the menace of a Cossack-Ottoman union in 1653 last forced him to action. [ 38 ] The mind that the czar might be favorable to taking Ukraine under his hand was communicated to the hetman and so diplomatic activity intensified .
treaty with czar [edit ]
After a series of negotiations, it was agreed that the Cossacks would accept overlordship by the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. To finalize the treaty, a russian embassy led by boyar Vasily Buturlin came to Pereyaslav, where, on 18 January 1654, the Cossack Rada was called and the treaty concluded. Historians have not come to consensus in interpreting the intentions of the czar and Khmelnytsky in signing this agreement. The treaty legitimized russian claims to the capital of Kievan Rus ‘ and strengthened the czar ‘s influence in the region. Khmelnytsky needed the treaty to gain a lawful monarch ‘s protection and confirm from a friendly Orthodox power. Historians have differed in their reading of Khmelnytsky ‘s finish with the union : whether it was to be a military union, a suzerainty, or a complete internalization of Ukraine into the Tsardom of Russia. [ 39 ] The differences were expressed during the ceremony of the oath of allegiance to the czar : the russian envoy refused to reciprocate with an oath from the rule to his subjects, as the Cossacks and Ruthenians expected since it was the customs of the polish king.
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Khmelnytsky stormed out of the church service and threatened to cancel the entire treaty. The Cossacks decided to rescind the demand and bide by the treaty .
Final years [edit ]
As a resultant role of the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav, the geopolitical map of the area changed. Russia entered the scene, and the Cossacks ‘ former allies, the Tatars, had switched sides and gone over to the polish side, initiating war against Khmelnytsky and his forces. Tatar raids depopulated whole areas of Sich. Cossacks, aided by the Tsar ‘s army, took revenge on polish possessions in Belarus, and in the jump of 1654, the Cossacks drove the Poles from much of the country. Sweden entered the mêlée. Old adversaries of both Poland and Russia, they occupied a share of Lithuania before the Russians could get there. The occupation displeased Russia because the czar sought to take over the swedish Baltic provinces. In 1656, with the Commonwealth increasingly war-torn but besides increasingly hostile and successful against the Swedes, the rule of Transylvania, George II Rákóczi, besides joined in. Charles X of Sweden had solicited his serve because of the massive polish popular opposition and underground against the Swedes. Under blows from all sides, the Commonwealth barely survived .
church service of Subotiv Ukraine, where Khmelnytsky was buried Russia attacked Sweden in July 1656, while its forces were profoundly involved in Poland. That war ended in condition quo two years late, but it complicated matters for Khmelnytsky, as his ally was now fighting his overlord. In summation to diplomatic tensions between the czar and Khmelnytsky, a count of early disagreements between the two surfaced. In particular, they concerned russian officials ‘ intervention in the finances of the Cossack Hetmanate and in the newly captured Belarus. The czar concluded a separate treaty with the Poles in Vilnius in 1656. The Hetman ‘s emissaries were not even allowed to attend the negotiations. Khmelnytsky wrote an irate letter to the czar accusing him of breaking the Pereyaslav agreement. He compared the Swedes to the czar and said that the erstwhile were more ethical and trustworthy than the Russians. [ 38 ] In Poland, the Cossack army and Transylvanian allies suffered a count of setbacks. As a consequence, Khmelnytsky had to deal with a Cossack rebellion on the home presence. Troubling news besides came from Crimea, as Tatars, in alliance with Poland, were preparing for a new invasion of Ukraine. Though already ailment, Khmelnytsky continued to conduct diplomatic action, at one point even receiving the czar ‘s envoy from his bed. [ 40 ] repository dedicated to Bogdan Khmelnytsky in Kyiv, Ukraine. The authors are Boris Krylov and Oles Sydoruk. On 22 July, he suffered a cerebral shed blood and became paralysed after his audience with the Kyiv Colonel Zhdanovich. His expedition to Halychyna had failed because of mutiny within his army. [ 41 ] Less than a week late, Bohdan Khmelnytsky died at 5 ante meridiem on 27 July 1657. His funeral was held on 23 August, and his consistency was taken from his das kapital, Chyhyryn, to his estate, at Subotiv, for burial in his ancestral church. In 1664 a polish hetman Stefan Czarniecki recaptured Subotiv, which according to some ukrainian historians, ordered the bodies of the hetman and his son, Tymish, to be exhumed and desecrated, while others claim that is not the encase. [ 42 ]
Influences [edit ]
Khmelnytsky had a crucial influence on the history of Ukraine. He not lone shaped the future of Ukraine but affected the remainder of power in Europe, as the de-escalate of Poland-Lithuania was exploited by Austria, Saxony, Prussia, and Russia. His actions and role in events were viewed differently by different contemporaries, and even now there are greatly differing perspectives on his bequest .
ukrainian judgment [edit ]
The Khmelnytsky Monument in Kyiv in 1905 In Ukraine, Khmelnytsky is broadly regarded as a home hero. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] A city [ 46 ] and a area of the country bear his name. His image is prominently displayed on ukrainian banknotes and his memorial in the center of Kiev is a focal point of the ukrainian capital. There have besides been several issues of the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky – one of the highest decorations in Ukraine and in the erstwhile Soviet Union. however, with all this positivist admiration of his bequest, even in Ukraine it is far from being consentaneous. He is criticised for his union with Russia, which in the view of some, proved to be black for the future of the area. outstanding ukrainian poet, Taras Shevchenko, was one of Khmelnytsky ‘s very vocal and coarse critics. [ 47 ] Others criticize him for his alliance with the Crimean Tatars, which permitted the latter to take a big number of ukrainian peasants as slaves. ( The Cossacks as a military caste did not protect the kholopy, the lowest stratum of the ukrainian people ). Folk songs capture this. On the remainder, the opinion of his bequest in contemporary Ukraine is more positive than negative, with some critics acknowledging that the union with Russia was dictated by necessity and an try to survive in those unmanageable times. [ citation needed ] In a 2018 Ukraine ‘s Rating Sociological Group poll, 73 % of ukrainian respondents had a plus attitude to Khmelnytsky. [ 48 ]
polish judgment [edit ]
Khmelnytsky ‘s function in the history of the polish State has been viewed by and large in a negative unaccented. The rebellion of 1648 proved to be the end of the Golden Age of the Commonwealth and the begin of its demise. Although it survived the rebellion and the comply war, within a hundred years it was divided amongst Russia, Prussia, and Austria in the partitions of Poland. many Poles blamed Khmelnytsky for the descent of the Commonwealth. [ 49 ] Khmelnytsky has been a subjugate to several works of fiction in the nineteenth century polish literature, but the most noteworthy discussion of him in polish literature is found in Henryk Sienkiewicz ‘s With Fire and Sword. [ 50 ] The preferably critical depicting of him by Sienkiewicz has been moderated in the 1999 movie adaptation by Jerzy Hoffman. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Five hryvnia coin, Ukraine, 2018 ( reverse )
russian and soviet history [edit ]
The official russian historiography stressed the fact that Khmelnytsky entered into union with Moscow ‘s Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich with an explicit desire to “ re-unify ” Ukraine with Russia. This view corresponded with the official hypothesis of Moscow as an successor of the Kievan Rus ‘, which appropriately gathered its former territories. [ 53 ] Khmelnytsky was viewed as a national hero of Russia for bringing Ukraine into the “ endless union ” of all the Russias – Great ( Russia ), Little ( Ukraine ) and White ( Belarus ) Russia. As such, he was much respected and venerated during the universe of the Russian Empire. His function was presented as a model for all Ukrainians to follow : to aspire for closer ties with Great Russia. This see was expressed in a repository commissioned by the russian nationalist Mikhail Yuzefovich, which was installed in the center of Kyiv in 1888. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] russian authorities decided the original version of the monument ( created by russian sculptor Mikhail Mikeshin ) was besides xenophobic ; it was to depict a beat Pole, Jew, and a catholic priest under the hoof of the sawhorse. The dedication on the monument reads “ To Bohdan Khmelnytsky from one and indivisible Russia. ” [ 56 ] Mikeshin besides created the Monument to the Millennium of Russia in Novgorod, which has Khmelnytsky shown as one of Russia ‘s big figures. [ 57 ] soviet historiography followed in many ways the Imperial Russian hypothesis of re-unification while adding the class contend dimension to the story. [ 53 ] Khmelnytsky was praised not only for re-unifying Ukraine with Russia, but besides for organizing the class contend of persecute ukrainian peasants against polish exploiters .
jewish history [edit ]
The assessment of Khmelnytsky in Jewish history is overwhelmingly negative because he blamed Jews in assisting polish shlakhta, as the former were much employed by polish nobility as tax collectors. Bohdan sought to eradicate Jews from Ukraine. frankincense, according to treaty of Zborov all jewish people were forbidden to live on the district, controlled by Cossack rebels. The Khmelnytsky Uprising led to the deaths of an estimated 18,000–100,000 out of 40,000 – 50,000 Jews live in the territory. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] Atrocity stories about slaughter victims who had been buried alive, cut to pieces or forced to kill one another spread throughout Europe and beyond. The pogroms contributed to a revival of the ideas of Isaac Luria, who revered the Kabbalah, and the identification of Sabbatai Zevi as the Messiah. [ 61 ] Orest Subtelny writes :
between 1648 and 1656, tens of thousands of Jews—given the miss of authentic data, it is impossible to establish more accurate figures—were killed by the rebels, and to this day the Khmelnytsky rise is considered by Jews to be one of the most traumatic events in their history. [ 62 ]
Ulrich von Werdum, a traveler and a memoirist from Friesland during his trip to Podillya in 1672, left a controversial note in his diary, concerning the outcomes of pogroms :
the Cossacks and Hetman Khmelnytsky last defended the christian population, as the Jews, who had in their hands all the hostel and hold the property of the nobility in pledge, mocked the ukrainian population and free Cossacks ; every day they hung, beatean with sticks, killed and humiliated the Christians and often treated them worse than dogs. [ 63 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
far read [edit ]
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