History of the Americas – Wikipedia

aspect of history
A true-color persona of the Americas. much of the information in the image comes from a one remote-sensing device— NASA ‘s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, flying over 700 km above the Earth on dining table the Terra satellite in 2001. The prehistory of the Americas ( North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean ) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the stature of an Ice Age. These groups are generally believed to have been isolated from the people of the “ Old World “ until the coming of Europeans in the tenth hundred from Iceland led by Leif Erikson and in 1492 with the voyages of Christopher Columbus. The ancestors of today ‘s American Indigenous peoples were the Paleo-Indians ; they were hunter-gatherers who migrated into North America. The most popular theory asserts that migrants came to the Americas via Beringia, the land aggregate nowadays covered by the ocean waters of the Bering Strait. Small lithic degree peoples followed megafauna like bison, mammoth ( immediately extinct ), and caribou, thus gaining the modern nickname “ big-game hunters. ” Groups of people may besides have traveled into North America on ledge or sail ice along the northern Pacific seashore.

Cultures that may be considered advance or civilized include Norte Chico, Cahokia, Zapotec, Toltec, Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Chimor, Mixtec, Moche, Mississippian, Puebloan, Totonac, Teotihuacan, Huastec people, Purépecha, Izapa, Mazatec, Muisca, and the Inca. [ citation needed ] After the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492, Spanish and later Portuguese, English, French and Dutch colonial expeditions arrived in the New World, conquering and settling the discover lands, which led to a transformation of the cultural and physical landscape in the Americas. Spain colonized most of the Americas from contemporary Southwestern United States, Florida and the Caribbean to the southerly tip of South America. Portugal settled in what is by and large contemporary Brazil while England established colonies on the Eastern coast of the United States, a well as the North Pacific seashore and in most of Canada. France settled in Quebec and other parts of Eastern Canada and claimed an area in what is today the central United States. The Netherlands settled New Netherland ( administrative center New Amsterdam – nowadays New York ), some Caribbean islands and parts of Northern South America. european colonization of the Americas led to the surface of fresh cultures, civilizations and finally states, which resulted from the fusion of native American, European, and african traditions, peoples and institutions. The transformation of american english cultures through colonization is discernible in architecture, religion, gastronomy, the arts and peculiarly languages, the most far-flung being spanish ( 376 million speakers ), English ( 348 million ) and Portuguese ( 201 million ). The colonial menstruation lasted approximately three centuries, from the early 16th to the early 19th centuries, when Brazil and the larger spanish american american nations declared independence. The United States obtained independence from Great Britain much earlier, in 1776, while Canada formed a federal dominion in 1867 and received legal independence in 1931. Others remained attached to their european parent state until the end of the nineteenth hundred, such as Cuba and Puerto Rico which were linked to Spain until 1898. Smaller territories such as Guyana obtained independence in the mid-20th century, while certain Caribbean islands and french Guiana remain function of a european world power to this day .

migration into the continents [edit ]

The specifics of paleo-american migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are discipline to ongoing inquiry and discussion. [ 1 ] The traditional hypothesis has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between easterly Siberia and contemporary Alaska around 40,000 – 17,000 years ago, when sea levels were significantly lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran internal-combustion engine sheets. [ 3 ] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific Northwest slide to South America. [ 4 ] evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea flush rise of a hundred meters following the last frosting age. [ 5 ] Archaeologists contend that the paleo-american migration out of Beringia ( easterly Alaska ), ranges from 40,000 to around 16,500 years ago. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] This time compass is a hot informant of debate. The few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread inhabitancy of the Americas during the conclusion of the last glacial menstruation, or more specifically what is known as the late glacial utmost, around 16,000 – 13,000 years before present. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] The american Journal of Human Genetics released an article in 2007 stating “ here we show, by using 86 arrant mitochondrial genomes, that all autochthonal american haplogroups, including Haplogroup X ( mtDNA ), were part of a single initiation population. ” [ 10 ] amerindian groups in the Bering Strait region parade possibly the strongest deoxyribonucleic acid or mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid relations to siberian peoples. The familial diverseness of amerindian autochthonal groups increase with distance from the assume entry point into the Americas. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Certain genetic diverseness patterns from West to East propose, peculiarly in South America, that migration proceeded first down the west coast, and then proceeded eastbound. [ 13 ] Geneticists have variously estimated that peoples of Asia and the Americas were contribution of the like population from 42,000 to 21,000 years ago. [ 14 ] New studies shed light on the establish population of autochthonal Americans, suggesting that their ancestry traced to both east asian and westerly Eurasians who migrated to North America directly from Siberia. A 2013 cogitation in the diary nature reported that DNA found in the 24,000-year-old remains of a unseasoned son in Mal ’ tantalum Siberia suggest that up to one-third of the autochthonal Americans may have lineage that can be traced back to western Eurasians, who may have “ had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than normally thought ” [ 15 ] Professor Kelly Graf said that “ Our findings are meaning at two levels. first, it shows that Upper Paleolithic Siberians came from a cosmopolitan population of early on modern humans that spread out of Africa to Europe and Central and South Asia. Second, Paleoindian skeletons with phenotypical traits atypical of contemporary native Americans can be explained as having a steer historic connection to Upper Paleolithic Siberia. ” A road through Beringia is seen as more probable than the Solutrean hypothesis. [ 16 ] On October 3, 2014, the Oregon cave where the oldest deoxyribonucleic acid tell of human dwelling in North America was found was added to the National Register of Historic Places. The deoxyribonucleic acid, radiocarbon dated to 14,300 years ago, was found in fossilize human coprolites uncovered in the Paisley Five Mile Point Caves in south central Oregon. [ 17 ]

lithic stage ( before 8000 BCE ) [edit ]

The Lithic stage or Paleo-Indian period, is the earliest categorization condition referring to the first stagecoach of homo habitation in the Americas, covering the Late Pleistocene epoch. The clock time period derives its name from the appearance of “ Lithic flaked “ rock tools. rock tools, particularly rocket points and scrapers, are the chief evidence of the earliest well known homo activity in the Americas. Lithic decrease stone tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods .

Archaic phase ( 8000 BCE – 1000 BCE ) [edit ]

several thousand years after the first migrations, the foremost complex civilizations arose as hunter-gatherers settled into semi-agricultural communities. identifiable sedentary settlements began to emerge in the alleged Middle Archaic period around 6000 BCE. Particular archaeological cultures can be identified and easily classified throughout the Archaic period. In the former Archaic, on the north-central coastal region of Peru, a complex civilization get up which has been termed the Norte Chico refinement, besides known as Caral-Supe. It is the oldest know refinement in the Americas and one of the five sites where refinement originated independently and indigenously in the ancient earth, flourishing between the 30th and 18th centuries BC. It pre-dated the Mesoamerican Olmec civilization by closely two millennium. It was coetaneous with the Egypt following the union of its kingdom under Narmer and the egress of the beginning egyptian hieroglyphics. monumental architecture, including earthwork platform mounds and dip plaza have been identified as separate of the refinement. archaeological attest points to the use of fabric technology and the worship of common god symbols. Government, possibly in the mannequin of theocracy, is assumed to have been required to manage the region. however, numerous questions remain about its constitution. In archaeological terminology, the culture was pre-ceramic culture of the pre-columbian Late Archaic period. It appears to have lacked ceramics and art. Ongoing scholarly debate persists over the extent to which the thrive of Norte Chico resulted from its abundant maritime food resources, and the kinship that these resources would suggest between coastal and inland sites. The function of seafood in the Norte Chico diet has been a subject of scholarly debate. In 1973, examining the Aspero region of Norte Chico, Michael E. Moseley contended that a nautical subsistence ( seafood ) economy had been the basis of company and its early on thrive. This hypothesis, late termed “ maritime foundation of Andean Civilization ” was at odds with the general scholarly consensus that civilization arose as a solution of intensive grain-based farming, as had been the encase in the emergence of civilizations in northeast Africa ( Egypt ) and southwest Asia ( Mesopotamia ). While earlier inquiry pointed to edible domestic plants such as squash, beans, lucuma, guava, pacay, and camote at Caral, publications by Haas and colleagues have added avocado, achira, and maize ( Zea Mays ) to the tilt of foods consumed in the region. In 2013, Haas and colleagues reported that corn was a basal component of the diet throughout the period of 3000 to 1800 BC. [ 18 ] Cotton was another widespread crop in Norte Chico, essential to the production of fishing nets and textiles. Jonathan Haas noted a reciprocal addiction, whereby “ The prehistoric residents of the Norte Chico needed the fish resources for their protein and the fishermen needed the cotton to make the nets to catch the pisces. ” In the 2005 koran 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, journalist Charles C. Mann surveyed the literature at the time, reporting a date “ sometime before 3200 BC, and possibly before 3500 BC ” as the beginning date for the formation of Norte Chico. He notes that the earliest date securely associated with a city is 3500 BC, at Huaricanga in the ( inland ) Fortaleza area. The Norte Chico civilization began to decline around 1800 BC as more potent centers appeared to the south and north along its slide, and to the east within the Andes Mountains .

Mesoamerica, the Woodland Period, and mississippian culture ( 2000 BCE – 500 CE ) [edit ]

After the decline of the Norte Chico culture, respective big, centralize civilizations developed in the Western Hemisphere : Chavin, Nazca, Moche, Huari, Quitus, Cañaris, Chimu, Pachacamac, Tiahuanaco, Aymara and Inca in the Central Andes ( Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia ) ; Muisca in Colombia ; Taínos in Dominican Republic ( Hispaniola, Española ) and partially of Caribbean ; and the Olmecs, Maya, Toltecs, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, Aztecs and Purepecha in southerly North America ( Mexico, Guatemala ). The Olmec culture was the beginning Mesoamerican refinement, beginning about 1600–1400 BC and ending about 400 BC. Mesoamerica is considered one of the six sites around the ball in which civilization developed independently and indigenously. This refinement is considered the mother culture of the Mesoamerican civilizations. The Mesoamerican calendar, numeral system, writing, and much of the Mesoamerican pantheon seem to have begun with the Olmec. Some elements of farming seem to have been practiced in Mesoamerica quite early. The tameness of gamboge is thought to have begun around 7,500 to 12,000 years ago. The earliest commemorate of lowland corn cultivation dates to around 5100 BC. [ 19 ] Agriculture continued to be interracial with a hunting-gathering-fishing life style until quite former compared to other regions, but by 2700 BC, Mesoamericans were relying on gamboge, and living largely in villages. Temple mounds and classes started to appear. By 1300/ 1200 BC, small centres coalesced into the Olmec culture, which seems to have been a set of city-states, united in religious and commercial concerns. The Olmec cities had ceremonial complexes with earth/clay pyramids, palaces, stone monuments, aqueducts and walled plaza. The first of these centers was at San Lorenzo ( until 900 bc ). La Venta was the last great Olmec concentrate. Olmec artisans sculpted tire and cadaver figurines of Jaguars and humans. Their iconic elephantine heads – believed to be of Olmec rulers – stand in every major city. The Olmec refinement ended in 400 BC, with the deface and end of San Lorenzo and La Venta, two of the major cities. It however spawned many other states, most notably the Mayan civilization, whose beginning cities began appearing about 700–600 BC. Olmec influences continued to appear in many late mesoamerican civilizations. Cities of the Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas were as large and organized as the largest in the Old World, with an calculate population of 200,000 to 350,000 in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The grocery store established in the city was said to have been the largest always seen by the conquistadors when they arrived. The capital of the Cahokians, Cahokia, located near modern East St. Louis, Illinois, may have reached a population of over 20,000. At its acme, between the 12th and 13th centuries, Cahokia may have been the most populous city in North America. Monk ‘s Mound, the major ceremonial center of Cahokia, remains the largest earthen structure of the prehistoric New World. These civilizations developed department of agriculture deoxyadenosine monophosphate well, breeding corn ( corn ) from having ears 2–5 curium in length to possibly 10–15 curium in length. Potatoes, tomatoes, beans ( greens ), pumpkins, avocado, and chocolate are now the most popular of the pre-columbian agrarian products. The civilizations did not develop extensive livestock as there were few desirable species, although alpaca and llama were domesticated for manipulation as beasts of charge and sources of wool and kernel in the Andes. By the fifteenth hundred, corn was being farmed in the Mississippi River Valley after introduction from Mexico. The course of far agricultural development was greatly altered by the arrival of Europeans .

classical phase ( 800 BCE – 1533 CE ) [edit ]

Pre-contact : distribution of north american english terminology families, including northern Mexico


Cahokia was a major regional chiefdom, with trade and feeder chiefdoms located in a range of areas from bordering the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico .


The Iroquois League of Nations or “ People of the Long House ”, based in contemporary upstate and western New York, had a confederacy model from the mid-15th hundred. It has been suggested that their culture contributed to political think during the development of the later United States government. Their system of affiliation was a kind of federation, different from the hard, centralize european monarchies. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] leadership was restricted to a group of 50 sachem chiefs, each representing one kin within a tribe ; the Oneida and Mohawk people had nine seats each ; the Onondagas held fourteen ; the Cayuga had ten seats ; and the Seneca had eight. representation was not based on population numbers, as the Seneca tribe greatly outnumbered the others. When a sachem headman died, his successor was chosen by the aged womanhood of his tribe in consultation with other female members of the kin ; property and ancestral leadership were passed matrilineally. Decisions were not made through vote but through consensus decisiveness make, with each sachem chief holding theoretical veto exponent. The Onondaga were the “ firekeepers “, creditworthy for raising topics to be discussed. They occupied one side of a trilateral fire ( the Mohawk and Seneca sat on one side of the fuel, the Oneida and Cayuga sat on the third side. ) [ 22 ] long-distance trade did not prevent war and displacement among the autochthonal peoples, and their oral histories tell of numerous migrations to the historic territories where Europeans encountered them. The Iroquois invaded and attacked tribes in the Ohio River area of contemporary Kentucky and claimed the hunt grounds. Historians have placed these events ampere occurring arsenic early as the thirteenth century, or in the seventeenth hundred Beaver Wars. [ 23 ] Through war, the Iroquois drove several tribes to migrate west to what became known as their historically traditional lands west of the Mississippi River. Tribes originating in the Ohio Valley who moved west included the Osage, Kaw, Ponca and Omaha people. By the mid-17th hundred, they had resettled in their historical lands in contemporary Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas and Oklahoma. The osage warred with Caddo -speaking native Americans, displacing them in turn by the mid-18th hundred and dominating their fresh historic territories. [ 23 ]

Oasisamerica [edit ]

Pueblo people

The Pueblo people of what is now occupied by the Southwestern United States and northerly Mexico, living conditions were that of large rock apartment like adobe structures. They live in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and possibly surrounding areas .

Aridoamerica [edit ]


Chichimeca was the list that the Mexica ( Aztecs ) generically applied to a across-the-board range of semi- mobile peoples who inhabited the north of contemporary Mexico, and carried the lapp sense as the european terminus “ peasant “. The name was adopted with a dyslogistic spirit by the Spaniards when referring particularly to the semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples of northerly Mexico.

mesoamerica [edit ]


The Olmec civilization emerged around 1200 BCE in Mesoamerica and ended round 400 BCE. Olmec art and concepts influenced surrounding cultures after their downfall. This civilization was thought to be the first in America to develop a write system. After the Olmecs abandoned their cities for strange reasons, the Maya, Zapotec and Teotihuacan originate .


The Purepecha refinement emerged around 1000 CE in Mesoamerica. They flourished from 1100 CE to 1530 CE. They continue to live on in the state of Michoacán. Fierce warriors, they were never conquered and in their glory years, successfully sealed off huge areas from aztec domination .


Maya history spans 3,000 years. The classical Maya may have collapsed due to changing climate in the end of the tenth hundred .


The Toltec were a mobile people, dating from the 10th–12th hundred, whose linguistic process was besides spoken by the Aztecs .


Teotihuacan ( fourth hundred BCE – 7/8th hundred CE ) was both a city, and an empire of the same list, which, at its zenith between 150 and the fifth century, covered most of Mesoamerica .


The Aztec having started to build their empire around fourteenth hundred found their civilization abruptly ended by the spanish conquistadors. They lived in Mesoamerica, and surrounding lands. Their das kapital city Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities of all time .

South America [edit ]

Norte Chico

The oldest know refinement of the Americas was established in the Norte Chico region of modern Peru. Complex club emerged in the group of coastal valleys, between 3000 and 1800 BCE. The Quipu, a distinctive recording device among andean civilizations, obviously dates from the era of Norte Chico ‘s prominence .


The Chavín established a deal network and develop department of agriculture by a early as ( or former compared to the Old World ) 900 BCE according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a locate called Chavín in advanced Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters. Chavín civilization spanned from 900 BCE to 300 BCE .
Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes area from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tahuantinsuyu, or “ the domain of the four regions ”, in Quechua, the Inca culture was highly distinct and develop. Cities were built with accurate, matchless stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a utilitarian shape of agriculture. There is evidence of excellent metalworking and even successful trepanation of the skull in Inca culture .

european colonization [edit ]

Non-Native american nations ‘ claims over North America, 1750–1999 . political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean since 1700 . european nations ’ control over South America, 1700 to present Around 1000, the Vikings established a ephemeral settlement in Newfoundland, immediately known as L’Anse aux Meadows. Speculations exist about other Old World discoveries of the New World, but none of these are broadly or wholly accepted by most scholars. Spain sponsored a major exploration led by italian explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492 ; it promptly led to extensive european colonization of the Americas. The Europeans brought Old World diseases which are thought to have caused catastrophic epidemics and a huge decrease of the native population. Columbus came at a time in which many technical developments in sailing techniques and communication made it possible to report his voyages easily and to spread bible of them throughout Europe. It was besides a time of growing religious, imperial and economic rivalries that led to a contest for the constitution of colonies .

colonial period [edit ]

15th to 19th hundred colonies in the New World :

decolonization [edit ]

The formation of autonomous states in the New World began with the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776. The american Revolutionary War lasted through the period of the Siege of Yorktown — its last major campaign — in the early fall of 1781, with peace being achieved in 1783. The spanish colonies won their independence in the beginning quarter of the nineteenth hundred, in the spanish american wars of independence. Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín, among others, led their independence contend. Although Bolivar attempted to keep the spanish-speaking parts of Latin America politically allied, they quickly became independent of one another equally well, and several further wars were fought, such as the Paraguayan War and the War of the Pacific. ( See romance american consolidation. ) In the portuguese colony Dom Pedro I ( besides Pedro IV of Portugal ), son of the Portuguese king Dom João VI, proclaimed the country ‘s independence in 1822 and became Brazil ‘s first gear Emperor. This was peacefully accepted by the crown in Portugal, upon compensation .

Effects of slavery [edit ]

slavery has had a meaning character in the economic development of the New World after the colonization of the Americas by the Europeans. The cotton, tobacco, and boodle cane harvested by slaves became crucial exports for the United States and the Caribbean countries .

twentieth hundred [edit ]

North America [edit ]

A canadian World War I recruiting bill poster ( 1914–1918 ) As a part of the british Empire, Canada immediately entered World War I when it broke out in 1914. Canada bore the brunt of respective major battles during the early stages of the war, including the practice of poison gas attacks at Ypres. Losses became grave, and the government finally brought in conscription, despite the fact this was against the wishes of the majority of french Canadians. In the ensuing Conscription Crisis of 1917, riots broke out on the streets of Montreal. In neighboring Newfoundland, the new dominion suffered a crushing loss on July 1, 1916, the First day on the Somme. The United States stayed out of the conflict until 1917, when it joined the Entente powers. The United States was then able to play a crucial function at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that shaped interwar Europe. Mexico was not region of the war, as the country was embroiled in the mexican Revolution at the time .
The 1920s brought an historic period of great prosperity in the United States, and to a lesser degree Canada. But the Wall Street Crash of 1929 aggregate with drought ushered in a period of economic asperity in the United States and Canada. From 1936 to 1949, there was a popular rise against the anti-Catholic mexican politics of the time, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 .
once again, Canada found itself at war before its neighbors, with numerically modest but meaning contributions overseas such as the Battle of Hong Kong and the Battle of Britain. The entry of the United States into the war helped to tip the balance in favor of the allies. Two mexican tankers, transporting anoint to the United States, were attacked and sunk by the Germans in the Gulf of Mexico waters, in 1942. The incident happened in hurt of Mexico ‘s disinterest at that time. This led Mexico to enter the battle with a resolution of war on the Axis nations. The end of Europe ferment by the war vaulted all north american countries to more important roles in universe affairs, specially the United States, which emerged as a “ world power “ .
The early Cold War era saw the United States as the most knock-down state in a western coalition of which Mexico and Canada were besides a share. In Canada, Quebec was transformed by the silence Revolution and the emergence of Quebec patriotism. Mexico experienced an era of huge economic growth after World War II, a heavy industrialization summons and a growth of its middle course, a period known in mexican history as “El Milagro Mexicano” ( the Mexican miracle ). The Caribbean saw the beginnings of decolonization, while on the largest island the Cuban Revolution introduced Cold War rivalries into Latin America .
The civil rights motion in the U.S. ended Jim Crow and empowered black voters in the 1960s, which allowed black citizens to move into high politics offices for the beginning clock time since Reconstruction. however, the dominant New Deal coalition collapsed in the mid 1960s in disputes over subspecies and the Vietnam War, and the conservative drift began its originate to power, as the once prevailing liberalism weakened and collapsed. Canada during this era was dominated by the leadership of Pierre Elliot Trudeau. In 1982, at the end of his tenure, Canada enshrined a raw constitution .
Canada ‘s Brian Mulroney not only ran on a exchangeable platform but besides favored closer trade ties with the United States. This led to the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement in January 1989. mexican presidents Miguel de la Madrid, in the early 1980s and Carlos Salinas de Gortari in the late 1980s, started implementing broad economic strategies that were seen as a good move. however, Mexico experienced a strong economic receding in 1982 and the Mexican colombian peso suffered a devaluation. In the United States president of the united states Ronald Reagan attempted to move the United States back towards a hard anti-communist line in extraneous affairs, in what his supporters saw as an undertake to assert moral leadership ( compared to the Soviet Union ) in the world community. Domestically, Reagan attempted to bring in a package of denationalization and regulation to stimulate the economy .
The end of the Cold War and the begin of the era of nourish economic expansion coincided during the 1990s. On January 1, 1994, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the union american Free Trade Agreement, creating the worldly concern ‘s largest rid trade area. In 2000, Vicente Fox became the first non- PRI campaigner to win the mexican presidency in over 70 years. The optimism of the 1990s was shattered by the 9/11 attacks of 2001 on the United States, which prompted military interposition in Afghanistan, which besides involved Canada. Canada did not support the United States ‘ late move to invade Iraq, however. In the U.S. the Reagan Era of conservative national policies, deregulation and tax cuts took control with the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980. By 2010, political scientists were debating whether the election of Barack Obama in 2008 represented an end of the Reagan Era, or was only a reaction against the bubble economy of the 2000s ( decade ), which burst in 2008 and became the Late-2000s recession with elongated unemployment .

Central America [edit ]

Despite the failure of a last political coupling, the concept of central american english reunion, though lacking exuberance from the leaders of the individual countries, rises from time to time. In 1856–1857 the region successfully established a military alliance to repel an invasion by United States adventurer William Walker. today, all five nations fly flags that retain the previous union theme of two outer amobarbital sodium bands bounding an inner white band. ( Costa Rica, traditionally the least entrust of the five to regional consolidation, modified its flag importantly in 1848 by darkening the blue and adding a double-wide inner red band, in honor of the french tricolor ). In 1907, a central american Court of Justice was created. On December 13, 1960, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua established the central american Common Market ( “ CACM ” ). Costa Rica, because of its relative economic prosperity and political stability, chose not to participate in the CACM. The goals for the CACM were to create greater political fusion and achiever of spell substitution industrialization policies. The project was an immediate economic success, but was abandoned after the 1969 “ Football War “ between El Salvador and Honduras. A central american Parliament has operated, as a strictly advisory body, since 1991. Costa Rica has repeatedly declined invitations to join the regional parliament, which seats deputies from the four other former members of the Union, arsenic well as from Panama and the Dominican Republic .

South America [edit ]

In the 1960s and 1970s, the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay were overthrown or displaced by U.S.-aligned military dictatorships. These dictatorships detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed ( on inter-state collaboration, see Operation Condor ). economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the United States Cold War doctrine of “ National Security ” against internal corruption. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an home conflict ( see Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement and Shining Path ). revolutionary movements and rightist military dictatorships have been common, but starting in the 1980s a wave of democratization came through the celibate, and democratic rule is widespread immediately. Allegations of corruption stay common, and respective nations have seen crises which have forced the resignation of their presidents, although normal civilian succession has continued. International obligation became a luminary problem, as most recently illustrated by Argentina ‘s default option in the early twenty-first century. In holocene years, south american governments have drifted to the left, with socialist leaders being elected in Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, and a collectivist president of the united states in Argentina and Uruguay. Despite the motion to the exit, South America is still largely capitalist. With the establish of the Union of South american Nations, South America has started down the road of economic integration, with plans for political integration in the European Union expressive style .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

further take [edit ]

  • Boyer, Paul S. The Oxford Companion to United States History (2001) excerpt and text search; online at many libraries
  • Carnes, Mark C., and John A. Garraty. The American Nation: A History of the United States: AP Edition (2008)
  • Egerton, Douglas R. et al. The Atlantic World: A History, 1400–1888 (2007), college textbook; 530pp
  • Elliott, John H. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492–1830 (2007), 608pp excerpt and text search, advanced synthesis
  • Hardwick, Susan W., Fred M. Shelley, and Donald G. Holtgrieve. The Geography of North America: Environment, Political Economy, and Culture (2007)
  • Jacobs, Heidi Hayes, and Michal L. LeVasseur. World Studies: Latin America: Geography – History – Culture (2007)
  • Bruce E. Johansen, The Native Peoples of North America: A History (2006)
  • Kaltmeier, Olaf, Josef Raab, Michael Stewart Foley, Alice Nash, Stefan Rinke, and Mario Rufer. The Routledge Handbook to the History and Society of the Americas. New York: Routledge (2019)
  • Keen, Benjamin, and Keith Haynes. A History of Latin America (2008)
  • Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. The American Pageant (2 vol 2008), U.S. history
  • Marsh, James C., ed. The Canadian Encyclopedia (4 vol 1985) online edition
  • Morton, Desmond. A Short History of Canada 5th ed (2001)
  • Veblen, Thomas T. Kenneth R. Young, and Antony R. Orme. The Physical Geography of South America (2007)
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